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C L Román, B Maiztegui, M V Mencucci, L Ahrtz, M Algañarás, Zotto H Del, J J Gagliardino, L E Flores
BACKGROUND: Pharmacology has provided efficient tools to improve insulin effect/secretion but the decrease in β-cell mass remains elusive. INGAP-PP could provide a therapeutic alternative to meet that challenge. AIM: To further understand the mechanism that links INGAP-PP effects upon β-cell mass and function with islet angiogenesis. METHODOLOGY: Normal male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups and injected with a single dose of 100 mg/Kg suramin or saline...
May 20, 2019: Peptides
Elham Haghparast, Vahid Sheibani, Mehdi Abbasnejad, Saeed Esmaeili-Mahani
The striatum plays a critical role in motor control and also learning and memory of motor skills. It has been reported that striatal synaptic components are significantly decreased in dopaminergic-denervated striatum. In this study the effects of apelin-13 were investigated on motor disorders and striatal synaptosomal expression of PSD-95, neurexin1, neuroligin, metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu R1) and dopaminergic receptors (DR1 and DR2) in rat parkinsonism experimental model. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) was injected into the substantia nigra...
May 20, 2019: Peptides
Allison B Reiss, Daniel S Glass, Eric Lam, Amy D Glass, Joshua De Leon, Lora J Kasselman
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death worldwide, despite multiple treatment options. In addition to elevated lipid levels, oxidative stress and inflammation are key factors driving atherogenesis and CVD. New strategies are required to mitigate risk and most urgently for statin-intolerant patients. The neuropeptide hormone oxytocin, synthesized in the brain hypothalamus, is worthy of consideration as a CVD ancillary treatment because it moderates factors directly linked to atherosclerotic CVD such as inflammation, weight gain, food intake and insulin resistance...
May 18, 2019: Peptides
Richard J Bodnar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2019: Peptides
Richard J Bodnar
This review is part of a special issue dedicated to Opioid addiction, and examines the influential role of opioid peptides, opioid receptors and opiate drugs in mediating food intake and body weight control in rodents. This review postulates that opioid mediation of food intake was an example of "positive addictive" properties that provide motivational drives to maintain opioid-seeking behavior and that are not subject to the "negative addictive" properties associated with tolerance, dependence and withdrawal...
April 30, 2019: Peptides
Jason Sai Wun On, Aloysius Wilfred Raj Arokiaraj, Billy Kwok Chong Chow
Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is well-cited for its important role in governing the stress responses via neuroendocrine system in vertebrates. After the identification of homologs of CRH receptor (CRHR) in both deuterostome and arthropod lineages, it was suggested that the ancestral homolog of CRH-CRHR molecular system is present in the bilaterian. However, homolog sequences from arthropods differ considerably from vertebrate CRH-like peptide sequences. Due to the significant difference between the biological system, as well as the gene regulatory network, of protostome and that of vertebrate, physiological studies on the protostomes may not provide important insight into the evolutionary history of vertebrate CRH system, while tunicate and amphioxus, two close relatives to vertebrate, which have diverged before two rounds of whole genome duplication (2WGDs) do...
April 28, 2019: Peptides
Bing-Yin Sun, Zheng-Ping Sun, Zu-Cai Pang, Wei-Tao Huang, Shao-Peng Wu
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury-induced cartilage degeneration is the key risk factor for post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTKOA).Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), a common neuropeptide exerting a wide spectrum of functions, has been proved to inhibit inflammation and prevent cartilage degeneration. OBJECTIVE: The current study was performed to investigate circulating and synovial fluid PACAP concentrations in ACL injury patients to determine their relationship with the disease progression of the severity of post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (PTKOA)...
April 27, 2019: Peptides
Xu Lijun, Pan Luqing, Xin Zhang, Wei Cun
Recombinant Litopenaeus vannamei CHH (rLvCHH) was obtained from a bacterial expression system and the intracellular signaling pathways involved in exocytosis and immune response after rLvCHH injection (0.2 and 2 μg/shrimp) was investigated in this study. The results showed that CHH contents increased 51.4%-110.2% (0.2 μg/shrimp) and 65.0%-211.3% (2 μg/shrimp) of the control level. And the contents of three biogenic amines in hemolymph presented a similar variation pattern after rLvCHH injection, but reached the highest level at different time points...
April 26, 2019: Peptides
Giuseppe Tringali, Pierluigi Navarra
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a peptide neurotransmitter with potent vasodilating properties. CGRP is believed to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of migraine. As such, CGRP and its receptors are obvious druggable targets for novel anti-migraine agents. While the development of small-molecule CGRP receptor antagonists started first, none of these agents is yet available in clinical practice. Conversely, both anti-CGRP and anti-CGRP receptor monoclonal antibodies (mABs) completed clinical development, and the first representatives of these 2 classes are available on the market...
April 21, 2019: Peptides
Kate L Lee, Jacqueline F Aitken, Huai-L Hsu, Geoffrey M Williams, Margaret A Brimble, Garth J S Cooper
Pancreatic islet-derived peptide hormones play key roles in the maintenance of systemic energy homeostasis and glucose balance, and defects in their regulation are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. Peptides have also been used as lead compounds for therapeutics targeting metabolic disease. It is therefore important to understand the activity and function of islet hormones in both their target tissues and the whole organism. Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) is an insulin homolog secreted by the islet β-cells...
April 21, 2019: Peptides
Victor J Hruby
The current opioid crisis has created a tragic problem in medicine and society. Pain is the most ubiquitous and costly disease in society and yet all of our "treatments" have toxicities, especially for prolonged use. However, there are several alternatives that have been discovered in the past fifteen years that have been demonstrated in animals to have none of the toxicities of current drugs. Many of the compounds are multivalent and have novel biological activity profiles. Unfortunately, none of these have been in clinical trials in humans, perhaps because they were discovered in academic laboratories...
April 20, 2019: Peptides
Susumu Tanaka, Yutaka Matsushita, Yoshinosuke Hamada, Naomasa Kawaguchi, Takasuke Usuki, Yuhki Yokoyama, Tadataka Tsuji, Hirofumi Yamamoto, Mikihiko Kogo
Oral and maxillofacial skeletal muscles are critical for oral motor functions, and severe damage to these muscles by trauma or surgery may lead to persistent functional impairment. This study investigated the effects of SVVYGLR (SV) peptide, a thrombin-cleaved osteopontin-derived motif, on histopathological wound healing and functional repair after severe injury of skeletal muscles. A rat model of volumetric muscle loss bilateral masseter muscle was developed. A single dose of SV-peptide or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was separately injected into the injured muscle belly...
April 17, 2019: Peptides
Caio Victor M F do Nascimento, Celimar Sinezia, Thayna Sisnande, Luís Maurício T R Lima, Paulo G S Lacativa
Amylin analogs are important adjunctive drugs in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, a dual therapy with insulin involves inconvenient multiple injections. Here we describe a novel n-terminal PEGylated human amylin analog - BZ043 - and its potential to improve the control of glycemia using lower doses of insulin. The effect of BZ043 over the insulin-mediated control of fed-glycemia was investigated in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes treated with the basal analog glargine (GLAR). Fasted rats (3 h) received a single treatment of BZ043 (16, 64 or 128 nmol/kg), GLAR (1...
April 14, 2019: Peptides
Ramu Periyasamy, Subhankar Das, Kailash N Pandey
The objective of the present study was to determine whether targeted-disruption of Npr1 gene (encoding for guanylyl cyclase/natriuretic peptide receptor-A; GC-A/NPRA) upregulates pro(renin) receptor (P)RR expression and leads to the activation of MAPKs in Npr1 gene-knockout mice. The Npr1 homozygous (Npr1-/- ; 0-copy), heterozygous (Npr1+/- ; 1-copy), wild-type (Npr1+/+ ; 2-copy), and gene-duplicated (Npr1++/++ ; 4-copy) mice were utilized. To identify the canonical pathway of (P)RR, we administered ACE-1 inhibitor (captopril), AT1R blocker (losartan), and MAPKs inhibitors (U0126 and SB203580) to all Npr1 mice genotypes...
April 6, 2019: Peptides
Aliye Kuyumcu, Mevlut Serdar Kuyumcu, Mustafa Bilal Ozbay, Ahmet Goktug Ertem, Gulhan Samur
We evaluated the relationship between nesfatin-1 and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and Mediterranean diet scores. 67 patients with AMI and 33 patients with normal coronary arteries (control group) were included in the study. The patients with AMI were divided into 2 groups based on low (<32) (n = 33) and high values of the synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with Taxus and cardiac surgery (SYNTAX) scores (≥34) (n = 35). Mediterranean diet score, serum nesfatin-1 concentrations and all other data were compared between the groups...
April 5, 2019: Peptides
Yixian Zhang, Yangwei Wang, Manyu Luo, Feng Xu, Yue Lu, Xiaoxi Zhou, Wenpeng Cui, Lining Miao
Diabetic nephropathy is a common complication of diabetes characterized by an increased rate of protein excretion in urine and kidney function loss. Elabela is a newly discovered peptide whose role in the regulation of diabetes is the major focus of this research. We established an in vivo model of Type 1 diabetes mellitus by injecting mice intraperitoneally with streptozotocin. The treatment group was administered Elabela for 6 months. In the present study, Elabela administration under diabetic conditions was found to reduce renal inflammation and fibrosis markers, leading to improvement in renal pathology and kidney dysfunction...
April 5, 2019: Peptides
Natalia Ptaszyńska, Katarzyna Olkiewicz, Joanna Okońska, Katarzyna Gucwa, Anna Łęgowska, Agata Gitlin-Domagalska, Dawid Dębowski, Jan Lica, Mateusz Heldt, Sławomir Milewski, Tzi Bun Ng, Krzysztof Rolka
Eight new peptide conjugates composed of modified bovine lactoferricin truncated analogues (LFcinB) and one of the three antimicrobials - ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin (LVX), and fluconazole (FLC) - were synthesized. Four different linkers were applied to connect a peptide and an antimicrobial agent. The FLC-containing peptidic conjugates were synthesized using the "click chemistry" method. This novel approach is reported here for the first time. Unlike their components, CIP- and LVX-based conjugates exerted activity against Candida yeast...
April 5, 2019: Peptides
Jinghui Feng, Hang Zhao, Mengze Du, Xiuping Wu
Apelin, a new identified adipokine, and its G protein-coupled receptor named APJ are widely expressed in various tissues. Apelin has been found to play important roles in the physiopathology of multiple diseases. Our aim is to assess the effect of long-term apelin treatment on serum insulin level and pancreatic islet beta-cell mass in the late stage of type 2 diabetes without hyperinsulinemia and to investigate the role of apelin in myocardial fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In the present study, the high-fat diet fed-streptozotocin-induced experimental type 2 diabetic rats were given once daily intraperitoneal injection of apelin-13 (0...
April 4, 2019: Peptides
Martha A Schalla, Andreas Stengel
The recently discovered peptide phoenixin was initially implicated in reproduction as a regulator of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated luteinizing hormone (LH) release from the pituitary. Subsequently, various functions of phoenixin have been demonstrated including mediation of itching sensation, stimulation of vasopressin secretion, stimulation of white adipogenesis and hypothalamic nutrient sensing. Subsequently, additional actions of phoenixin have been described, namely effects on behavior...
April 3, 2019: Peptides
Miao Li, Yun-Xiao Shang
Airway smooth muscle (ASM) is involved in asthma airway inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of substance P and neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) antagonist on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+ ]i) in airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs), ASMC contraction, and the effect on reverse-mode Na+ -Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) currents in ASMCs. In our study, primary rat ASMCs were cultured. ASMCs were identified by immunofluorescence. [Ca2+ ]i variations were measured by fluorescence microscopy...
April 1, 2019: Peptides
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