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Miłosz Gołyszny, Ewa Obuchowicz
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs of first choice in the therapy of moderate to severe depression and anxiety disorders. Their primary mechanism of action is via influence of the serotonergic (5-HT) system, but a growing amount of data provides evidence for other non-monoaminergic players in SSRI effects. It is assumed that neuropeptides, which play a role as neuromodulators in the CNS, are involved in their mechanism of action. In this review we focus on six neuropeptides: corticotropin-releasing factor - CRF, galanin - GAL, oxytocin - OT, vasopressin - AVP, neuropeptide Y - NPY, and orexins - OXs...
February 15, 2019: Neuropeptides
Eleazar Ramírez, Claudia Sánchez-Maldonado, Miguel A Mayoral, Liliana Mendieta, Victorino Alatriste, Aleidy Patricio-Martínez, I Daniel Limón
Galectins are animal lectins that bind to β-galactosides, such as lactose and N-acetyllactosamine, contained in glycoproteins or glycolipids. Galectin-1 (Gal-1) and Galectin-3 (Gal-3) are involved in pathologies associated with the inflammatory process, cell proliferation, adhesion, migration, and apoptosis. Recent evidence has shown that the administration of Amyloid-β 25-35 (Aβ25-35 ) into the hippocampus of rats increases the inflammatory response that is associated with memory impairment and neurodegeneration...
February 14, 2019: Neuropeptides
Chunbo He, Hailan Li, Jing Zhang, Lanxia Zhou, Shouliang Dong
BACKGROUND: Chimeric opioid MCRT was a novel multi-target ligand based on morphiceptin and PFRTic-NH2 , and produced potent analgesia (ED50  = 0.03 nmol/mouse) with less upper gastrointestinal dysmotility. In this study, we sought to perform the tests to evaluate the pharmacological effects of MCRT on distal colon motility and defecation function. Moreover, opioid receptor antagonists and neuropeptide FF (NPFF) receptor antagonists were utilized to explore the mechanisms. METHODS: Isolated mouse colon bioassay and colonic bead expulsion were to characterize MCRT-induced inhibition of colonic motility in vitro and in vivo, respectively...
February 1, 2019: Neuropeptides
Cheng Wang, Xiaohua Han, Xiangrong Sun, Feiei Guo, Xiao Luan, Luo Xu
OBJECTIVE: Abnormal gastric acid secretion and gastric dyskinesia are common gastroenterological ailments. Our study aims to investigate the effect of orexin-A in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) gastric motility and gastric acid secretion. METHODS: The source of orexin-A neuronal projections to the PVN were explored by retrograde tracing and fluorescence immunohistochemistry experiments. Neuronal discharge recordings of single cells were taken within the PVN. Gastric motility was recorded using a force transducer implanted into the stomach, and gastric acid secretion measured through a pyloric catheter...
January 23, 2019: Neuropeptides
Kavita N Hadawale, Nitin S Sawant, Sneha Sagarkar, Amul J Sakharkar, Shobha Y Bhargava
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in sex-specific behavioural processes in vertebrates. NPY integrates energy balance and reproduction in mammals. However, the relevance of NPY in reproduction of lower vertebrates is understudied. In the present study, we have investigated neuroanatomical distribution and sex-specific differences of NPY in the brain of Microhyla ornata using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real time PCR. NPY is widely distributed throughout the brain of M. ornata. We observed NPY immunoreactivity in the cells of the nucleus accumbens, striatum pars dorsalis, dorsal pallium, medial pallium, ventral pallium, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, preoptic nucleus, infundibular region, median eminence and pituitary gland of adult M...
January 21, 2019: Neuropeptides
Jinxin Wang, Justin Matias, Elizabeth R Gilbert, Tetsuya Tachibana, Mark A Cline
Central administration of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a 41-amino acid peptide, is associated with potent anorexigenic effects in rodents and chickens. However, the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. Hence, the objective of the current study was to elucidate the hypothalamic mechanisms that mediate CRF-induced anorexia in 4 day-old Cobb-500 chicks. After intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 0.02 nmol of CRF, CRF-injected chicks ate less than vehicle chicks while no effect on water intake was observed at 30 min post-injection...
January 11, 2019: Neuropeptides
Scott P Levick, Gregory L Brower, Joseph S Janicki
The neuropeptide substance P can induce degranulation of cardiac mast cells at high concentrations. Herein, we seek to further understand substance P activation of cardiac mast cells in the context of other neuropeptides as well as modulation by non-neuropeptides. This is important given the increasingly recognized role of both cardiac mast cells and substance P in adverse cardiac remodeling. To address this, we isolated cardiac mast cells and compared their response to substance P as well as other members from the tachykinin family of peptides, including neurokinin A and hemokinin-1...
January 8, 2019: Neuropeptides
Azadeh Toosi, Hooman Shajiee, Mehdi Khaksari, Golamhassan Vaezi, Vida Hojati
Clinical and experimental evidence have demonstrated that, use of alcohol during pregnancy can interrupt brain development. Alcohol-induced neurocognitive deficits in offspring's are involved with activation of oxidative-inflammatory cascade joined with extensive apoptotic neurodegeneration in different brain regions such as hippocampus. Obestatin is a newly discovered peptide with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, activities in different animal models. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effects of obestatin on alcohol-induced neuronal apoptosis and neuroinflammation in rat pups with postnatal ethanol exposure...
January 3, 2019: Neuropeptides
Eugenia Saiz-Bianco, Jessika Urbanavicius, Giselle Prunell, Patricia Lagos
Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuropeptide present in neurons located in the hypothalamus that densely innervate serotonergic cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). MCH administration into the DRN induces a depressive-like effect through a serotonergic mechanism. To further understand the interaction between MCH and serotonin, we used primary cultured serotonergic neurons to evaluate the effect of MCH on serotonergic release and metabolism by HPLC-ED measurement of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) levels...
January 3, 2019: Neuropeptides
Kai-Ge Ma, Yi-Hua Qian
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the major disabling and lethal diseases for aged individuals worldwide. To date, there are more than 10 hypotheses proposed for AD pathology. The beta-amyloid (Aβ) cascade hypothesis is the most widely accepted and proposes that the accumulation of Aβ in the brain is one potential mechanism for AD pathogenesis. Because some Aβ-overloaded patients do not have AD syndrome, this hypothesis is challenged from time to time. More recently, it has been shown that intracellular Aβ plays a key role in AD pathology...
December 18, 2018: Neuropeptides
Jieru Li, Shengchang Yang, Fuyang Yu, EnSheng Ji, J Woodrow Weiss
Endothelin-1 (ET-1), as it functions as a neuromodulator, has been associated with hypertension in chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) which attribute to enhanced carotid body sensibility to hypoxia. However, the molecular mechanism of ET-1 on carotid body sensibility in CIH is still not clear. Here, effect of ET-1 on carotid body chemosensory stimulation in rats exposed to either CIH or room air (Normoxia) was explored. Furthermore, Phospholipase C (PLC), Protein kinase C (PKC) or p38 MAPK antagonists were adopted to clarify the signalling pathways involved...
December 18, 2018: Neuropeptides
Alessandro Castorina, Monica Vogiatzis, James W M Kang, Kevin A Keay
Nerve injuries often result in neuropathic pain with co-morbid changes in social behaviours, motivation, sleep-wake cycles and neuroendocrine function. In an animal model of neuropathic injury (CCI) similar co-morbid changes are evoked in a subpopulation (~30%) of injured rats. In addition to anatomical evidence of altered neuronal and glial function, the periaqueductal grey (PAG) of these rats shows evidence of cell death. These changes in the PAG may play a role in the disruption of the normal emotional coping responses triggered by nerve injury...
December 15, 2018: Neuropeptides
Ali Mohammad Pourrahimi, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Razieh Kooshki, Maryam Raoof
Different types of trigeminal pains are frequently associated with psychophysiological concerns. Orexin-A and orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) are involved in modulation of both trigeminal pain and anxiety responses. Ventrolateral periaqueductal gray matter (vlPAG), a controlling site for nociception and emotion, receives orexinergic inputs. Here, the role of vlPAG OX1Rs and their interaction with cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor was evaluated in anxiety-like behavior following capsaicin-induced dental pulp pain. Rats were cannulated in the vlPAG and orexin-A was injected at the doses of 0...
December 13, 2018: Neuropeptides
Yi Zhong, Yang-Liang Huang, Yu-Ming Hu, Li-Rong Zhu, Yuan-Shu Zhao
Lumbar disc herniation is a common cause of radicular pain, but the mechanism remains ambiguous and the treatment stays unsatisfied. Many studies revealed a traditional Chinese medicine puerarin may moderate chronic pain from diabetes and nerve injury. Thus far, the role and mechanism of puerarin in radicular pain is still unknown. In this study, by using a rat model of lumbar disc herniation, which was induced by autologous nucleus pulposus (NP) implantation, the analgesic effect of puerarin on radicular pain was tested...
December 2018: Neuropeptides
Sheila Leone, Claudio Ferrante, Lucia Recinella, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Adriano Mollica, Csaba Tömböly, Azzurra Stefanucci, Marilisa Pia Dimmito, Szabolcs Dvorácskó, Vittore Verratti, Luciano De Petrocellis, Giustino Orlando, Luigi Brunetti
Palatability and variety of foods are major reasons for hedonic eating, and hence for obesity. Hemopressin, a hemoglobin α chain-derived peptide, plays antagonist/inverse agonist role on cannabinoid (CB)1 receptors, while RVD-hemopressin(α)[RVD-hp(α)], a N-terminally extended form of hemopressin, has been reported as an allosteric modulator of CB1 and CB2 receptors. We investigated the effects of 14 daily intraperitoneal injections of RVD-hp(α), in Sprague-Dawley rats fed a highly palatable cafeteria-style (CAF) diet (30% fat, 56% carbohydrate, 14% protein; 4...
December 2018: Neuropeptides
A S M Hasan Mahmood, M M Uddin, M M H Ibrahim, S K Mandal, H N Alhamami, K P Briski
The female ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) is a focal substrate for estradiol (E) regulation of energy balance, feeding, and body weight, but how E shapes VMN gluco-regulatory signaling in each sex is unclear. This study investigated the hypothesis that estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα) and/or -beta (ERβ) control VMN signals that inhibit [γ-aminobutyric acid] or stimulate [nitric oxide, steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1)] counter-regulation in a sex-dependent manner. VMN nitrergic neurons monitor astrocyte fuel provision; here, we examined how these ER regulate astrocyte glycogen metabolic enzyme, monocarboxylate transporter, and adrenoreceptor protein responses to insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) in each sex...
December 2018: Neuropeptides
Natalie K Y Wee, Benjamin P Sinder, Sanja Novak, Xi Wang, Chris Stoddard, Brya G Matthews, Ivo Kalajzic
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in multiple processes such as behavior, energy and bone metabolism. Previous studies have relied on global NPY depletion to examine its effects on bone. However, this approach is unable to distinguish the central or local source of NPY influencing bone. Our aim was to identify which cells within the skeleton express Npy and establish a model that will enable us to differentiate effects of NPY derived from different cell types. We have generated the NPY floxed (NPYflox ) mice using CRISPR technology...
November 30, 2018: Neuropeptides
Roberta Lattanzi, Daniela Maftei, Maria Rosaria Fullone, Rossella Miele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Neuropeptides
Hamideh Zahiri, Mohammad Rostampour, Behrouz Khakpour, Kambiz Rohampour
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: Neuropeptides
Magdalena Czarnecka, Congyi Lu, Jennifer Pons, Induja Maheswaran, Pawel Ciborowski, Lihua Zhang, Amrita Cheema, Joanna Kitlinska
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a multifunctional neurotransmitter acting via G protein-coupled receptors - Y1R, Y2R and Y5R. NPY activities, such as its proliferative effects, are mediated by multiple receptors, which have the ability to dimerize. However, the role of this receptor interplay in NPY functions remains unclear. The goal of the current study was to identify NPY receptor interactions, focusing on the ligand-binding fraction, and determine their impact on the mitogenic activity of the peptide. Y1R, Y2R and Y5R expressed in CHO-K1 cells formed homodimers detectable on the cell surface by cross-linking...
November 27, 2018: Neuropeptides
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