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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30890354/behavioral-effects-evoked-by-the-beta-globin-derived-nonapeptide-lvv-h6
#21
Kellen Rosa da Cruz, Danielle Ianzer, Larissa Córdova Turones, Lilian Liz Reis, Gabriel Camargo-Silva, Michelle Mendanha Mendonça, Elder Sales da Silva, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Carlos Henrique de Castro, Elson Alves Costa, Carlos H Xavier
LVV-hemorphin-6 (LVV-h6) is bioactive peptide and is a product of the degradation of hemoglobin. Since LVV-h6 effects are possibly mediated by opioid or AT4/IRAP receptors, we hypothesized that LVV-h6 would modify behavior. We evaluated whether LVV-h6 affects: i) anxiety-like behavior and locomotion; ii) depression-like behavior; iii) cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to emotional stress. Male Wistar rats ( ± 300 g) received LVV-h6 (153 nmol/kg i.p.) or vehicle (NaCl 0.9% i.p.). We used: i) open field (OF) test for locomotion; ii) elevated plus maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behavior; iii) forced swimming test (FST) for depression-like behavior and iv) air jet for cardiovascular and neuroendocrine reactivity to stress...
March 16, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30858089/peptides-with-therapeutic-potential-in-the-venom-of-the-scorpion-buthus-martensii-karsch
#22
REVIEW
Zhongjie Li, Ping Hu, Wenlan Wu, Yong Wang
The scorpion Buthus martensii Karsch (BmK) has generated significant interest due to the presence of biologically active peptides in its venom. In the past decade, dozens of different peptides from BmK have been identified. Most of the peptides are neurotoxins and are responsible for the toxicity of BmK venom. Other peptides, including neurotoxins and non-disulfide-bridged peptides, show potential anticancer, antimicrobial, analgesic, and anti-epileptic therapeutic effects. These peptides are attractive candidates for drug development, and peptide derivatives have also been designed to enhance their therapeutic potential, such as ADWX-1 and Kn2-7...
March 8, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30836111/enkephalin-related-peptides-are-released-from-jejum-wall-by-orally-ingested-bromelain
#23
Paulo Eduardo Orlandi-Mattos, Rodrigo Barbosa Aguiar, Itabajara da Silva Vaz Junior, Jane Zveiter Moraes, Elisaldo Luiz de Araujo Carlini, Maria Aparecida Juliano, Luiz Juliano
Stem bromelain [EC 3.4.22.32] is a thiol-endopeptidase and orally recommended in traditional medicine due to its analgesic activity, but the mechanisms are not known. Proenkephalin is expressed in the nervous system, but also in the gastrointestinal tract, where it can be assessed by ingested stem bromelain. Here we demonstrated that stem bromelain hydrolyses synthetic proenkephalin fragments after basic amino acid residues flanking the enkephalin sequences. We also observed with in vivo studies that oral administration of bromelain reduced jejunum proenkephalin levels and increased the serum enkephalin in mice...
March 2, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30831146/possible-application-of-trefoil-factor-family-peptides-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-and-barrett-s-esophagus
#24
REVIEW
Adam Fabisiak, Adrian Bartoszek, Grzegorz Kardas, Natalia Fabisiak, Jakub Fichna
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a chronic disorder of the digestive tract characterised mainly by a heartburn. Being one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases, the prevalence of GERD reaches up to 25.9% in Europe. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is an acquired condition characterized by the replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium with metaplastic columnar epithelium. BE is believed to develop mainly from chronic GERD and is the most important risk factor of esophageal adenocarcinoma...
March 1, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30954533/the-influence-of-high-fat-diet-on-plasma-incretins-and-insulin-concentrations-in-sprague-dawley-rats-with-diet-induced-obesity-and-glucose-intolerance-undergoing-ileal-transposition
#25
Tomasz Sawczyn, Dominika Stygar, Katarzyna Nabrdalik, Michał Kukla, Bronisława Skrzep-Poloczek, Bartosz Wesołowski, Ewa Olszańska, Agnieszka Dulska, Janusz Gumprecht, Wojciech Konrad Karcz, Jerzy Jochem
BACKGROUND: The benefits of IT surgery are based on incretin effects. In this study we show the influence of high fat diet (HFD) used both before and after surgery, on ileal transposition (IT) effects. METHODS: Forty-eight male rats were assigned to two groups: HFD and control diet (CD) fed rats. After eight weeks, HFD and CD fed rats were randomly assigned to two types of surgery: IT and SHAM, then for 50% of animals of each group the diet was changed, whereas the other 50% received the same type of diet...
May 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30779927/association-of-copeptin-a-surrogate-marker-for-arginine-vasopressin-secretion-with-insulin-resistance-influence-of-adolescence-and-psychological-stress
#26
Camilla F Thomsen, Rasmus Dreier, Tina S Goharian, Jens P Goetze, Lars B Andersen, Jens Faber, Mathias Ried-Larsen, Anders Grøntved, Jørgen L Jeppesen
In middle-aged and elderly individuals, circulating copeptin concentrations, a surrogate marker for arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, associates with insulin resistance (IR). Whether this association is present in adolescents and young adults is unclear. Because psychological stress associates with higher circulating copeptin concentrations and IR, it has been speculated that increased AVP secretion could be a link between psychological stress and IR. We measured plasma copeptin concentrations in 351 14-16-year-old adolescents and 617 20-28-year-old young adults from the Danish site of the European Youth Heart Study, a population-based cardiovascular risk factor study in adolescents and young adults...
February 16, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30776385/antiaflatoxigenic-effects-of-selected-antifungal-peptides
#27
Manju S Devi, R B Sashidhar
Aflatoxins are potent carcinogenic mycotoxins produced as secondary metabolites mainly by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Control measures to curtail the contamination of aflatoxin in food products is still a challenge. Although there are several reports on the antifungal peptides, there is no specific study on the action of antifungal peptides on aflatoxin synthesis. This work details the effect of four antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) - PPD1 (FRLHF), 66-10 (FRLKFH), 77-3 (FRLKFHF) and D4E1 (FKLRAKIKVRLRAKIKL) on the aflatoxin production by A...
February 15, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772446/microinjection-of-26rfa-an-endogenous-ligand-for-the-glutamine-rf-amide-peptide-receptor-qrfp-receptor-into-the-rostral-ventromedial-medulla-rvm-locus-coelureus-lc-and-periaqueductal-grey-pag-produces-an-analgesic-effect-in-rats
#28
Koji Yoshida, Takahiro Nonaka, Shingo Nakamura, Miki Araki, Tatsuo Yamamoto
26RFa is an endogenous ligand for the QRFP receptor. We previously found that intracerebroventricular injection of 26RFa produces an analgesic effect in a rat formalin test. In the present study, we directly tested the hypothesis that the analgesic effects of 26RFa in the formalin test are mediated in well-recognized regions of the descending inhibitory pain pathways, such as the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), locus coeruleus (LC), and periaqueductal grey (PAG) in rats. Injection cannulae were stereotaxically placed in the RVM, LC, or PAG through a burr hole...
February 14, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30771371/validation-of-antibody-based-assays-for-regulatory-peptides-do-it-once-get-it-right-and-exploit-the-under-appreciated-benefit-of-long-term-antibody-stability
#29
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738838/fungi-derived-lipopeptide-antibiotics-developed-since-2000
#30
REVIEW
Pengchao Zhao, Yun Xue, Xin Li, Jinghua Li, Zhanqin Zhao, Chunshan Quan, Weina Gao, Xiangyang Zu, Xuefei Bai, Shuxiao Feng
Lipopeptide antibiotics have linear or cyclic structures with one or more hydrocarbon tails linked to the N-terminus of a short oligopeptide that may be chemically modified and/or contain unusual amino acid residues in their structures. They possess huge potential as pharmaceutical drugs and biocontrol agents, and ˜30 representative genera of fungi are known to produce them. Some chemically synthesised derivatives have already been developed into commercial products or subjected to clinical trials, including cilofungin, caspofungin, micafungin, anidulafungin, rezafungin, emodepside, fusafungine and destruxins...
February 7, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30721716/orexin-a-modulates-prolactin-production-by-regulating-bmp-4-activity-in-rat-pituitary-lactotorope-cells
#31
Satoshi Fujisawa, Motoshi Komatsubara, Kanako Ogura-Ochi, Naoko Tsukamoto-Yamauchi, Kishio Toma, Kenichi Inagaki, Jun Wada, Fumio Otsuka
The impact of orexins on anterior pituitary function has yet to be clarified. We studied the effects of orexin A and its interaction with the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) system on the regulatory role of prolactin synthesis using rat lactotrope GH3 cells expressing BMP-4. Orexin type 1 receptor (OX1R), but not type 2 receptor (OX2R), was predominantly expressed in GH3 cells. Orexin A suppressed forskolin-induced, but not basal, prolactin mRNA expression without reducing cAMP levels. Of note, orexin A suppressed BMP-4-induced prolactin mRNA and cAMP synthesis...
February 2, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30716355/the-effects-of-both-age-and-sex-on-irisin-levels-in-paired-plasma-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-healthy-humans
#32
Qingwei Ruan, Yun Huang, Lvjun Yang, Jian Ruan, Weidong Gu, Xixue Zhang, Ying Zhang, Weibin Zhang, Zhuowei Yu
BACKGROUND: Adipo-myokine irisin has important effects on the metabolism and functioning of multiple tissues and organs. However, the effects of aging and sex on irisin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and on circulation have not been comprehensively studied. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether aging and sex can affect irisin levels in both CSF and plasma; to determine whether CSF irisin uptake involves a saturable transport mechanism. DESIGN AND METHODS: In the present study, the irisin levels in paired CSF and plasma samples drawn from 71 healthy individuals were used to investigate effects by using commercial ELISA kits and mass spectrometry...
February 1, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30557590/exploiting-endogenous-opioids-lessons-learned-from-endomorphin-2-in-the-female-rat
#33
Alan R Gintzler, Nai-Jiang Liu, Emiliya M Storman, Martin W Wessendorf
Effective management of chronic pain is demanded by ethical as well as medical considerations. Although opioid analgesics remain among the most effective pharmacotherapies for ameliorating many types of pain, their use is clouded by concerns regarding their addictive properties, underscored by the current epidemic of prescription opioid abuse and attendant deaths. Medicinal harnessing of endogenous opioid antinociception could provide a strategy for continuing to take advantage of the powerful antinociceptive properties of opioids while avoiding their abuse potential...
February 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660763/the-l-cell-transcriptome-is-unaffected-by-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-but-highly-dependent-upon-position-within-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#34
Katherine A Rollins, Lennart Opitz, Myrtha Arnold, Eric Simon, Heike Neubauer, Susanne Wolfrum
Altered GLP-1 secretion from L cells has been implicated in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its resolution following bariatric surgery. However, changes in L cell gene expression, which may form the basis for altered functionality after high fat diet (HFD) or bariatric surgery, have either not been investigated or have given conflicting results. We developed a gcg-DTR-eGFP reporter mouse to isolate ileal and colonic L cells from HFD fed insulin resistant mice and mice showing improved glucose tolerance following vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG)...
January 17, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30610885/host-defense-peptides-ac12-dk16-and-rc11-with-immunomodulatory-activity-isolated-from-hypsiboas-raniceps-skin-secretion
#35
Cláudia S F C Popov, Beatriz Simas Magalhães, Brian James Goodfellow, Anamélia Lorenzetti Bocca, David M Pereira, Paula B Andrade, Patrícia Valentão, Pedro José Barbosa Pereira, João Eduardo Rodrigues, Paulo H de Holanda Veloso, Taia M B Rezende
Inflammation is a natural defense mechanism of the immune system; however, when unregulated, it can lead to chronic illness. Glucocorticoids are the most commonly used agents to effectively treat inflammatory conditions, including autoimmune diseases, however these substances can trigger a number of side effects. Thus, viable alternatives to the use of these drugs would be advantageous. In this study, we have analyzed the anti-inflammatory profile of three synthetic peptides first identified in skin secretion of the tree frog Hypsiboas raniceps...
January 2, 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30120963/natriuretic-peptides-in-human-heart-novel-insight-into-their-molecular-forms-functions-and-diagnostic-use
#36
REVIEW
Ayaka Matsuo, Chiaki Nagai-Okatani, Mitsuhiro Nishigori, Kenji Kangawa, Naoto Minamino
Among the three natriuretic peptides, atrial/A-type natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain/B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) are primarily produced by, and secreted from, heart tissue. They maintain cardiovascular homeostasis by binding to natriuretic peptide receptor-A. Since plasma ANP and BNP concentrations, as well as expression, are elevated in response to increased body fluid volume and pressure load on the heart wall, these peptides are widely utilized as diagnostic biomarkers for evaluating heart failure...
January 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29859763/atrial-and-brain-natriuretic-peptides-hormones-secreted-from-the-heart
#37
REVIEW
Yasuaki Nakagawa, Toshio Nishikimi, Koichiro Kuwahara
The natriuretic peptide family consists of three biologically active peptides: atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), brain (or B-type) natriuretic peptide (BNP), and C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Among these, ANP and BNP are secreted by the heart and act as cardiac hormones. Both ANP and BNP preferentially bind to natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A or guanylyl cyslase-A) and exert similar effects through increases in intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) within target tissues. Expression and secretion of ANP and BNP are stimulated by various factors and are regulated via multiple signaling pathways...
January 2019: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30590076/differential-effects-of-hypo-and-hyperthyroidism-on-remodeling-of-contacts-between-neurons-expressing-the-neuropeptide-ei-and-tyrosine-hydroxylase-in-hypothalamic-areas-of-the-male-rat
#38
Carolina Ayala, Gisela E Pennacchio, Marta Soaje, Jackson C Bittencourt, María E Celis, Graciela Jahn, Susana R Valdez, Alicia M Seltzer
The Neuropeptide EI (NEI, glutamic acid- isoleucine amide) participates in neuroendocrine function. Previously we demonstrated that NEI concentration is regulated by thyroid hormones in discrete hypothalamic areas in rats. We observed that the thyroid status affects the dopaminergic regulation of the pituitary hormones. In this study we explored possible interactions between NEI and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) containing elements in selected hypothalamic areas of male rats. Neuronal somas, terminals and boutons were assessed by confocal microscopy, in hypo- and hyperthyroid animals...
December 24, 2018: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30586602/the-polymyxin-derivative-nab739-is-synergistic-with-several-antibiotics-against-polymyxin-resistant-strains-of-escherichia-coli-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-acinetobacter-baumannii
#39
Jonathan M Tyrrell, Ali F Aboklaish, Timothy R Walsh, Timo Vaara, Martti Vaara
The antibiotic crisis has reinstated polymyxins, once abandoned because of their toxicity. Now, preclinical studies have revealed better tolerated and more effective derivatives of polymyxins such as NAB739. Simultaneously, polymyxin-resistant (PMR) strains such as the mcr-1 strains have received lots of justified publicity, even though they are still very rare. Here we show that NAB739 sensitizes the PMR strains to rifampin, a classic "anti-Gram-positive" antibiotic excluded by the intact outer membrane (OM) permeability barrier, as well as to retapamulin, the surrogate of lefamulin, an antibiotic under development against Gram-positive bacteria...
December 23, 2018: Peptides
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30582943/superoxide-anions-modulate-the-performance-of-apelin-in-the-paraventricular-nucleus-on-sympathetic-activity-and-blood-pressure-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#40
Yuewu Zhao, Yong Li, Zhengzhang Li, Bing Xu, Peng Chen, Xiangjun Yang
The present study was designed to determine how apelin in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) modulates the renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), arterial blood pressure (ABP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR), and whether superoxide anions regulate the performance of PVN apelin in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Acute experiment was carried out with 13-week-old male Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHRs under anaesthesia. RSNA, ABP, MAP and HR after PVN microinjection were measured. Apelin microinjection into PVN increased RSNA, ABP, MAP and HR in WKY rats and SHRs, more obviously in SHRs...
December 21, 2018: Peptides
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