Fabienne Mazerolles
Surface expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is mainly observed on antigen presenting cells (APC) such as monocytes or dendritic cells (DCs). Our results showing a high expression of PD-L1 on human naïve CD4+ effector T-cells (TEFFs) and CD4+ regulatory T cells (TREGs) after activation with human DCs, allow us to propose a new role for PD-L1 and its ligands and their potential impact on new signaling pathways. Indeed, expression of PD-L1 on activated CD4+ T cells could allow cis interaction with its ligands such as PD-1 and CD80, thus disrupting interactions with other signaling receptors, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) or CD28, which interact with CD80...
June 12, 2024: Human Immunology
Yi Ren, Honggang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is an autoimmune disease characterized by the production of galactose‑deficient IgA1 (Gd‑IgA1) and the deposition of immune complexes in the kidney. Exploring the landscape of immune dysregulation in IgAN is valuable for pathogenesis and disease treatment. We conducted Mendelian randomization (MR) to assess the causal correlations between inflammation and IgAN. METHODS: Based on available genetic datasets, we investigated potential causal links between inflammation and the risk of IgAN using two-sample MR...
June 10, 2024: Human Immunology
Akshay Sharma, Brandon M Triplett, Liying Chi, Shane J Cross, Yan Zheng, Paula Y Arnold
A pediatric patient with acute myeloid leukemia was referred to our institution for investigational therapy after disease relapse following a mismatched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). Prior to second HCT, the patient's serum was negative for antibodies to class I and class II HLA. Eight days after receiving a maternal donor haploidentical transplant, the patient became platelet refractory and highly sensitized to multiple class I HLA. Serum from the patient's mother was positive for the strongest antibodies present in the patient, suggesting the antibodies were donor-derived...
June 1, 2024: Human Immunology
Antoine Dubois, Xin Jin, Charlotte Hooft, Emilio Canovai, Caroline Boelhouwer, Tim Vanuytsel, Bart Vanaudenaerde, Jacques Pirenne, Laurens J Ceulemans
Tolerance is the Holy Grail of solid organ transplantation (SOT) and remains its primary challenge since its inception. In this topic, the seminal contributions of Thomas Starzl at Pittsburgh University outlined foundational principles of graft acceptance and tolerance, with chimerism emerging as a pivotal factor. Immunologically, intestinal transplantation (ITx) poses a unique hurdle due to the inherent characteristics and functions of the small bowel, resulting in increased immunogenicity. This necessitates heavy immunosuppression (IS) while IS drugs side effects cause significant morbidity...
May 27, 2024: Human Immunology
Mariana da Silva Honorio, Arthur Alves Sartori, Nicolas Ripari, Karina Basso Santiago, José Maurício Sforcin
Natural products have been used to treat inflammatory reactions and led to the discovery of new anti-inflammatory drugs. Geopropolis (GEO) is produced by stingless bees and has been used by indigenous people to improve the immune functions. Here, a possible synergism between GEO and dexamethasone (DEX) was assessed on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PBMC viability was evaluated by the MTT, apoptosis/necrosis by flow cytometry, cytokine and eicosanoids production by ELISA, and intracellular pathways by polymerase chain reaction...
May 24, 2024: Human Immunology
Naomi Karmi, Werna T C Uniken Venema, Frans van der Heide, Eleonora A M Festen, Gerard Dijkstra
Intestinal transplantation is the standard treatment for patients with intestinal failure with severe complications due to parenteral nutrition; however, rejection leads to graft failure in approximately half of both adult and pediatric recipients within 5 years of transplantation. Although intensive immunosuppressive therapy is used in an attempt to reduce this risk, commonly used treatment strategies are generally practice- and/or expert-based, as head-to-head comparisons are lacking. In this ever-developing field, biologicals designed to prevent or treat rejection are used increasingly, with both infliximab and vedolizumab showing potential in the treatment of acute cellular rejection in individual cases and in relatively small patient cohorts...
May 23, 2024: Human Immunology
Abdulaziz Alamri
This comprehensive research review explores the complex interplay between the Sema-3E/PlexinD1 axis and dendritic cells (DCs), highlighting its critical role in immune modulation with implications for clinical application Critical regulators of immune responses Dendritic cells are central to adaptive immunity, and the Sema-3E /PlexinD1 axis emerges as a key modulator affecting their phenotypes and functions Review delineates the impact of this signaling axis on DC maturation, migration, antigen presentation, and cytokine production, unravels its multifaceted role in shaping the immune response...
May 20, 2024: Human Immunology
Manahel Mahmood Alsabbagh
Psoriasis is a multifactorial disease that affects 0.84% of the global population and it can be associated with disabling comorbidities. As patients present with thick scaly lesions, psoriasis was long believed to be a disorder of keratinocytes. Psoriasis is now understood to be the outcome of the interaction between immunological and environmental factors in individuals with genetic predisposition. While it was initially thought to be solely mediated by cytokines of type-1 immunity, namely interferon-γ, interleukin-2, and interleukin-12 because it responds very well to cyclosporine, a reversible IL-2 inhibitor; the discovery of Th-17 cells advanced the understanding of the disease and helped the development of biological therapy...
May 19, 2024: Human Immunology
Nathan Suek, Tyla Young, Jianing Fu
Since the first published case study of human intestinal transplantation in 1967, there have been significant studies of intestinal transplant immunology in both animal models and humans. An improved understanding of the profiles of different immune cell subsets is critical for understanding their contributions to graft outcomes. While different studies have focused on the contribution of one or a few subsets to intestinal transplant, no study has integrated these data for a comprehensive overview of immune dynamics after intestinal transplant...
May 18, 2024: Human Immunology
Prashant Giri, Foram Thakor, Mitesh Dwivedi
Generalized vitiligo(GV) is a skin depigmenting condition due to loss of melanocytes. Regulatory T cells(Tregs), responsible for peripheral tolerance, show altered numbers and functions in GV patients, likely influenced by the aging process. Therefore, the present study was focused on measuring the relative telomere length of Tregs in 96 GV patients and 90 controls by qPCR, along with correlation of relative telomere length with in vitro Treg suppressive capacity. Interestingly, we found significantly decreased relative telomere length in Tregs of GV patients as compared to controls(p = 0...
May 15, 2024: Human Immunology
Mei Lin, Xiao-Li Gao, Wei Li
OBJECTIVE: A link between periodontitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been identified, and interleukin-33 (IL-33) may play an important role in the common inflammatory mechanisms of these diseases. This study analyzed the associations of the serum IL-33 level with the occurrence and severity of periodontitis and COPD. METHODS: A total of 161 participants were divided into four groups: healthy volunteers, periodontitis patients, COPD patients, and patients with both COPD and periodontitis...
May 15, 2024: Human Immunology
Clarkson Crane, Matthias Niemann, Bethany Dale, Loren Gragert, Mita Shah, Elizabeth Ingulli, Gerald P Morris
HLA matching in solid organ transplant is performed with the aim of assessing immunologic compatibility in order to avoid hyperacute rejection and assess the risk of future rejection events. Molecular mismatch algorithms are intended to improve granularity in histocompatibility assessment and risk stratification. PIRCHE-II uses HLA genotyping to predict indirectly presented mismatched donor HLA peptides, though most clinical validation studies rely on imputing high resolution (HR) genotypes from low resolution (LR) typing data...
May 14, 2024: Human Immunology
Shilpa Ravella
Intestinal transplantation (Itx) can be a life-saving treatment for certain patient populations, including those patients with intestinal failure (IF) who develop life-threatening complications due to the use of parenteral nutrition (PN). Most patients who have undergone Itx are eventually able to tolerate a full oral diet. However, little guidance or consensus exists regarding optimizing the specific components of an oral diet for Itx patients, including macronutrients, micronutrients and dietary patterns...
May 8, 2024: Human Immunology
Catherine Santucci, Madalina Alexandru, Xinyi Chen, Jemima E Mellerio, Sophia N Karagiannis, Joanna Jacków-Malinowska
Epidermolysis bullosa (EB) is an umbrella term for a group of rare inherited skin disorders characterised by mucocutaneous fragility. Patients suffer from blisters and chronic wounds that arise spontaneously or following minor mechanical trauma, often resulting in inflammation, scarring and fibrosis due to poor healing. The recessive form of dystrophic EB (RDEB) has a particularly severe phenotype and is caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene, encoding the collagen VII protein, which is responsible for adhering the epidermis and dermis together...
May 3, 2024: Human Immunology
Rong Ji, Lei Yang, Guoxun Shi, Jianming Sun, Pei Cao
Osteoporosis (OP) is a common complication of postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Herein, the objective of our study was to explore the correlation between serum matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) and OP among postmenopausal women with RA to foster better diagnosis and treatment. A total of 208 elderly postmenopausal women with RA were included in this study, with 83 patients diagnosed with OP after RA diagnosis and 125 patients without OP. Serum MMP3 levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured and compared...
May 2, 2024: Human Immunology
Alejandra Comins-Boo, Juan Irure-Ventura, Maria O Valentin, Lara Belmar-Vega, Covadonga López Del Moral Cuesta, Rosalía Valero San Cecilio, Emilio Rodrigo Calabia, Mónica Renuncio-García, Carolina Castro Hernández, Dzmitry Mikhalkovich, Nerea Mota Pérez, Juan Carlos Ruiz San Millán, Marcos López-Hoyos, David San Segundo
Donor exchange programs were designed to allocate organs for highly sensitized (HS) patients. The allocation algorithm differs slightly among countries and includes different strategies to improve access to transplants in HS patients. However, many HS patients with a calculated panel reactive of antibodies (cPRA) of 100 % remain on the waiting list for a long time. Some allocation algorithms assume immunological risk, including Imlifidase treatment, to increase the chance of transplantation in very HS patients...
April 24, 2024: Human Immunology
Behnam Mortazavi, Ali Molaei, Najaf Allahyari Fard
The development of vaccines against a wide range of infectious diseases and pathogens often relies on multi-epitope strategies that can effectively stimulate both humoral and cellular immunity. Immunoinformatics tools play a pivotal role in designing such vaccines, enhancing immune response potential, and minimizing the risk of failure. This review presents a comprehensive overview of practical tools for epitope prediction and the associated immune responses. These immunoinformatics tools facilitate the selection of epitopes based on parameters such as antigenicity, absence of toxic and allergenic sequences, secondary and tertiary structures, sequence conservation, and population coverage...
April 23, 2024: Human Immunology
Juan C Barrios-Menéndez, César Camilo Carías-Alvarado, Lilian Isabel Cayax, Francisco López-Hun, Adolfo Santizo, Maynor A Herrera, Diana Iraíz Hernández-Zaragoza, Karla Escobar-Castro
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder that impacts connective tissue and can affect various organs and systems within the body. One important aspect of this disease is the role of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system, a protein complex that plays a role in the immune response. Specifically, the HLA-DRB1 and HLA-DQB1 genes have been implicated in the development of SLE. In order to better understand this relationship in the Guatemalan population, a study was conducted with the objective of characterizing the allelic and haplotype profiles of the HLA-DQB1 and HLA-DRB1 loci in 50 patients diagnosed with SLE who were receiving treatment at a hospital in Guatemala...
April 22, 2024: Human Immunology
Antonio Arnaiz-Villena, Ignacio Juarez, Christian Vaquero-Yuste, Tomas Lledo, Jose Manuel Martin-Villa, Fabio Suarez-Trujillo
HLA studies in Crete show that this population is related to North Africans and also Iberians. This may be a reflection of a common prehistoric first Europeans relationships with North Africans and drying Saharan emigration after 10,000 years BC; it may be specifically represented by a primitive and early cult to the bull in both Cretan (Minoan) and Iberian populations. In the present study, unrelated Cretans representing different Island parts have been studied for class II HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1 alleles...
April 17, 2024: Human Immunology
Mona Tahoun, Ahmed S Sadaka
BACKGROUND: The role of autophagy in coronaviruses infection and replication has a lot of debate. Autophagy involves the catalytic breakdown of intracellular components to be subsequently recycled by the lysosome. The aim of the study was to evaluate autophagy genes; PIK3C3 and RAB7A expressions in COVID-19 patients, and identify if PIK3C3 and RAB7A can be used as markers for monitoring COVID-19 patients. METHODS: A case-control study was carried out on 50 patients and 50 healthy controls...
April 11, 2024: Human Immunology
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