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Xin Zhang, Yanling Liu, Jinwen Qi, Zhengzhi Tian, Ni Tang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Urocortin3 (UCN3), the newest member of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) family polypeptides, is an anorexic factor discovered in 2001, which has a strong inhibitory effect on animal appetite regulation. UCN3 is widely distributed in various tissues of animals and has many biological functions. Based on the research progress of UCN3 on mammals and non-mammals, this paper summarized the discovery, tissue distribution, appetite regulation and mechanism of UCN3 in animals, in order to provide a reference for feeding regulation and growth in mammals and fish in further research and production...
August 12, 2019: Peptides
Chang-Ding Xue, Yao Chen, Jin-Ling Ren, Lin-Shuang Zhang, Xin Liu, Yan-Rong Yu, Chao-Shu Tang, Yong-Fen Qi
Extensive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) contributes to intimal hyperplasia following vascular injury, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays a critical role. Intermedin (IMD) is a vascular paracrine/autocrine peptide exerting numerous beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. IMD overexpression could alleviate intimal hyperplasia. Here, we investigated whether endogenous IMD protects against intimal hyperplasia by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress. The mouse left common carotid-artery ligation-injury model was established to induce intimal hyperplasia using IMD-/- mice and C57BL/6 J wild-type (WT) mice...
August 10, 2019: Peptides
Yakup Baykus, Seyda Yavuzkir, Sefer Ustebay, Kader Ugur, Rulin Deniz, Suleyman Aydin
Pathological pregnancies, such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and macrosomic fetuses, are among the most fundamental problems of obstetrics clinics that are risk factors for both mother and child. Our main goal here is to compare maternal blood and newborn venous-arterial cord blood asprosin levels in pathological and healthy pregnancies. The study included 30 pregnant women with gestational diabetes, 30 with preeclampsia, 30 with severe preeclampsia, 30 with intrauterine growth retardation, 29 with macrosomic fetuses and 30 healthy pregnant women...
August 7, 2019: Peptides
Xiu-Li Cheng, Fan Ding, De-Ping Wang, Lan Zhou, Ji-Min Cao
Growth hormone secretagogues (GHS) have been proved to exert protective effects on the cardiovascular system, while their potential beneficial effects on macrophages in atherosclerosis (AS) are rarely been clarified. This study aimed to demonstrate whether hexarelin, a synthetic peptidyl GHS, can suppress AS progression via regulating the function of macrophages. AS was induced by chronic (3 months) feeding with high lipid diet in ApoE-/- mice. Mice were treated either with hexarelin (100 μg/kg s.c., q.d...
August 3, 2019: Peptides
Yanjun Guo, Qin Zhang, Huilu Chen, Yixuan Jiang, Ping Gong
Endothelial dysfunction is considered to be an initial indicator in diabetes-induced macrovascular complications. Evidence has shown that CGRP is an important neuropeptide active in vascular system, especially in vasorelaxation. This study aimed to investigate the role of CGRP in high-glucose-induced endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta endothelial cells (RAECs). Quantitative-real time PCR and western blots were used to determine the efficiency of overexpression and interference of CGRP. After incubation with normal glucose (5...
August 3, 2019: Peptides
Lamei Yu, Weijian Li, Byung Mun Park, Gi-Ja Lee, Suhn Hee Kim
It has been reported that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) stimulated high stretch induced-atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion via ATP sensitive potassium (KATP ) channel. KATP channel is activated during hypoxic condition as a compensatory mechanism. However, whether NaHS affects ANP secretion during hypoxia remains obscure. The purpose of the present study is to discover the impact of NaHS on ANP secretion during hypoxia and to unravel its signaling pathway. Isolated beating rat atria were perfused with buffer exposed to different O2 tension (to 100% O2 , normoxia; to 20% O2 , hypoxia)...
August 3, 2019: Peptides
Xiao Ye, YiMin Shen, Chao Ni, Jun Ye, Yubo Xin, Wei Zhang, YueZhong Ren
Insulin resistance (IR) is a fundamental pathogenic factor shared by a myriad of metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of IR is usually accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction. Irisin has been proposed to act as a hormone in the regulation of energy homeostasis and metabolism. However, the effects of irisin on IR and mitochondrial function have not yet been fully investigated. Here, our research shows that irisin increases glucose uptake in C2C12 myoblast cells via the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-PGC-1α pathway...
July 24, 2019: Peptides
Alexander N Zaykov, Vasily M Gelfanov, Diego Perez-Tilve, Brian Finan, Richard D DiMarchi
Insulin-like peptide 5 (INSL5) is a member of the insulin-like family of peptides. It has been reported to be orexigenic in rodent models of obesity with impaired glucose metabolism. We attempted to confirm this property as a first step in establishing the ability of INSL5 to successfully integrate with other agents more proven in their ability to reverse obesity and improve metabolism. INSL5 was chemically synthesized by two alternative methods to a native form and one that was site-specifically conjugated to a 20KDa polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymer...
July 23, 2019: Peptides
Nathalia Rodrigues de Almeida, Jonathan Catazaro, Maddeboina Krishnaiah, Yashpal Singh Chhonker, Daryl J Murry, Robert Powers, Martin Conda Sheridan
The rapid emergence of resistant bacterial strains has made the search for new antibacterial agents an endeavor of paramount importance. Cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have the ability to kill resistant pathogens while diminishing the development of resistance. Citropin 1.1 (Cit 1.1) is an AMP effective against a broad range of pathogens. 20 analogues of Cit 1.1 were prepared to understand how sequence variations lead to changes in structure and biological activity. Various analogues exhibited an increased antimicrobial activity relative to Cit 1...
July 20, 2019: Peptides
Koh Araishi, Keisuke Watanabe, Takumi Yamazaki, Tomoya Nakamachi, Kouhei Matsuda
Arginine vasotocin (AVT) is known as a neurohypophyseal hormone that regulates water- and mineral-balance in non-mammalian vertebrates. Recent studies revealed that AVT also exerts central effects on behavior. The goldfish has several merits for evaluation of behavioral changes. However, there is few information on the behavioral action of AVT in this species. Here we examined the effects of AVT on food intake and psychomotor activity. AVT was administered intracerebroventricularly at 1, 5 and 10 pmol g-1 body weight (BW)...
July 4, 2019: Peptides
Ruma G Singh, Ngoc Nhu Nguyen, Aya Cervantes, Jin U Kim, Charlotte Stuart, Maxim S Petrov
Lipocalin-2 (LCN-2), a peptide with diverse expression pattern, has been identified as a biomarker of various diseases as well as a factor contributing to inflammatory responses associated with excess adiposity and ensuing metabolic disorders. Although the inter-relationship between LCN-2 and excess adiposity is increasingly recognized, little is known about the inter-relationship between LCN-2 and ectopic fat deposition. The present study aimed to investigate the associations between LCN-2 and fatty pancreas as well as fatty liver...
July 2, 2019: Peptides
Yong Wang
Nesfatin-1 is an anorexic peptide derived from nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2). An increase in hypothalamic nesfatin-1 inhibits feeding behavior and promotes weight loss. However, the effects of weight loss on hypothalamic nesfatin-1 levels are unclear. In this study, obese rats lost weight in three ways: Calorie Restriction diet (CRD), Sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). We found an increase in nesfatin-1 serum and cerebrospinal fluid levels after weight loss in obese Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats...
June 28, 2019: Peptides
Grazia Maugeri, Agata Grazia D'Amico, Claudio Bucolo, Velia D'Agata
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes. In the last years, several in vivo studies have demonstrated the protective role of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP-38) to counteract several alterations occurring during DR. Recently, different studies have demonstrated that some PACAP-38 effects are mediated by EGFR trans-activation, although no data exist regarding the link between this peptide and EGFR in DR. The aim of the present study has been to investigate whether retinal effect of PACAP-38 against high glucose damage is mediated by EGFR phosphorylation...
June 24, 2019: Peptides
Krittima Anekthanakul, Jittisak Senachak, Apiradee Hongsthong, Tossaton Charoonratana, Marasri Ruengjitchatchawalya
Bioactive peptides from natural sources are utilized as food supplements for disease prevention and are increasingly becoming targets for drug discovery due to their specificity, efficacy and the absence of undesirable side effects, among others. Hence, the 'SpirPep' platform was developed to facilitate the in silico-based bioactive peptide discovery of these highly sought-after biomolecules from Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis) and to select the protease (thermolysin) used for in vitro digestion. Analysis of the predicted and experimentally-derived peptides suggested that they were mainly involved in ACE inhibition; thus, an ACEi assay was used to study the ACE inhibitory activity of five candidate peptides (SpirPep1-5), chosen from common peptides with multifunctional bioactivity and 100% bioactive peptide coverage, originating from phycobiliproteins...
June 20, 2019: Peptides
Sungtae Yang, Chul Won Lee, Hak Jun Kim, Hyun-Ho Jung, Jae Il Kim, Song Yub Shin, Sung-Heui Shin
BMAP-27, a member of cathelicidin family, plays an important role against microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi. BMAP-27 may exert antimicrobial effects through membrane integrity disruption, but the exact molecular mechanism remains unclear. To identify the structural features important for antimicrobial activity and propose a mechanism underlying antibacterial effects, we determined the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of BMAP-27 in a membrane-mimetic environment and investigated its interactions with lipid membranes...
June 18, 2019: Peptides
Chen Zhang, Kristoffer Rigbolt, Søren L Petersen, Lise Christine Biehl Rudkjær, Uwe Schwahn, Maria Luisa Fernandez-Cachon, Martin Bossart, Mechthilde Falkenhahn, Stefan Theis, Thomas Hübschle, Thorsten Schmidt, Philip Just Larsen, Niels Vrang, Jacob Jelsing
OBJECTIVE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to rapid remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and sustained body weight loss, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are still not fully understood. To further elucidate these mechanisms and identify potentially novel preprohormone encoding genes with anti-diabetic and/or anti-obesity properties, we performed a comprehensive analysis of gene expression changes in enteroendocrine cells after RYGB in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats. METHODS: The mRNA expression profiles of enteroendocrine cell enriched samples were characterized at 9, 22 and 60 days after RYGB surgery in a DIO rat model...
June 15, 2019: Peptides
Juexiao Gong, Yihui Shen, Peng Li, Kun Zhao, Xuguan Chen, Yong Li, Yanhui Sheng, Bin Zhou, Xiangqing Kong
Microinjection of alamandine into the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) increased blood pressure and enhanced sympathetic activity. The aim of this study was to determine if superoxide anions modulate alamandine's effects in the PVN. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) were recorded in anaesthetized normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Microinjection of alamandine into the PVN increased MAP and RSNA in both WKY rats and SHRs, although to a greater extent in SHRs...
June 11, 2019: Peptides
Samaneh Aminyavari, Maryam Zahmatkesh, Fariba Khodagholi, Mehdi Sanati
Apelin-13 is known to be one of the predominant neuropeptides with marked protective role in circuits involved in mood disturbances. The most putative hypothesis in pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is Amyloid beta (Aβ) aggregation which interrupt proper function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and are associated with anxiety. Here, we assessed the potential anxiolytic effect of Apelin-13 in a rodent cognitive impairment model induced by intrahippocampal Aβ25-35 administration. We evaluated the memory impairment and anxiogenic behavior using shuttle box and Elevated plus maze apparatuses...
June 11, 2019: Peptides
Hirotaka Nakashima, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Madoka Yanagawa, Hitoshi Komiya, Kazuhisa Watanabe, Masafumi Kuzuya
Orexin-A is a neuropeptide mainly produced by hypothalamic neurons with functions in the central nervous system such as regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Recent studies suggest that orexin-A also plays major roles in peripheral tissues. Although a few studies have reported a role for the kidney in the dynamics of orexin-A, little is known about the association between plasma orexin-A-like immunoreactivity (orexin-A-LI) levels and renal function. We evaluated this association, and also explored other clinical characteristics associated with plasma orexin-A-LI levels...
June 1, 2019: Peptides
Giuseppe Tringali, Pierluigi Navarra
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a peptide neurotransmitter with potent vasodilating properties. CGRP is believed to play a primary role in the pathogenesis of migraine. As such, CGRP and its receptors are obvious druggable targets for novel anti-migraine agents. While the development of small-molecule CGRP receptor antagonists started first, none of these agents is yet available in clinical practice. Conversely, both anti-CGRP and anti-CGRP receptor monoclonal antibodies (mABs) completed clinical development, and the first representatives of these 2 classes are available on the market...
June 2019: Peptides
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