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Regulatory Peptides

Guldal Gulec-Suyen, Naciye Isbil-Buyukcoskun, Betul Cam, Kasim Ozluk
"Glucagon-like peptide- 2" (GLP-2) is a peptide that is released from the enteroendocrine L cells in response to food in the gastrointestinal tract. Peripheral injection of GLP-2 has been shown to increase gastrointestinal blood flow, but effects of central GLP-2 on any vascular bed has not been studied yet. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of various doses of intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.)-injected GLP-2 on gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and contribution of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), nitric oxide synthase - nitric oxide (NOS-NO) and cyclooxygenase - prostaglandin (COX-PG) systems to the possible effect...
December 5, 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Karl-Heinz Herzig
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Karen J Oliveira, Gabriela S M Paula, Guinever E Império, Nina O Bressane, Carolina M A Magalhães, Leandro Miranda-Alves, Tania M Ortiga-Carvalho, Carmen C Pazos-Moura
Neuromedin B, a peptide highly expressed at the pituitary, has been shown to act as autocrine/paracrine inhibitor of thyrotropin (TSH) release. Here we studied the thyroid axis of adult female mice lacking neuromedin B receptor (NBR-KO), compared to wild type (WT) littermates. They exhibited slight increase in serum TSH (18%), with normal pituitary expression of mRNA coding for α-glycoprotein subunit (Cga), but reduced TSH β-subunit mRNA (Tshb, 41%), lower intra-pituitary TSH content (24%) and increased thyroid hormone transporter MCT-8 (Slc16a2, 44%) and thyroid hormone receptor β mRNA expression (Thrb, 39%)...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Neng Chen, Lingmei Zhou, Zixiang Zhang, Jiaying Xu, Zhongxiao Wan, Liqiang Qin
Resistin is an adipokine secreted from adipose tissue, which is likely involved in the development of obesity and insulin resistance via its interaction with other organs, as well as affecting adipose tissue function. The impact of resistin treatment on lipolysis and adiponectin secretion in human visceral adipose tissue is currently unknown. Mesenteric adipose tissue samples were obtained from 14 male subjects [age 54±6 yr, body mass index (BMI) 23.59±0.44 kg/m(2)] undergoing abdominal surgeries. Adipose tissues were cultured and treated with resistin (100 ng/mL, 24h) in the absence or presence of different signaling inhibitors: H89 (1 μM), PD98059 (25 μM) and SB201290 (20 μM) for glycerol and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) measurement...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Manyi Sun, Feng Wang, Ping Feng
Cellular apoptosis and colonic dysmotility are involved in diabetes mellitus (DM) complications. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to affect apoptosis and proliferation. Here, we demonstrated that the treatment of 1500 ng/kg IGF-1 partly recovers the decrease of the muscle thickness, body weight and gastrointestinal transit rate in DM rats. The gastrointestinal transit rate is positively correlated with the IGF-I level, but negatively correlated with the level of colonic cellular apoptosis. The DM-induced colonic apoptosis is also attenuated by the IGF-1 stimulation...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Hakimeh Saadati, Vahid Sheibani, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani, Fatemeh Darvishzadeh-Mahani, Shahrzad Mazhari
Previous studies indicated that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main candidate to mediate the beneficial effects of exercise on cognitive function in sleep deprived male rats. In addition, our previous findings demonstrate that female rats are more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive performance and synaptic plasticity. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of treadmill exercise and/or sleep deprivation (SD) on the levels of BDNF mRNA and protein in the hippocampus of female rats...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Hye-Seung Chung, Jae-Gon Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Hyung-Wook Kim, Bong-June Yoon
Orexin plays diverse roles in regulating behaviors, such as sleep and wake, reward processing, arousal, and stress and anxiety. The orexin system may accomplish these multiple tasks through its complex innervations throughout the brain. The emerging evidence indicates a role of orexin in emotional behaviors; however, most of the previous studies have investigated the function of orexin in naïve animals. Here, we examined a functional role of orexin in mice that had been exposed to repeated stress. Chronic social defeat stress produced differential social interaction behaviors in mice (susceptible versus resilient) and these two groups of mice displayed different levels of prepro-orexin in the hypothalamus...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Milena Mechkarska, Samir Attoub, Shahrazad Sulaiman, Jelena Pantic, Miodrag L Lukic, J Michael Conlon
Pseudhymenochirin-1Pb (Ps-1Pb) and pseudhymenochirin-2Pa (Ps-2Pa) are host-defense peptides, first isolated from skin secretions of the frog Pseudhymenochirus merlini (Pipidae). Ps-1Pb and Ps-2Pa are highly cytotoxic (LC50<12 μM) against non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells, and colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells but are also hemolytic against human erythrocytes (LC50=28±2 μM for Ps-1Pb and LC50=6±1 μM for Ps-2Pa). Ps-2Pa shows selective cytotoxicity for tumor cells (LC50 against non-neoplastic human umbilical vein (HUVEC) cells=68±2 μM)...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Denise T F McLean, Maelíosa T C McCrudden, Gerard J Linden, Christopher R Irwin, J Michael Conlon, Fionnuala T Lundy
Cationic amphipathic α-helical peptides are intensively studied classes of host defence peptides (HDPs). Three peptides, peptide glycine-leucine-amide (PGLa-AM1), caerulein-precursor fragment (CPF-AM1) and magainin-AM1, originally isolated from norepinephrine-stimulated skin secretions of the African volcano frog Xenopus amieti (Pipidae), were studied for their antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities against oral and respiratory pathogens. Minimal effective concentrations (MECs), determined by radial diffusion assay, were generally lower than minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determined by microbroth dilution...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
V Peters, E Riedl, M Braunagel, S Höger, S Hauske, F Pfister, J Zschocke, B Lanthaler, U Benck, H-P Hammes, B K Krämer, C P Schmitt, B A Yard, H Köppel
In humans, we reported an association of a certain allele of carnosinase gene with reduced carnosinase activity and absence of nephropathy in diabetic patients. CN1 degrades histidine dipeptides such as carnosine and anserine. Further, we and others showed that treatment with carnosine improves renal function and wound healing in diabetic mice and rats. We now investigated the effects of carnosine treatment alone and in combination with ACE inhibition, a clinically established nephroprotective drug in diabetic nephropathy...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Kazuaki Iguchi, Keiko Unno, Kazuhiko Kaji, Minoru Hoshino
Galanin is a neuropeptide expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Galanin is known to be biosynthesized in neural and endocrine cells, but little evidence exists for its synthesis in other cells. In this study, we explored galanin-releasing nonneural cells using radioimmunoassay, finding that some fibroblasts produced and released the galanin-like immunoreactive component (galanin-LI). The molecular weight of the galanin-LI obtained from the fibroblasts, as measured by gel filtration chromatography and Western blotting, was 14 kDa and suggested that the compound was progalanin...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Judit Újhelyi, Zoltán Újhelyi, Andrea Szalai, János F László, Mayella Cayasso, Miklós Vecsernyés, Róbert Pórszász
To validate the potential anti-inflammatory and analgesic role of sita- and vildagliptin, five different experimental models were used in mice: i) mustard oil-induced ear edema, ii) neutrophil accumulation, iii) mechanical and iv) thermal touch sensitivity in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis and v) capsaicin-induced plasma extravasation in the urinary bladder. For the complete examination period in i) the dose of 10mg sitagliptin as well as 1-10mg vildagliptin was found to significantly decrease ear edema as compared to positive control (p<0...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Sara Baldassano, Antonella Amato
Glucagon-like peptide 2 [GLP-2] is a 33-amino acid peptide released from the mucosal enteroendocrine L-cells of the intestine. The actions of GLP-2 are transduced by the GLP-2 receptor [GLP-2R], which is localized in the neurons of the enteric nervous system but not in the intestinal epithelium, indicating an indirect mechanism of action. GLP-2 is well known for its trophic role within the intestine and interest in GLP-2 is now reviving based on the approval of the GLP-2R agonist for treatment of short bowel syndrome [SBS]...
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Bo Ahrén
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Eduardo Simão da Silva, Thiago Viçoso Dos Santos, Alexandre Ademar Hoeller, Tiago Souza Dos Santos, Gustavo Vieira Pereira, Cristiane Meneghelli, Ana Isabel Penzlin, Murilo Marcos Dos Santos, Moacir Serralvo Faria, Marta Aparecida Paschoalini, José Marino-Neto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Yao Shen, Yueyang Tian, Jianbo Yang, Xiaojie Shi, Li Ouyang, Jieqiong Gao, Jianxin Lu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of carnosine on the bioenergetic profile of cultured cortical astrocytes under normal and ischemic conditions. METHODS: The Seahorse Bioscience XF96 Extracellular Flux Analyzer was used to measure the oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) and extracellular acidification rates (ECARs) of cultured cortical astrocytes treated with and without carnosine under normal and ischemic conditions. RESULTS: Under the normal growth condition, the basal OCRs and ECARs of astrocytes were 21...
June 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Takeshi Soeki
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Luis E Flores, Héctor Del Zotto, Florencia Fragapane, Bárbara Maiztegui, Carolina L Román, Antonio C Boschero, Juan J Gagliardino
Islet neogenesis-associated protein (INGAP) is a peptide found in pancreatic exocrine-, duct- and islet- non-β-cells from normal hamsters. Its increase induced by either its exogenous administration or by the overexpression of its gene enhances β-cell secretory function and increases β-cell mass by a combination of stimulation of cell replication and islet neogenesis and reduction of β-cell apoptosis. We studied the potential modulatory role of endogenous INGAP in insulin secretion using two different experimental approaches...
June 2014: Regulatory Peptides
Chun-Mei Zhao, Yosuke Kodama, Arnar Flatberg, Vidar Beisvag, Bård Kulseng, Arne K Sandvik, Jens F Rehfeld, Duan Chen
The stomach produces acid, which may play an important role in the regulation of bone homeostasis. The aim of this study was to reveal signaling pathways in the gastric mucosa that involve the acid secretion and possibly the bone metabolism in CCK1 and/or CCK2 receptor knockout (KO) mice. Gastric acid secretion was impaired and the ECL cell signaling pathway was inhibited in CCK2 receptor KO mice but not in CCK1 receptor KO mice. However, in CCK1+2 receptor double KO mice the acid secretion in response to pylorus ligation-induced vagal stimulation and the ECL cell pathway were partially normalized, which was associated with an up-regulated pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type 1 receptor (PAC1)...
June 2014: Regulatory Peptides
G Telegdy, A Adamik
Neuromedin U (NmU), first was isolated from the porcine spinal cord, has subsequently been demonstrated in a number of species, in which it is present in the periphery and also the brain. Two receptors have been identified: NmU1R is mainly present in peripheral tissues, and Nmu2R in the central nervous system. NmU, a potent endogenous anorectic, serves as a catabolic signaling molecule in the brain; it inhibits food uptake, increases locomotion, activates stress mechanism, having cardiovasscular effects and, causes hyperthermia...
June 2014: Regulatory Peptides
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