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Journal of Neuroscience

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31010853/early-blindness-shapes-cortical-representations-of-auditory-frequency-within-auditory-cortex
#1
Elizabeth Huber, Kelly Chang, Ivan Alvarez, Aaron Hundle, Holly Bridge, Ione Fine
Early loss of vision is classically linked to large-scale cross-modal plasticity within occipital cortex. Much less is known about the effects of early blindness on auditory cortex. Here, we examine the effects of early blindness on the cortical representation of auditory frequency within human primary and secondary auditory areas using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We observe that 4 individuals with early blindness (2 females), including a subset of 5 individuals with anophthalmia (1 female), a condition in which both eyes fail to develop, have lower response amplitudes and narrower voxel-wise tuning bandwidths compared to a group of typically sighted individuals...
April 22, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31000588/white-matter-microstructure-reflects-individual-differences-in-music-reward-sensitivity
#2
Noelia Martínez-Molina, Ernest Mas-Herrero, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells, Robert J Zatorre, Josep Marco-Pallarés
People show considerable variability in the degree of pleasure they experience from music. These individual differences in music reward sensitivity are driven by variability in functional connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a key structure of the reward system, and the right superior temporal gyrus (STG). However, it is unknown whether a neuroanatomical basis exists for this variability. We used diffusion tensor imaging and probabilistic tractography to study the relationship between music reward sensitivity and white matter microstructure connecting these two regions via the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in 38 healthy human participants (24 females and 14 males)...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31000587/computing-social-value-conversion-in-the-human-brain
#3
Haruaki Fukuda, Ning Ma, Shinsuke Suzuki, Norihiro Harasawa, Kenichi Ueno, Justin L Gardner, Noritaka Ichinohe, Masahiko Haruno, Kang Cheng, Hiroyuki Nakahara
Social signals play powerful roles in shaping self-oriented reward valuation and decision-making. These signals activate social and valuation/decision areas, but the core computation for their integration into the self-oriented decision machinery remains unclear. Here, we study how a fundamental social signal-social value (others' reward value)-is converted into self-oriented decision-making in the human brain. Using behavioral analysis, modeling, and neuroimaging, we show three-stage processing of social value conversion from the offer to the effective value and then to the final decision value...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31000586/hdac3-mediated-repression-of-the-nr4a-family-contributes-to-age-related-impairments-in-long-term-memory
#4
Janine L Kwapis, Yasaman Alaghband, Alberto J López, Jeffrey M Long, Xiang Li, Guanhua Shu, Kasuni K Bodinayake, Dina P Matheos, Peter R Rapp, Marcelo A Wood
Aging is accompanied by cognitive deficits, including impairments in long-term memory formation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that support preserved cognitive function in aged animals is a critical step toward identifying novel therapeutic targets that could improve memory in aging individuals. One potential mechanism is the Nr4a family of genes, a group of CREB-dependent nuclear orphan receptors that have previously been shown to be important for hippocampal memory formation. Here, using a cross-species approach, we tested the role of Nr4a1 and Nr4a2 in age-related memory impairments...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31000585/enhanced-dendritic-inhibition-and-impaired-nmdar-activation-in-a-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#5
Jan M Schulz, Frederic Knoflach, Maria-Clemencia Hernandez, Josef Bischofberger
Down syndrome (DS) or Trisomy 21 is a developmental disorder leading to cognitive deficits including disruption of hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. Enhanced inhibition has been suggested to underlie these deficits in DS based on studies using the Ts65Dn mouse model. Here we show that in this mouse model, GABAergic synaptic inhibition onto dendrites of hippocampal pyramidal cells is increased. By contrast, somatic inhibition was not altered. In addition, synaptic NMDA receptor (NMDAR) currents were reduced...
April 18, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30992373/estrogen-dependent-functional-spine-dynamics-in-neocortical-pyramidal-neurons-of-the-mouse
#6
Zengyou Ye, Robert H Cudmore, David J Linden
Surgical ovariectomy has been shown to reduce spine density in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells of rodents, and this reduction is reversed by 17β-estradiol (E2) treatment in a model of human estrogen replacement therapy. Here, we report reduction of spine density in apical dendrites of layer 5 pyramidal neurons of several neocortical regions that is reversed by subsequent E2 treatment in ovariectomized (OVX) female Thy1M-EGFP mice. We also found that OVX-associated reduction of spine density in somatosensory cortex was accompanied by a reduction in mEPSC frequency (but not mIPSC frequency), indicating a change in functional synapses...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30992372/conditional-deletion-of-cc2d1a-reduces-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-and-impairs-cognitive-function-through-rac1-hyperactivation
#7
Cheng-Yi Yang, Ting-Hsuan Yu, Wan-Ling Wen, Pin Ling, Kuei-Sen Hsu
Coiled-coil and C2 domain containing 1A (CC2D1A) is an evolutionarily conserved protein, originally identified as a nuclear factor-κB activator through a large-scale screen of human genes. Mutations in the human Cc2d1a gene result in autosomal recessive nonsyndromic intellectual disability. It remains unclear, however, how Cc2d1a mutation leads to alterations in brain function. Here, we have taken advantage of Cre/loxP recombinase-based strategy to conditionally delete Cc2d1a exclusively from excitatory neurons of male mouse forebrain to examine its role in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30992371/intrinsic-insular-frontal-networks-predict-future-nicotine-dependence-severity
#8
L-M Hsu, R J Keeley, X Liang, J K Brynildsen, H Lu, Y Yang, E A Stein
Although 60% of the US population have tried smoking cigarettes, only 16% smoke regularly. Identifying this susceptible subset of the population before the onset of nicotine dependence may encourage targeted early interventions to prevent regular smoking and/or minimize severity. While prospective neuroimaging in human populations can be challenging, preclinical neuroimaging models prior to chronic nicotine administration can help develop translational biomarkers of disease risk. Chronic, intermittent nicotine (0, 1...
April 16, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30988168/eeg-frontal-alpha-asymmetry-and-dream-affect-alpha-oscillations-over-the-right-frontal-cortex-during-rem-sleep-and-pre-sleep-wakefulness-predict-anger-in-rem-sleep-dreams
#9
Pilleriin Sikka, Antti Revonsuo, Valdas Noreika, Katja Valli
Affective experiences are central not only to our waking life but also to rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreams. Despite our increasing understanding of the neural correlates of dreaming, we know little about the neural correlates of dream affect. Frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) is considered a marker of affective states and traits as well as affect regulation in the waking state. Here, we explored whether FAA during REM sleep and during evening resting wakefulness is related to affective experiences in REM sleep dreams...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30988167/sexually-dimorphic-regulation-of-behavioral-states-by-dopamine-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#10
Satoshi Suo, Kazuki Harada, Shogo Matsuda, Koki Kyo, Min Wang, Kei Maruyama, Takeo Awaji, Takashi Tsuboi
Sex differences in behavior allow animals to effectively mate and reproduce. However, the mechanism by which biological sex regulates behavioral states, which underlie the regulation of sex-shared behaviors such as locomotion, is largely unknown. In this study, we studied sex differences in the behavioral states of C. elegans and found that males spend less time in a low locomotor activity state than hermaphrodites and that dopamine generates this sex difference. In males, dopamine reduces the low activity state by acting in the same pathway as polycystic kidney disease-related genes that function in male-specific neurons...
April 15, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30979815/paraventricular-thalamus-controls-behavior-during-motivational-conflict
#11
Eun A Choi, Philip Jean-Richard-Dit-Bressel, Colin W G Clifford, Gavan P McNally
Decision-making often involves motivational conflict due to the competing demands of approach and avoidance for a common resource: behavior. This conflict must be resolved as a necessary precursor for adaptive behavior. Here we show a role for the paraventricular thalamus (PVT) in behavioral control during motivational conflict. We used Pavlovian counterconditioning in male rats to establish a conditioned stimulus (CS) as a signal for reward (or danger) and then transformed the same CS into a signal for danger (or reward)...
April 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30979814/inhibitory-units-an-organizing-nidus-for-feature-selective-sub-networks-in-area-v1
#12
Ganna Palagina, Jochen F Meyer, Stelios M Smirnakis
Neuronal circuits often display small-world network architecture characterized by neuronal cliques of dense local connectivity communicating with each other through a limited number of cells that participate in multiple cliques. The principles by which such cliques organize to encode information remain poorly understood. Similarly tuned pyramidal cells that preferentially target each other may form multi-cellular encoding units performing distinct computational tasks. The existence of such units can reflect upon both spontaneous and stimulus-driven population events...
April 12, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30971439/spontaneous-recurrent-absence-seizure-like-events-in-wild-caught-rats
#13
Jeremy A Taylor, Jon D Reuter, Rebecca A Kubiak, Toni T Mufford, Carmen J Booth, F Edward Dudek, Daniel S Barth
Absence epilepsy is a heritable human neurological disorder characterized by brief nonconvulsive seizures with behavioral arrest, moderate-to-severe loss of consciousness ( absence ), and distinct spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in the electroencephalogram and electrocorticogram (EEG/ECoG). Genetic models of this disorder have been created by selectively inbreeding rats for absence seizure-like events with similar electrical and behavioral characteristics. However, these events are also common in outbred laboratory rats, raising concerns about whether SWD/immobility accurately reflects absence epilepsy as opposed to "normal" rodent behavior...
April 10, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30971438/npy-2-receptors-reduce-tonic-action-potential-independent-gaba-b-currents-in-the-basolateral-amygdala
#14
James P Mackay, Maria Bompolaki, M Regina DeJoseph, Sheldon D Michaelson, Janice H Urban, William F Colmers
Although neuropeptide Y (NPY) has potent anxiolytic actions within the basolateral amygdala (BLA), selective activation of BLA NPY Y2 receptors (Y2 R) acutely increases anxiety by an unknown mechanism. Using ex vivo male rat brain slice electrophysiology, we show that the selective Y2 R agonist, [ahx5-24 ]NPY, reduced the frequency of GABAA -mediated miniature inhibitory post synaptic currents (mIPSC) in BLA principal neurons (PN). [ahx5-24 ]NPY also reduced tonic activation of GABAB receptors (GABAB R), which increased PN excitability through inhibition of a tonic, inwardly-rectifying potassium current ( KIR )...
April 10, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30967428/trim46-organizes-microtubule-fasciculation-in-the-axon-initial-segment
#15
Martin Harterink, Karin Vocking, Xingxiu Pan, Eva M Soriano Jerez, Lotte Slenders, Amélie Fréal, Roderick P Tas, Willine J van de Wetering, Karina Timmer, Jasmijn Motshagen, Sam F B van Beuningen, Lukas C Kapitein, Willie J C Geerts, Jan A Post, Casper C Hoogenraad
Selective cargo transport into axons and dendrites over the microtubule network is essential for neuron polarization. The axon initial segment (AIS) separates the axon from the somatodendritic compartment and controls the microtubule dependent transport into the axon. Interestingly, the AIS has a characteristic microtubule organization; it contains bundles of closely spaced microtubules with electron dense cross-bridges, referred to as microtubule fascicles. The microtubule binding protein TRIM46 localizes to the AIS and when overexpressed in non-neuronal cells forms microtubule arrays that closely resemble AIS fascicles in neurons...
April 9, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30962278/dural-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-produces-female-specific-responses-in-rodent-migraine-models
#16
Amanda Avona, Carolina Burgos-Vega, Michael D Burton, Armen Akopian, Theodore J Price, Gregory Dussor
Migraine is the second leading cause for disability worldwide and the most common neurological disorder. It is also three times more common in women; reasons for this sex difference are not known. Using preclinical behavioral models of migraine, we show that application of CGRP to the rat dura mater produces cutaneous periorbital hypersensitivity. Surprisingly, this response was observed only in females; dural CGRP at doses from 1 pg to 3.8 μg produce no responses in males. In females, dural CGRP causes priming to a pH 7...
April 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30962277/cell-type-specific-regulation-of-nucleus-accumbens-synaptic-plasticity-and-cocaine-reward-sensitivity-by-the-circadian-protein-npas2
#17
Puja K Parekh, Ryan W Logan, Kyle D Ketchesin, Darius Becker-Krail, Micah A Shelton, Mariah A Hildebrand, Kelly Barko, Yanhua H Huang, Colleen A McClung
The circadian transcription factor neuronal PAS domain 2 (NPAS2) is linked to psychiatric disorders associated with altered reward sensitivity. The expression of Npas2 is preferentially enriched in the mammalian forebrain, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a major neural substrate of motivated and reward behavior. Previously, we demonstrated that down-regulation of NPAS2 in the NAc reduces the conditioned behavioral response to cocaine in mice. We also showed that Npas2 is preferentially enriched in dopamine receptor 1 containing medium spiny neurons (D1R-MSNs) of the striatum...
April 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30962276/the-spinal-transcriptome-after-cortical-stroke-in-search-of-molecular-factors-regulating-spontaneous-recovery-in-the-spinal-cord
#18
Julia Kaiser, Martina Maibach, Iris Salpeter, Niels Hagenbuch, Vladimir B C Souza, Mark D Robinson, Martin E Schwab
In response to cortical stroke and unilateral corticospinal tract degeneration, compensatory sprouting of spared corticospinal fibers is associated with recovery of skilled movement in rodents. To date, little is known about the molecular mechanisms orchestrating this spontaneous rewiring. In this study, we provide insights into the molecular changes in the spinal cord tissue after large ischemic cortical injury in adult female mice, with a focus on factors that might influence the re-innervation process by contralesional corticospinal neurons...
April 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30962275/characterizing-the-molecular-architecture-of-cortical-regions-associated-with-high-educational-attainment-in-older-individuals
#19
David Bartrés-Faz, Gabriel González-Escamilla, Lídia Vaqué-Alcázar, Kilian Abellaneda-Pérez, Cinta Valls-Pedret, Emilio Ros, Michel J Grothe
Neuroimaging investigations have revealed inter-individual variations in anatomy, metabolism, activity, and connectivity of specific cortical association areas through which years of education (YoE), as a common proxy of cognitive reserve, may operate in the face of age- or pathology-associated brain changes. However, the associated molecular properties of YoE-related brain regions and the biological pathways involved remain poorly understood. In the present study we first identified brain areas that showed an association between cortical thickness and YoE amongst 122 cognitively healthy older human individuals (87 female)...
April 8, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30952813/ampa-receptor-dysregulation-and-therapeutic-interventions-in-a-mouse-model-of-cdkl5-deficiency-disorder
#20
Madhumita Yennawar, Rachel S White, Frances E Jensen
Pathogenic mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase-like 5 ( CDKL5 ) result in CDKL5 Deficiency Disorder (CDD), a rare disease marked by early-life seizures, autistic behaviors, and intellectual disability. Although mouse models of CDD exhibit dendritic instability and alterations in synaptic scaffolding proteins, studies of glutamate receptor levels and function are limited. Here we used a novel mouse model of CDD, the Cdkl5R59X knock-in mouse (R59X), to investigate changes in synaptic glutamate receptor subunits and functional consequences...
April 5, 2019: Journal of Neuroscience
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