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Journal of Biosciences

Sony Kumari, Kishore C S Panigrahi
Root development in plants is affected by light and phytohormones. Different ranges of light wavelength influence root patterning in a particular manner. Red and white light promote overall root development, whereas blue light has both positive as well as negative role in these processes. Light-mediated root development primarily occurs through modulation of synthesis, signaling and transport of the phytohormone auxin. Auxin has been shown to play a critical role in root development. It is being well-understood that components of light and auxin signaling cross-talk with each other...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
D R Rahul, R Joseph Ponniah
Associating human genetic makeup with the faculty of language has long been a goal for biolinguistics. This stimulated the idea that language is attributed to genes and language disabilities are caused by genetic mutations. However, application of genetic knowledge on language intervention is still a gap in the existing literature. In an effort to bridge this gap, this article presents an account of genetic and neural associations of language and synthesizes the genetic, neural, epigenetic and environmental facets involved in language...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Laxman S Meena
In today's era tuberculosis is a major threat to human population. The lethality of this disease is caused by very efficiently thrived bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) . Ca2+ plays crucial role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Bacilli survival in human alveolar macrophages majorly depends on disruption in Ca2+ signaling. Bacilli sustainability in phagosome lies in the interruption of phagolysosomal fusion, which is possible because of low intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Bacilli contain various Ca2+ binding proteins which help in regulation of Ca2+ signaling for its own benefit...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Bhaskar Birru, Naveen Kumar Mekala, Sreenivasa Rao Parcha
Bone tissue engineering (BTE) aims to develop engineered bone tissue to substitute conventional bone grafts. To achieve this, culturing the cells on the biocompatible three-dimensional (3D) scaffold is one alternative approach. The new functional bone tissue regeneration could be feasible by the synergetic combinations of cells, biomaterials and bioreactors. Although the field of biomaterial design/development for BTE applications attained reasonable success, development of suitable bioreactor remains still a major challenge...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Manjima Chatterjee, Sonali Sengupta
Cancer is a physiological condition that has both the endogenous and exogenous influences on its progression. It originates from unusual cell growth, where the cells undergo massive genetic alterations, bypass the signaling machinery and compromise its genetic cohesion. Literature has well narrated the DNA damage studies including driver mutations that interfere with the treatment strategies. However, with evolving medical excellence, recent day studies are trying to unveil the contribution of RNAs in the progression of tumor malignancies...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Battini Mohan Reddy, Rayabarapu Pranavchand, S A A Latheef
In this review, we briefly outlined salient features of pathophysiology and results of the genetic association studies hitherto conducted on type 2 diabetes. Primarily focusing on the current status of genomic research, we briefly discussed the limited progress made during the post-genomic era and tried to identify the limitations of the post-genomic research strategies. We suggested reanalysis of the existing genomic data through advanced statistical and computational methods and recommended integrated genomics-metabolomics approaches for future studies to facilitate understanding of the gene-environment interactions in the manifestation of the disease...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Sertan Cevik, Gurler Akpinar, Aytunc Yildizli, Murat Kasap, Kubra Karaosmanoglu, Serpil Unyayar
Comparative physiological and proteomic analysis were performed to understand the stress responses of two chickpea species (C. reticulatum and C. arietinum) against drought. Our study revealed that drought stress reduced root length, leaf water content, and enhanced free proline content in both species. Effect of drought stress appeared to be greater in C. arietinum compared to C. reticulatum . A total of 24 differently expressed proteins were identified by using MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS/MS in response to drought...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
R Carbo, E Rodriguez
Among the last consequences of metabolic syndrome are cardiovascular complications such as infarcts. The hypoxic heart switches its lipid-based metabolism to carbohydrates, and a glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) solution can be the metabolic support to protect the organ. Due to the physiology and cardiac risks associated with the metabolic syndrome, we studied the effect of GIK solution during hypoxia in a metabolic syndrome model by observing the participation of glucose transporters (GLUTs). The metabolic syndrome characteristics were established by giving a 30% sucrose drinking solution to Wistar rats for 24 weeks...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Dipanjana Dhar, Debayan Dey, Soumalee Basu
The importance of the widely spread leucine-rich repeat (LRR) motif was studied considering TLRs, the LRR-containing protein involved in animal immune response. The protein connects intracellular signalling with a chain of molecular interactions through the presence of LRRs in the ectodomain and TIR in the endodomain. Domain analyses with human TLR1-9 reported ectodomain with tandem repeats, transmembrane domain and TIR domain. The repeat number varied across members of TLR and remained characteristic to a particular member...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Lei Chen, Chunling Zhang, Yuancun Liang, Aixin Liu, Hansong Dong, Shenshen Zou
Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular degradation pathway in eukaryotic cells that responds to environmental changes. Genetic analyses have shown that more than 40 autophagy-related genes (ATG) are directly involved in this process in fungi. In addition to Atg proteins, most vesicle transport regulators are also essential for each step of autophagy. The present study showed that one Endoplasmic Reticulum protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Tip20, which controls Golgi-to-ER retrograde transport, was also required for starvation-induced autophagy under high temperature stress...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Qinhua Chen, Ryan C Gimple, Guannan Li, Jianzhou Chen, Han Wu, Ran Li, Jun Xie, Biao Xu
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most frequently diagnosed cardiac arrhythmia worldwide. Patients with permanent atrial fibrillation are at an increased risk of developing valvular heart disease. Atrial fibrosis occurs in this pathophysiological setting. LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) is a serine/threonine kinase that regulates microtubule stability and actin polymerization in fibroblasts. LIMK1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation. Clinical data and biopsies of the right atrial appendage were collected from 50 patients with valvular heart disease who underwent heart valve replacement surgery...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Yugandhara M Patil, Shriram N Rajpathak, Deepti D Deobagkar
Marine extremophiles are shown to tolerate extreme environmental conditions and have high metal reducing properties. Here, we report intracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) by marine extremophilic bacteria Pseudoalteromonas sp. Bac178 which was isolated from the OMZ of Arabian Sea. Preliminary observations suggest that these bacteria use different pathways which may involves the membrane as well as intracellular proteins for the gold salt reduction. Characterization of the biosynthesised nanoparticles by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed the presence of crystalline gold...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Adwaita Prasad Parida, Amrapali Sharma, Arun Kumar Sharma
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic modification that governs transcriptional regulation. The methylation mark is read by a special class of proteins called methyl-CpG-binding domain proteins. The role of DNA methylation has been found in X-chromosome inactivation, genomic imprinting, transposon silencing, and self-incompatibility. Recently, remodeling of global DNA methylation was demonstrated in Arabidopsis during low phosphate availability. The present study reports that AtMBD4 gene of Arabidopsis negatively regulates phosphate starvation...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Moses Tita Mogho Njoya, Seino Richard Akwanjoh, Dieter Wittmann
Stingless bees have evolved adaptive nest constructions strategies which have resulted in sophisticated nest architecture in many species while others lack certain structural components. However, no information exists on the nest biology and ecology on the genus Meliponula in Cameroon. This study aims to contribute to knowledge on the nest architecture and colony characteristics of Meliponula (Axestotrigona) ferruginea. Meliponula ferruginea belongs to the genus Meliponula and subgenus Axestotrigona. This species was first described by Le Peletier De Saini-Farrgeau (1836) and Michener (The bees of the world, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore and London, 2000) recently...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Saeedeh Ghazaey Zidanloo, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Hossein Ayatollahi, Zahra Bagheryan
Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) has long been overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia and has a prognostic value in its diagnosis. Lately, the formation of G-quadruplexes in oncogenic promoters like (WT1) has been widely investigated since stabilization of these structures leads to transcriptional inhibition of the oncogene. Daunorubicin and mitoxantrone considered as crucial components of almost all standard acute myeloid leukemia induction regimens. Herein we have proposed a probable molecular mechanism of action through which the drugs may stabilize (WT1) promoter G-quadruplexes...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Baojin Yao, Mei Zhang, Meixin Liu, Bocheng Lu, Xiangyang Leng, Yaozhong Hu, Daqing Zhao, Y U Zhao
Antler growth is a unique event compared to other growth and development processes in mammals. Antlers grow extremely fast during the rapid growth stage when growth rate peaks at 2 cm per day. Antler growth is driven by a specific endochondral ossification process in the growth center that is in the distal region of the antler tip. In this study, we used state-of-art RNA-seq technology to analyze the expression profiles of mRNAs and miRNAs during antler growth. Our results indicated that the expression levels of multiple genes involved in chondrogenesis and endochondral ossification, including Fn1, Sox9, Col2a1, Acan, Col9a1, Col11a1, Hapln1, Wwp2, Fgfr3, Comp, Sp7 and Ihh , were significantly increased at the rapid growth stage...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Sankhajit Bhattacharjee, Rishi Kumar Jaiswal, Pramod Kumar Yadava
Measles virus is the causative agent of measles, a major cause of child mortality in developing countries. Two major proteins, coded by the viral genome, are nucleocapsid protein (N) and phosphoprotein (P). The N protein protects the viral genomic RNA and forms ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) together with P protein. MeV-P protein recruits the large protein (L), i.e. viral RNA-depended RNA polymerase (RdRp), to ensure viral replication in host cell. Apoptogenic properties of N protein of Edmonston vaccine strain have been established in our lab previously...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Pingzhe Jiang, Chao Ma, Junfeng Hao, Yike Han, Minggang Li
Bio-drug is a new type of beneficial biology expressing therapeutic peptides (protein) as orally administrated medicine to treat diseases, in particular, chronic diseases like diabetes. In order to develop recombinant yeast strains as a bio-drug which could effectively ameliorate type 2 diabetes, an integrating expression vector pNK1-PGK that could successfully express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed to demonstrate the normality of the function. A pNK1-PGK vector, which expresses 10 tandem repeats of long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1(10laGLP-1), was cloned and then transformed into the S...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Tanmoy Gon Choudhury, Biswajit Maiti, M N Venugopal, Indrani Karunasagar
Bacteriophage therapy is a viable proposition for controlling luminous vibriosis caused by Vibrio harveyi in shrimp aquaculture. However, environmental factors influence the growth and activity of phage and affect its efficiency in controlling bacterial diseases. An essential problem in the use of vibrio phage as a therapeutic agent was the development of resistance to phage attachment, rendering them resistant to the lytic action of phage. This problem could be overcome by applying a cocktail of phages. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of salinity and pH on the phage activity and also to study the role of recombinant shrimp lysozyme on the performance of the V...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
Essam Kotb, Yehia A El-Zawahry, Ghadeer E Saleh
A 48 kDa ZuhP13 elastase from P. aeruginosa isolated from a urine sample was successfully purified to 8.8-fold and 39% recovery by DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and Sephadex G-100 chromatography. Its ideal reaction values were pH 7.5 and 40°C. It showed stability at pH 6-9 for 1 h and up to 60°C for 30 min with midpoint temperature (Tm ) at 61.3°C and isoelectric value (pI) at 5.6+/-0.2. Its Km and catalytic efficiency (Kcat /Km ) for the substrate azocasein were 1.3 mg/mL and 4.629107 M-1 s-1 , respectively. On contrary to most P...
March 2019: Journal of Biosciences
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