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Biology of the Cell

J W U Fries
This review highlights new developments in miRNA as diagnostic and surveillance tools in diseases damaging the renal proximal tubule mediated by endothelin in the field of renal carcinoma, proteinuric kidney disease and tubulotoxicity. A new mechanism in the miRNA regulation of proteins leads to the binding of the miRNA directly to the DNA with premature transcriptional termination and hence the formation of truncated protein isoforms (Mxi2, Vim3). These isoforms are mediated through miRNA15a or miRNA 498, respectively...
March 13, 2019: Biology of the Cell
Tina Jubin, Ashlesha Kadam, Rasheedunnisa Begum
OBJECTIVES: Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase -1 (PARP-1) has been attributed to varied roles in DNA repair, cell cycle, cell death, etc. Our previous reports demonstrate the role of PARP-1 during Dictyostelium discoideum development by its constitutive downregulation as well as by PARP-1 ortholog, ADP Ribosyl Transferase 1 A (ADPRT1A) overexpression. The current study analyzes and strengthens the function of ADPRT1A in multicellular morphogenesis of D. discoideum. MATERIALS & METHODS: ADPRT1A was knocked out and its effect was studied on cAMP signaling, chemotaxis, and development of D...
March 13, 2019: Biology of the Cell
Alexis Martinez, Nelida Lopez, Constanza Gonzalez, Claudio Hetz
Parkinson's disease is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, leading to the progressive decline of motor control due to the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. At the molecular level, Parkinson's disease share common molecular signatures with most neurodegenerative diseases including the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the brain. Alteration in the buffering capacity of the proteostasis network during aging is proposed as one of the triggering steps leading to abnormal protein aggregation in this disease, highlighting disturbances in the function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)...
March 12, 2019: Biology of the Cell
Chaker Slaymi, Emmanuel Vignal, Gaëlle Crès, Pierre Roux, Anne Blangy, Peggy Raynaud, Philippe Fort
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The mammalian gut epithelium displays among the highest rates of self-renewal, with a turnover time of less than five days. Renewal involves concerted proliferation at the bottom of the crypt, migration and differentiation along the crypt-villus axis and anoïkis/shedding in the luminal epithelium. Renewal is controlled by interplay between signaling pathways, among which canonical and non-canonical Wnt signals play prominent roles. 92% of colon tumors show increased canonical Wnt signaling resulting from mutations, established as major driver steps towards carcinogenesis...
March 5, 2019: Biology of the Cell
Kai-Wei Yu, Ning Zhong, Yu Xiao, Zhen-Yu She
Chromosome congression is essential for faithful chromosome segregation and genomic stability in cell division. Centromere-associated protein E CENP-E, a plus-end-directed kinesin motor, is required for congression of pole-proximal chromosomes in metaphase. CENP-E accumulates at the outer plate of kinetochores and mediates the kinetochore-microtubule capture. CENP-E also transports the chromosomes along spindle microtubules towards the equatorial plate. CENP-E interacts with BubR1, Aurora B and core kinetochore components during kinetochore-microtubule attachment...
February 19, 2019: Biology of the Cell
Madeline Louise Reilly, Alexandre Benmerah
Cilia and flagella are microtubule-based antenna which are highly conserved among eukaryotes. In vertebrates, primary and motile cilia have evolved to exert several key functions during development and tissue homeostasis. Ciliary dysfunction in humans causes a highly heterogeneous group of diseases called ciliopathies, a class of genetic multisystemic disorders primarily affecting kidney, skeleton, retina, lung and the central nervous system. Among key ciliary proteins, kinesin family members (KIF) are microtubule-interacting proteins involved in many diverse cellular functions, including transport of cargo (organelles, proteins, lipids) along microtubules and regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic and spindle microtubules through their depolymerizing activity...
February 5, 2019: Biology of the Cell
Maria Szrejder, Agnieszka Piwkowska
Diabetic nephropathy is a major long-term complication of diabetes mellitus and one of the most common causes of end-stage renal disease. Thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, glomerular cell hypertrophy, and podocyte loss are among the main pathological changes that occur during diabetic nephropathy, resulting in proteinuria. Injury to podocytes, which are a crucial component of the glomerular filtration barrier, seems to play a key role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Recent studies have suggested that dysregulation of AMP-activated kinase protein, which is an essential cellular energy sensor, may play a fundamental role in this process...
January 31, 2019: Biology of the Cell
Jyothi S Akella, Malan Silva, Natalia S Morsci, Ken C Nguyen, William J Rice, David H Hall, Maureen M Barr
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The current consensus on cilia development posits that the ciliary transition zone (TZ) is formed via extension of nine centrosomal microtubules. In this model, TZ structure remains unchanged in microtubule number throughout the cilium life cycle. This model does not however explain structural variations of TZ structure seen in nature, and could also lend itself to the misinterpretation that deviations from nine-doublet microtubule ultrastructure represent an abnormal phenotype...
January 25, 2019: Biology of the Cell
Yann Ciczora, Sébastien Janel, Magali Soyer, Michka Popoff, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Frank Lafont
BACKGROUND: Bacterial invasion covers two steps: adhesion and entry per se. The cell signalling response is triggered upon pathogen interaction at the cell surface. This response continues when the pathogen is internalized. It is likely that these two steps activate different molecular machineries. So far, it has not been possible to easily follow in physiological conditions these events separately. We thus developed an approach to uncouple adhesion from entry using atomic force microscopy (AFM)-driven force and fluorescence measurements...
January 24, 2019: Biology of the Cell
Léo Valon, Romain Levayer
Cells and tissues are exposed to multiple mechanical stresses during development, tissue homeostasis and diseases. While we start to have an extensive understanding of the influence of mechanics on cell differentiation and proliferation, how excessive mechanical stresses can also lead to cell death and may be associated with pathologies has been much less explored so far . Recently, the development of new perturbative approaches allowing modulation of pressure and deformation of tissues has demonstrated that compaction (the reduction of tissue size or volume) can lead to cell elimination...
January 4, 2019: Biology of the Cell
Junhui He, Mingchong Sun, Huaizhen Geng, Sujian Tian
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: To characterize Linc00518 expression in prostate cancer and elucidate the potential mechanistic involvement in paclitaxel resistance. The relative expression of Linc00518 and miR-216b-5p was determined by real-time PCR. The regulatory effect of miR-216b-5p on either Linc00518 or GATA6 was interrogated with luciferase reporter assay. The endogenous GATA6 protein was analyzed by western blotting. The cell viability was measured by MTT assay and IC50 of paclitaxel was calculated through cell counting...
November 21, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Lei Zhu, Hao Liu, Yawen Chen, Xiumin Yan, Xueliang Zhu
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: In the "9+2"-type motile cilia, radial spokes (RSs) protruded from the nine peripheral microtubule doublets surround and interact with the central pair (CP) apparatus to regulate ciliary beat. RSPH9 is the human homologue of the essential protozoan RS head protein Rsp9. Its mutations in human primary ciliary dyskinesia patients, however, cause CP loss in a small portion of airway cilia without affecting the ciliary localization of other head proteins...
November 1, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Joseph E Chambers, Jennifer A Dickens, Stefan J Marciniak
An important function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is to serve as a site of secretory protein folding. When the accumulation of misfolded proteins threatens to disturb luminal homoeostasis, the cell is said to experience ER stress. By contrast, the accumulation of well-folded proteins inside the ER leads to a distinct form of strain called ER overload. The serpins comprise a large family of proteins whose folding has been studied in great detail. Some mutant serpins misfold to cause ER stress, whereas others fold but then polymerise to cause ER overload...
November 2018: Biology of the Cell
Caroline Demangel, Stephen High
Infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans results in a necrotising skin disease known as a Buruli ulcer, the pathology of which is directly linked to the bacterial production of the toxin mycolactone. Recent studies have identified the protein translocation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane as the primary cellular target of mycolactone, and shown that the toxin binds to the core subunit of the Sec61 complex. Mycolactone binding strongly inhibits the capacity of the Sec61 translocon to transport newly synthesised membrane and secretory proteins into and across the ER membrane...
November 2018: Biology of the Cell
Chang Seong Kim, In Jin Kim, Joon Seok Choi, Eun Hui Bae, Seong Kwon Ma, Soo Wan Kim
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Tubulointerstitial fibrosis is the end-point of chronic kidney diseases. Tamoxifen, a selective oestrogen receptor (ER) modulator, attenuates renal fibrosis, by regulating the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/Smad signalling. Src and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways play critical roles in the pathogenesis of renal fibrosis. However, the activation of the non-canonical TGF-β signalling in renal fibrosis after treatment with tamoxifen remains unclear...
October 10, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Emma Madden, Susan E Logue, Sandra J Healy, Serge Manie, Afshin Samali
Tumour cells endure both oncogenic and environmental stresses during cancer progression. Transformed cells must meet increased demands for protein and lipid production needed for rapid proliferation and must adapt to exist in an oxygen- and nutrient-deprived environment. To overcome such challenges, cancer cells exploit intrinsic adaptive mechanisms such as the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is a pro-survival mechanism triggered by accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a condition referred to as ER stress...
October 10, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Maurício Tavares Tamborindeguy, Bibiana Franzen Matte, Grasieli de Oliveira Ramos, Alessandro Menna Alves, Lisiane Bernardi, Marcelo Lazzaron Lamers
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Cell migration requires the coordinated activation of structural and signalling molecules, such as the RhoGTPase Rac1. It is known that the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex assembly, which generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the cell membrane, also relies on Rac1 activation, indicating a possible effect of ROS during cell migration. In this study, we evaluated the effect of NADPH-oxidase-derived ROS on the migration process...
October 2018: Biology of the Cell
Fei Xu, Shouhong Guang, Xuezhu Feng
Epigenetic information can be inherited over multiple generations, which is termed as transgenerational epigenetic inheritance (TEI). Although the mechanism(s) of TEI remains poorly understood, noncoding RNAs have been demonstrated to play important roles in TEI. In many eukaryotes, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers the silencing of cellular nucleic acids that exhibit sequence homology to the dsRNA via a process termed RNA interference (RNAi). In Caenorhabditis elegans, dsRNA-directed gene silencing is heritable and can persist for a number of generations after its initial induction...
October 2018: Biology of the Cell
F Delom, A Nazaraliyev, D Fessart
In recent years, the discovery of "tumor niche", a microenvironment that favors tumor development has changed our perspective of cancer. This microenvironment generated by the tumor cells itself and surrounding cells, is capable of providing essential elements for its growth. Consequently, the homeostasis of the Secretory Pathway (SP) has become an essential player in cancer development. The SP not only promotes cellular adaptation to protein misfolding due to oncogenic transformation or challenging tumor niche but also allows tumor cells to produce specific secretomes...
September 21, 2018: Biology of the Cell
Morgan Gallazzini, Nicolas Pallet
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) affects millions of persons worldwide and constitutes a major public health problem. Therefore, understanding the molecular basis of CKD is a key challenge for the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies. A major contributor to chronic histological damage associated with CKD is acute kidney injury (AKI). At the cellular level, kidney injuries are associated with microenvironmental alterations, forcing cells to activate adaptive biological processes that eliminate the stressor and generate alarm signals...
September 2018: Biology of the Cell
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