Peptides | Page 2

Byung Mun Park, Hoang Thi Ai Phuong, Weijian Li, Suhn Hee Kim
Angiotensin (Ang) A differs from Ang II in a single N-terminal alanine residue. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the effects of Ang A on postischemic cardiac injury and hemodynamics differ from Ang II. After euthanizing Sprague-Dawley rats, hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit buffer for a 20 min preischemic period with or without Ang A or Ang II, followed by 20 min global ischemia and 50 min reperfusion. The blood pressure was measured in anesthetized rats. Ang A (0.1, 1.0, 10 μg/kg) deteriorated the postischemic left ventricular hemodynamics in a dose-dependent manner, which was similar to that by Ang II...
March 10, 2020: Peptides
Mohan Patil, Nitin J Deshmukh, Mahesh Patel, Ganesh V Sangle
Diabesity and its related cardio-hepato-renal complications are of absolute concern globally. Last decade has witnessed a growing interest in the scientific community in investigating novel pharmaco-therapies employing the pancreatic hormone, glucagon. Canonically, this polypeptide hormone is known for its use in rescue treatment for hypoglycaemic shocks owing to its involvement in the counter-regulatory feedback mechanism. However, substantial studies in the recent past elucidated the pleiotropic effects of glucagon in diabesity and related complications like non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
March 5, 2020: Peptides
Keita Sasaki, Sebok Kumar Halder, Hayato Matsunaga, Hiroshi Ueda
Prothymosin alpha (ProTα)-mimetic hexapeptide (amino acid: NEVDQE, P6Q) inhibits cerebral or retinal ischemia-induced behavioral, electrophysiological and histological damage. P6Q also abolishes cerebral hemorrhage induced by ischemia with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). In the present study we examined the beneficial effects of P6Q on other post-stroke prognostic psychology-related symptoms, which obstruct the motivation toward physical therapy. Intravenous (i.v.) administration with tPA (10 mg/kg) at 6 h after photochemically induced thrombosis (PIT) in mice resulted in bilateral central post-stroke pain in thermal and mechanical nociception tests and loss of social activity in the nest building test, both of which were significantly blocked by P6Q (30 mg/kg, i...
April 2020: Peptides
Vincent Marks
This paper describes the early history of Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide, better referred to simply as GIP, from its isolation by purification from a crude preparation of CCK-PZ (cholecystokinin/pancreozymin) to its recognition as a key play in the pathogenesis of obesity and other metabolic disorders far removed from the enterogastrone properties by which it was originally identified. Augmentation of glucose mediated insulin release, the incretin effect, was discovered soon after GIP was first isolated and only much later was its important role in the pathogenesis of obesity, through mechanism other than its insulin secretion, appreciated...
March 2020: Peptides
R Charlotte Moffett, Violetta Naughton
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) is best known as an incretin hormone released by enteroendocrine K-cells in response to feeding and stimulates insulin release to regulate blood glucose and nutrient homeostasis. More recently GIP has been ascribed a positive role in lipid metabolism, bone strength, cardiovascular function and cognition. The present paper considers an emerging role of GIP and related gut hormones in fertility and especially polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). Key evidence concerns restoration of fertility in women with gross obesity and PCOS following bariatric surgery...
March 2020: Peptides
Renate Luzía Barbosa-Yañez, Mariya Markova, Ulrike Dambeck, Caroline Honsek, Jürgen Machann, Rita Schüler, Stefan Kabisch, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
The gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor (GIPR) regulates postprandial metabolism. In this context GIPR SNP rs10423928 seems toplay an important role in modulating glucose metabolism and insulinsensitivity. However, evidence regarding thisparticular SNP is still vague. In this study, we collected baseline data from four different dietaryintervention studies. We genotyped 424 subjects with prediabetes and 73with diabetes for GIPR SNP rs10423928 and examined its impact on glucosemetabolism, insulin sensitivity and body fat accumulation...
March 2020: Peptides
Farnaz Keyhani-Nejad, Renate Luisa Barbosa Yanez, Margrit Kemper, Rita Schueler, Olga Pivovarova-Ramich, Natalia Rudovich, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
GIP was proposed to play a key role in the development of non- alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in response to sugar intake. Isomaltulose, is a 1,6-linked glucose-fructose dimer which improves glucose homeostasis and prevents NAFLD compared to 1,2-linked sucrose by reducing glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) in mice. We compared effects of sucrose vs. isomaltulose on GIP and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion, hepatic insulin clearance (HIC) and insulin sensitivity in normal (NGT), impaired glucose tolerant (IGT) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) participants...
March 2020: Peptides
Shichun Li, Bo Shi, Kexin Huang, Ying Wang
Insulin has many important biological functions. Insulin interacts with the insulin receptor (IR) to play its physiological role and execute its functions. Here, we isolated porcine hepatocytes from young and aged pigs, which endogenously express the IR, as a model to study the intracellular signalling properties and cellular behaviour of insulin with aging. Firstly, we analysed the intracellular signal transduction that is triggered by insulin in porcine hepatocytes that were isolated from young and aged pigs and found that insulin can strongly activate insulin receptor subunit (IRS), protein kinase B (AKT), and GSK in a time- and dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes from young pigs...
February 25, 2020: Peptides
P de Gortari, V Alcántara-Alonso, G Matamoros-Trejo, M I Amaya, E Alvarez-Salas
Early-life overfeeding (OF) disrupts neuroendocrine systems, energy homeostasis and food intake regulation inducing overeating and overweight in adults. Adult rats raised in small litters during lactation, display hyperphagia and overweight since weaning and exhibit a decrease in thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) mRNA expression in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). This is counterintuitive because TRH expression should increase to activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis and promote energy expenditure, thus, HPT axis seems inhibited in OF rats...
February 24, 2020: Peptides
Qiaoling Wang, Kathrin I Liszt, Inge Depoortere
Taste perception on the tongue is essential to help us to identify nutritious or potential toxic food substances. Emerging evidence has demonstrated the expression and function of bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) in a wide range of extra-oral tissues. In particular, TAS2Rs in gastrointestinal enteroendocrine cells control the secretion of appetite regulating gut hormones and influence hunger and food intake. Furthermore, these effects may be reinforced by the presence of TAS2Rs on intestinal smooth muscle cells, adipocytes and the brain...
February 21, 2020: Peptides
Fengmei Wei, Long Zhao, Yuhong Jing
Evidence accumulated over the past decades has revealed that red blood cells and hemoglobin (Hb) in the blood play important roles in modulating moods and emotions. The number of red blood cells affects the mood. Hb is the principal content in the red blood cells besides water. Denatured Hb is hydrolyzed to produce bioactive peptides. RVD-hemopressin α (RVD-Hpα), which is a fragment of α-chain (95-103) in Hb, functions as a negative allosteric modulator of cannabinoid receptor 1 and a positive allosteric modulator of cannabinoid receptor 2...
February 15, 2020: Peptides
Seyda Yavuzkir, Kader Ugur, Rulin Deniz, Dondu Ulker Ustebay, Miyase Mirzaoglu, Meltem Yardim, İbrahim Sahin, Yakup Baykus, Zuhal Karaca Karagoz, Suleyman Aydin
Subfatin and spexin are two novel adipokines implicated in glucose homeostasis. This study was designed to investigate changes in blood subfatin and spexin levels during gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and childbirth, and define the mechanisms of these hormones in the physiopathology of GDM. A total of 60 pregnant women, comprising 30 diagnosed with GDM and 30 with normal gestation, were included in the study. The diagnosis of GDM was made through a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) administered between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy...
February 14, 2020: Peptides
Jorge Berlanga-Acosta, Ileidys Iglesias-Marichal, Nadia Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Yssel Mendoza-Marí, Ariana García-Ojalvo, Maday Fernández-Mayola, Raymond J Playford
The insulin signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in glucose metabolism and metabolic homeostasis. Disruption of this pathway is commonly seen in critical illness such as following severe burn injuries where homeostatic control is lost, leading to "insulin resistance" with poor blood glucose control. The aberrant signaling pathways involved in insulin resistance following burn injury include increases in hyperglycemic stress hormones, pro-inflammatory cytokines and free radical production. Leakage of mitochondrial sequestered self-antigens and signaling between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum also contribute to insulin resistance...
February 8, 2020: Peptides
David Holmes, Michael Corr, Gavin Thomas, Mark Harbinson, Malcolm Campbell, Paul Spiers, David Bell
Proliferation of pulmonary fibroblasts (PF) and distal migration of smooth muscle cells (PSM) are hallmarks of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Intermedin/adrenomedullin-2 (IMD/AM2) belongs to the Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP)/Adrenomedullin (AM) superfamily. These peptides act via Calcitonin-Like Receptors (CLR) combined with one of three Receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). IMD/AM2 is a potent pulmonary vasodilator in animal studies. The aim was to describe expression of IMD/AM2, AM and receptor components in human pulmonary vascular cells and to elucidate effects of IMD/AM2 on human PSM migration and PF proliferation...
February 1, 2020: Peptides
Peter R Flatt, J Michael Conlon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 28, 2020: Peptides
Anshul Panjeta, Simran Preet
The escalating predicament of multidrug resistant cancer cells and associated side effects of conventional chemotherapy necessitates the exploration of alternative anticancer therapies. The present study evaluated anticancer therapeutic potential of human defensin 5 (HD-5) against colon cancer. The in vivo anticancer efficacy of HD-5 against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon cancer was elucidated in terms of tumor biostatistics, number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), in situ apoptosis assay,changes in morphological as well as histological architecture of colon(s)...
January 22, 2020: Peptides
Ming-Jie Yuan, Tao Wang
Autophagy is associated with several diseases. In recent years, accumulating evidence has suggested that ghrelin pathway exerts a protective effect by regulating autophagy. This review aims to assess the potential role and use of ghrelin as a new treatment for obesity, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NFALD), neurodegenerative diseases, and tissue damage associated with autophagy. Ghrelin reduces the basal expression of autophagy-related genes in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes and ghrelin level changes in obesity, heart failure, and NFALD as well as altered autophagy...
January 22, 2020: Peptides
Richard J Bodnar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2020: Peptides
A G McCloskey, M G Miskelly, C B T McMullen, M A Nesbit, K A Christie, A I Owolabi, P R Flatt, A M McKillop
G-protein coupled receptor-55 (GPR55), an endocannabinoid receptor, is a novel anti-diabetic target. This study aimed to assess the metabolic functionality of GPR55 ligands using CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to determine their regulatory role in beta cell function and incretin-secreting enteroendocrine cells. A clonal Gpr55 knockout beta cell line was generated by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing to investigate insulin secretion and Gpr55 signalling. Acute effects of GPR55 agonists were investigated in high fat fed (HFD) diabetic HsdOla:TO (Swiss TO) mice...
January 7, 2020: Peptides
Michael Kruse, Farnaz Keyhani-Nejad, Martin A Osterhoff, Andreas F H Pfeiffer
Obesity has a multifactorial origin. It is known that alterations of the intra uterine milieu induce developmental programming effects leading to metabolic diseases in offspring. Obesity is diminished in mice lacking the glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (Gipr-/- ) when exposed to a high fat diet (HFD). We investigated whether Gipr-/- mice are still protected from obesity when additionally exposure to a HFD during pregnancy and lactation occurs. Male and female wild type (WT) and Gipr-/- offspring received either a control/ low fat diet or HFD during pregnancy and lactation and were then either left on this diet or placed on the opposite diet after weaning until 24 weeks of life...
January 5, 2020: Peptides
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