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https://read.qxmd.com/read/31014958/multivalent-peptide-and-peptidomimetic-ligands-for-the-treatment-of-pain-without-toxicities-and-addiction
#21
REVIEW
Victor J Hruby
The current opioid crisis has created a tragic problem in medicine and society. Pain is the most ubiquitous and costly disease in society and yet all of our "treatments" have toxicities, especially for prolonged use. However, there are several alternatives that have been discovered in the past fifteen years that have been demonstrated in animals to have none of the toxicities of current drugs. Many of the compounds are multivalent and have novel biological activity profiles. Unfortunately, none of these have been in clinical trials in humans, perhaps because they were discovered in academic laboratories...
June 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30954533/the-influence-of-high-fat-diet-on-plasma-incretins-and-insulin-concentrations-in-sprague-dawley-rats-with-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance-undergoing-ileal-transposition
#22
Tomasz Sawczyn, Dominika Stygar, Katarzyna Nabrdalik, Michał Kukla, Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek, Bartosz Wesołowski, Ewa Olszańska, Agnieszka Dulska, Janusz Gumprecht, Wojciech Konrad Karcz, Jerzy Jochem
BACKGROUND: The benefits of IT surgery are based on incretin effects. In this study we show the influence of high fat diet (HFD) used both before and after surgery, on ileal transposition (IT) effects. METHODS: Forty-eight male rats were assigned to two groups: HFD and control diet (CD) fed rats. After eight weeks, HFD and CD fed rats were randomly assigned to two types of surgery: IT and SHAM, then for 50% of animals of each group the diet was changed, whereas the other 50% received the same type of diet...
May 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/31004688/osteopontin-derived-synthetic-peptide-svvyglr-has-potent-utility-in-the-functional-regeneration-of-oral-and-maxillofacial-skeletal-muscles
#23
Susumu Tanaka, Yutaka Matsushita, Yoshinosuke Hamada, Naomasa Kawaguchi, Takasuke Usuki, Yuhki Yokoyama, Tadataka Tsuji, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Mikihiko Kogo
Oral and maxillofacial skeletal muscles are critical for oral motor functions, and severe damage to these muscles by trauma or surgery may lead to persistent functional impairment. This study investigated the effects of SVVYGLR (SV) peptide, a thrombin-cleaved osteopontin-derived motif, on histopathological wound healing and functional repair after severe injury of skeletal muscles. A rat model of volumetric muscle loss bilateral masseter muscle was developed. A single dose of SV-peptide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was separately injected into the injured muscle belly...
April 17, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30995454/bz043-a-novel-long-acting-amylin-analog-reduces-gastric-emptying-food-intake-glycemia-and-insulin-requirement-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#24
Caio Victor M F do Nascimento, Celimar Sinezia, Thayna Sisnande, Luís Maurício T R Lima, Paulo G S Lacativa
Amylin analogs are important adjunctive drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, a dual therapy with insulin involves inconvenient multiple injections. Here we describe a novel n-terminal PEGylated human amylin analog - BZ043 - and its potential to improve the control of glycemia using lower doses of insulin. The effect of BZ043 over the insulin-mediated control of fed-glycemia was investigated in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes treated with the basal analog glargine (GLAR). Fasted rats (3 h) received a single treatment of BZ043 (16, 64 or 128 nmol/kg), GLAR (1...
April 14, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30965084/genetic-disruption-of-guanylyl-cyclase-natriuretic-peptide-receptor-a-upregulates-renal-pro-renin-receptor-expression-in-npr1-null-mutant-mice
#25
Ramu Periyasamy, Subhankar Das, Kailash N Pandey
The objective of the present study was to determine whether targeted-disruption of Npr1 gene (encoding for guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A; GC-A/NPRA) upregulates pro(renin) receptor (P)RR expression and leads to the activation of MAPKs in Npr1 gene-knockout mice. The Npr1 homozygous (Npr1-/- ; 0-copy), heterozygous (Npr1+/- ; 1-copy), wild-type (Npr1+/+ ; 2-copy), and gene-duplicated (Npr1++/++ ; 4-copy) mice were utilized. To identify the canonical pathway of (P)RR, we administered ACE-1 inhibitor (captopril), AT1R blocker (losartan), and MAPKs inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580) to all Npr1 mice genotypes...
April 6, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30959145/nesfatin-1-a-novel-regulatory-peptide-associated-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-mediterranean-diet
#26
Aliye Kuyumcu, Mevlut Serdar Kuyumcu, Mustafa Bilal Ozbay, Ahmet Goktug Ertem, Gulhan Samur
We evaluated the relationship between nesfatin-1 and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and Mediterranean diet scores. 67 patients with AMI and 33 patients with normal coronary arteries (control group) were included in the study. The patients with AMI were divided into 2 groups based on low (<32) (n = 33) and high values of the synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with Taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) scores (≥34) (n = 35). Mediterranean diet score, serum nesfatin-1 concentrations and all other data were compared between the groups...
April 5, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30959143/peptide-conjugates-of-lactoferricin-analogues-and-antimicrobials-design-chemical-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-antimicrobial-activity-and-mammalian-cytotoxicity
#27
Natalia Ptaszyńska, Katarzyna Olkiewicz, Joanna Okońska, Katarzyna Gucwa, Anna Łęgowska, Agata Gitlin-Domagalska, Dawid Dębowski, Jan Lica, Mateusz Heldt, Sławomir Milewski, Tzi Bun Ng, Krzysztof Rolka
Eight new peptide conjugates composed of modified bovine lactoferricin truncated analogues (LFcinB) and one of the three antimicrobials - ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LVX), and fluconazole (FLC) - were synthesized. Four different linkers were applied to connect a peptide and an antimicrobial agent. The FLC-containing peptidic conjugates were synthesized using the "click chemistry" method. This novel approach is reported here for the first time. Unlike their components, CIP- and LVX-based conjugates exerted activity against Candida yeast...
April 5, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30954534/the-effect-of-apelin-13-on-pancreatic-islet-beta-cell-mass-and-myocardial-fatty-acid-and-glucose-metabolism-of-experimental-type-2-diabetic-rats
#28
Jinghui Feng, Hang Zhao, Mengze Du, Xiuping Wu
Apelin, a new identified adipokine, and its G protein-coupled receptor named APJ are widely expressed in various tissues. Apelin has been found to play important roles in the physiopathology of multiple diseases. Our aim is to assess the effect of long-term apelin treatment on serum insulin level and pancreatic islet beta-cell mass in the late stage of type 2 diabetes without hyperinsulinemia and to investigate the role of apelin in myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In the present study, the high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced experimental type 2 diabetic rats were given once daily intraperitoneal injection of apelin-13 (0...
April 4, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30953667/the-role-of-phoenixin-in-behavior-and-food-intake
#29
REVIEW
Martha A Schalla, Andreas Stengel
The recently discovered peptide phoenixin was initially implicated in reproduction as a regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary. Subsequently, various functions of phoenixin have been demonstrated including mediation of itching sensation, stimulation of vasopressin secretion, stimulation of white adipogenesis and hypothalamic nutrient sensing. Subsequently, additional actions of phoenixin have been described, namely effects on behavior...
April 3, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30959144/elabela-protects-against-podocyte-injury-in-mice-with-streptozocin-induced-diabetes-by-associating-with-the-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#30
Yixian Zhang, Yangwei Wang, Manyu Luo, Feng Xu, Yue Lu, Xiaoxi Zhou, Wenpeng Cui, Lining Miao
Diabetic nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes characterized by an increased rate of protein excretion in urine and kidney function loss. Elabela is a newly discovered peptide whose role in the regulation of diabetes is the major focus of this research. We established an in vivo model of Type 1 diabetes mellitus by injecting mice intraperitoneally with streptozotocin. The treatment group was administered Elabela for 6 months. In the present study, Elabela administration under diabetic conditions was found to reduce renal inflammation and fibrosis markers, leading to improvement in renal pathology and kidney dysfunction...
April 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30946859/neurokinin-1-receptor-antagonist-decreases-ca-2-i-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells-by-reducing-the-reverse-mode-na-ca-2-exchanger-current
#31
Miao Li, Yun-Xiao Shang
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is involved in asthma airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonist on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i) in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), ASMC contraction, and the effect on reverse-mode Na+ -Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) currents in ASMCs. In our study, primary rat ASMCs were cultured. ASMCs were identified by immunofluorescence. [Ca2+ ]i variations were measured by fluorescence microscopy...
April 1, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30930080/the-discovery-of-shorter-synthetic-proteolytic-peptides-derived-from-tob1-protein
#32
Rina Nakamura, Motomi Konishi, Masanari Taniguchi, Yusuke Hatakawa, Toshifumi Akizawa
We screened nearly 1000 synthetic peptides and found that JAL-AK22 (KYEGHWYPEKPYKGSGFRCIHI), which is derived from the BoxA domain in the Tob1 protein, activates both unfolded and folded proMMP-7. Interestingly, the smaller derivative of JAL-AK22, termed JAL-TA9 (YKGSGFRMI) possessed auto-proteolytic activity and cleaved three synthetic peptides fragment (MMP18-33, MMP18-40, and Aβ11-29) under physiological conditions. The kcat of JAL-TA9 was 4.58 × 10-4  min-1 against MMP18-33 and 6.5 × 10-4  min-1 against MMP18-40...
March 28, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30902557/satellite-symposium-of-to-the-13th-international-symposium-on-vip-pacap-and-related-peptides-in-macau
#33
EDITORIAL
Leo Tsz On Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 19, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890355/inflammatory-mediators-of-opioid-tolerance-implications-for-dependency-and-addiction
#34
REVIEW
Lori N Eidson, Anne Z Murphy
Each year, over 50 million Americans suffer from persistent pain, including debilitating headaches, joint pain, and severe back pain. Although morphine is amongst the most effective analgesics available for the management of severe pain, prolonged morphine treatment results in decreased analgesic efficacy (i.e., tolerance). Despite significant headway in the field, the mechanisms underlying the development of morphine tolerance are not well understood. The midbrain ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG) is a primary neural substrate for the analgesic effects of morphine, as well as for the development of morphine tolerance...
March 16, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890354/behavioral-effects-evoked-by-the-beta-globin-derived-nonapeptide-lvv-h6
#35
Kellen Rosa da Cruz, Danielle Ianzer, Larissa Córdova Turones, Lilian Liz Reis, Gabriel Camargo-Silva, Michelle Mendanha Mendonça, Elder Sales da Silva, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Carlos Henrique de Castro, Elson Alves Costa, Carlos H Xavier
LVV-hemorphin-6 (LVV-h6) is bioactive peptide and is a product of the degradation of hemoglobin. Since LVV-h6 effects are possibly mediated by opioid or AT4/IRAP receptors, we hypothesized that LVV-h6 would modify behavior. We evaluated whether LVV-h6 affects: i) anxiety-like behavior and locomotion; ii) depression-like behavior; iii) cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to emotional stress. Male Wistar rats ( ± 300 g) received LVV-h6 (153 nmol/kg i.p.) or vehicle (NaCl 0.9% i.p.). We used: i) open field (OF) test for locomotion; ii) elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behavior; iii) forced swimming test (FST) for depression-like behavior and iv) air jet for cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to stress...
March 16, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858089/peptides-with-therapeutic-potential-in-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-buthus-martensii-karsch
#36
REVIEW
Zhongjie Li, Ping Hu, Wenlan Wu, Yong Wang
The scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK) has generated significant interest due to the presence of biologically active peptides in its venom. In the past decade, dozens of different peptides from BmK have been identified. Most of the peptides are neurotoxins and are responsible for the toxicity of BmK venom. Other peptides, including neurotoxins and non-disulfide-bridged peptides, show potential anticancer, antimicrobial, analgesic, and anti-epileptic therapeutic effects. These peptides are attractive candidates for drug development, and peptide derivatives have also been designed to enhance their therapeutic potential, such as ADWX-1 and Kn2-7...
March 8, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30836111/enkephalin-related-peptides-are-released-from-jejum-wall-by-orally-ingested-bromelain
#37
Paulo Eduardo Orlandi-Mattos, Rodrigo Barbosa Aguiar, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Junior, Jane Zveiter Moraes, Elisaldo Luiz de Araujo Carlini, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Luiz Juliano
Stem bromelain [EC 3.4.22.32] is a thiol-endopeptidase and orally recommended in traditional medicine due to its analgesic activity, but the mechanisms are not known. Proenkephalin is expressed in the nervous system, but also in the gastrointestinal tract, where it can be assessed by ingested stem bromelain. Here we demonstrated that stem bromelain hydrolyses synthetic proenkephalin fragments after basic amino acid residues flanking the enkephalin sequences. We also observed with in vivo studies that oral administration of bromelain reduced jejunum proenkephalin levels and increased the serum enkephalin in mice...
March 2, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30831146/possible-application-of-trefoil-factor-family-peptides-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-and-barrett-s-esophagus
#38
REVIEW
Adam Fabisiak, Adrian Bartoszek, Grzegorz Kardas, Natalia Fabisiak, Jakub Fichna
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic disorder of the digestive tract characterised mainly by a heartburn. Being one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases, the prevalence of GERD reaches up to 25.9% in Europe. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is an acquired condition characterized by the replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium with metaplastic columnar epithelium. BE is believed to develop mainly from chronic GERD and is the most important risk factor of esophageal adenocarcinoma...
March 1, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779927/association-of-copeptin-a-surrogate-marker-for-arginine-vasopressin-secretion-with-insulin-resistance-influence-of-adolescence-and-psychological-stress
#39
Camilla F Thomsen, Rasmus Dreier, Tina S Goharian, Jens P Goetze, Lars B Andersen, Jens Faber, Mathias Ried-Larsen, Anders Grøntved, Jørgen L Jeppesen
In middle-aged and elderly individuals, circulating copeptin concentrations, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, associates with insulin resistance (IR). Whether this association is present in adolescents and young adults is unclear. Because psychological stress associates with higher circulating copeptin concentrations and IR, it has been speculated that increased AVP secretion could be a link between psychological stress and IR. We measured plasma copeptin concentrations in 351 14-16-year-old adolescents and 617 20-28-year-old young adults from the Danish site of the European Youth Heart Study, a population-based cardiovascular risk factor study in adolescents and young adults...
February 16, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776385/antiaflatoxigenic-effects-of-selected-antifungal-peptides
#40
Manju S Devi, R B Sashidhar
Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic mycotoxins produced as secondary metabolites mainly by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Control measures to curtail the contamination of aflatoxin in food products is still a challenge. Although there are several reports on the antifungal peptides, there is no specific study on the action of antifungal peptides on aflatoxin synthesis. This work details the effect of four antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) - PPD1 (FRLHF), 66-10 (FRLKFH), 77-3 (FRLKFHF) and D4E1 (FKLRAKIKVRLRAKIKL) on the aflatoxin production by A...
February 15, 2019: Peptides
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