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Cancer Treatment and Research

Jasmine Zain
Mature T-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (T-cell NHL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid malignancies including NK/T-cell lymphomas. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an important component of the management of T-cell NHL; however, the optimal timing and type of transplant for each different subtype is an ongoing debate. For the purpose of this chapter, PTCL will be classified as (1) systemic PTCL that includes nodal as well as non-nodal histologies in PTCL (2) CTCL-or cutaneous T-cell lymphomas that arise primarily in the skin and (3) NK/T-cell lymphomas both nasal and extranasal types...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Liana Nikolaenko, Jasmine Zain, Steven T Rosen, Christiane Querfeld
Primary cutaneous CD30-positive lymphoproliferative disorders (CD30+ LPD) encompass lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP), primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma (pcALCL), and borderline lesions [1]. CD30+ LPD are the second most common cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) after mycosis fungoides (MF) and represent approximately 25% of all CTCL cases [2]. Their common phenotypic hallmark is an expression of the CD30 antigen, a cytokine receptor belonging to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Christiane Querfeld, Jasmine Zain, Steven T Rosen
Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome are the most common subtypes of all primary cutaneous lymphomas and represent complex diseases that require a multidisciplinary assessment by dermatologists, oncologists, and pathologists. Staging and work-up are critical to guarantee an optimal treatment plan that includes skin-directed and/or systemic regimens depending on the clinical stage, tumor burden, drug-related side effect profile, and patient comorbidities. However, there is no cure and patients frequently relapse, requiring repeated treatment courses for disease control...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
C van der Weyden, C McCormack, S Lade, R W Johnstone, H M Prince
There are a number of rare T-cell lymphoma subtypes that may be encountered in clinical practice. In recent years, improved immunohistochemical techniques and molecular tumor profiling have permitted refinement of some of the diagnostic categories in this group, as well as the recognition of distinct conditions not previously well elucidated. In this chapter, we cover the diagnostic and clinical features of some of the more common of these conditions, including subcutaneous panniculitis-like T-cell lymphoma, cutaneous gamma-delta T-cell lymphoma, enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma, monomorphic epitheliotropic intestinal T-cell lymphoma, primary cutaneous CD8-positive aggressive epidermotropic cytotoxic T-cell lymphoma, CD4-positive small/medium T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder, and acral CD8-positive T-cell lymphoma...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Lohith Gowda, Francine Foss
Hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma (HSTL) is a rare variant of extranodal peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCL), associated with aggressive disease course and a relentless track record for lethal outcomes. HSTL presents commonly in young men in their third or fourth decade. Of the known causes, immune dysregulation and immunosuppression are the key players in the pathogenesis of HSTL. Clinical manifestation includes hepatosplenomegaly, fevers, and weakness. Bone marrow involvement or organomegaly can cause cytopenias...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Dai Chihara, Yasuhiro Oki
NK-cell malignancies are rare aggressive diseases associated with poor clinical outcome. There is a significant geographic variation in their incidence. At least a part of the reason for that is the fact that Epstein-Barr virus plays an important role in pathogenesis, and importantly, the plasma viral titer reflects disease burden and response to therapy. Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKL), is the most common disease subtype in NK-cell malignancies. Conventional anthracycline-based chemotherapy was historically used for ENKL, only to produce dismal outcome...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Wataru Munakata, Kensei Tobinai
Adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-lymphocyte malignancy caused by an RNA retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia virus type 1. ATL is clinically classified into four disease subtypes. The acute, lymphoma type, and cases of the chronic type involving unfavorable prognostic factors are regarded as aggressive ATL subtypes that require immediate treatment. Dose-intensified chemotherapy, such as the VCAP-AMP-VECP regimen, is considered to be the most recommended treatment for aggressive ATL. However, ATL remains difficult to cure and has an extremely poor prognosis, even when such chemotherapy is employed...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Andrei Shustov, Lorinda Soma
Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphomas (ALCL) are clinically aggressive and pathologically distinct lymphoid neoplasms that originate from a mature post-thymic T-cell. The contemporary World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Haematologic Malignancies recognizes two distinct subtypes of systemic ALCL: Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK)-negative, and ALK-positive. An additional unique subtype of ALCL is known to arise after prolonged exposure to breast implants, known as Breast Implant Associated ALCL (BIALCL)...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Mariko Yabe, Ahmet Dogan, Steven M Horwitz, Alison J Moskowitz
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is one of the most common types of T-cell lymphoma, representing about 15-20% of cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). It is characterized by a unique clinical presentation and distinct pathologic and molecular features. Classes of drugs particularly active in AITL are emerging; however, treatment of relapsed and refractory disease remains a challenge. This chapter reviews the epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of AITL.
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Adetokunbo Oluwasanjo, Saritha Kartan, William Johnson, Onder Alpdogan, Alejandro Gru, Anjali Mishra, Bradley M Haverkos, Jerald Gong, Pierluigi Porcu
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (PTCL-NOS) is a World Health Organization (WHO)-defined diagnostic category within the highly heterogeneous group of mature post-thymic T-cell neoplasms. It is the most common subtype of mature post-thymic T-cell neoplasms globally, accounting for up to 35% of PTCL cases in Europe and North America. PTCL-NOS is a diagnosis of exclusion, comprising several disease entities that differ in biology, clinical presentation, and outcome. The diagnosis of PTCL-NOS is made based on the presence of typical histopathological features of lymphoma, an aberrant T-cell immunophenotype, often with a loss of CD5 and CD7, and a clonal T-cell receptor (TCR) gene rearrangement, in the appropriate clinical context...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
N Nora Bennani, Stephen M Ansell
T-cell lymphomas (TCL) are uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphomas that often have an aggressive clinical course. Patients typically have limited treatment options upon relapse and a dismal prognosis after progression despite newly approved therapies. New therapeutic approaches for these orphan diseases are very much needed and a greater understanding of the role of nonmalignant immune cells in the tumor microenvironment may allow for an improved antitumor immune response. The tumor microenvironment is a key component in tumor evasion and typically results in an ineffective T-cell response to the tumor cells despite a significant inflammatory response...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Javeed Iqbal, Catalina Amador, Timothy W McKeithan, Wing C Chan
Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) is an uncommon group of lymphoma covering a diverse spectrum of entities. Little was known regarding the molecular and genomic landscapes of these diseases until recently but the knowledge is still quite spotty with many rarer types of PTCL remain largely unexplored. In this chapter, the recent findings from gene expression profiling (GEP) studies, including profiling data on microRNA, where available, will be presented with emphasis on the implication on molecular diagnosis, prognostication, and the identification of new entities (PTCL-GATA3 and PTCL-TBX21) in the PTCL-NOS group...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Parwiz J Siaghani, Jerry T Wong, John Chan, Dennis D Weisenburger, Joo Y Song
PURPOSE: This review will describe and update readers on the recent changes in the 2017 WHO classification regarding peripheral T-cell lymphomas. RECENT FINDINGS: Signficant advances in molecular studies have resulted in revisions to the classification as well as introduction to provisional entities such as breast implant-associated ALCL and nodal PTCL with T-follicular helper phenotype. SUMMARY: Major advances in molecular and gene expression profiling has expanded our knowledge of these rare and aggressive diseases...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Melissa Simon, Emmanuel Cordova, June M McKoy
Funded by the 21st Century Cures Act, The Beau Biden Cancer Moonshot Initiative is broad, deep, integrative, and intended to expediently address cancer's most vexing problems. Launched in 2015, it is an effort to accelerate the pace of cancer research with a focus on breaking down silos through cross-pollination of research, recruitment of multidisciplinary clinical and basic science research teams, sharing of complex scientific databases, and the creation of public-private research partnerships. This audacious approach to cancer treatment is intended to alleviate the current burden of cancer within countries and across borders...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Megan Slocum, Sophie F Garcia, June M McKoy
Millions of individuals worldwide are living with cancer and have remained disease-free for more than 5 years. These individuals are considered to be cancer survivors. The advent of new targeted therapies and personalized treatment modalities have contributed to this increased survivorship. Additionally, earlier diagnosis and detection of cancer, greater access to preventive screenings, and greater focus on cancer pharmaceutical safety have all been contributed to increasing longevity. Of note, all cancer types have benefited in the survivorship arena...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Kari K Loeser, June M McKoy, Glen T Schumock
This Chapter provides an introduction and overview of the U.S. FDA REMS program and applicable regulatory aspects. Topics covered include the 2015 Draft Guidance, organization structure and functions, a discussion on pharmacovigilance and adverse event reports, and a discussion of the applicability of REMS in oncology.
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Narissa J Nonzee, Thanh Ha Luu
Drug shortages pose a significant public health concern in the United States, and cancer drugs are among those most affected. Shortages present serious safety risks for patients and substantial burden on providers and the healthcare system. Multifaceted drivers of this complex problem include manufacturing disruptions, raw material shortages, regulatory issues, market dynamics, and limited financial incentives that reward quality and production of off-patent drugs. Oncology drugs in short supply have resulted in substitution of less effective or more toxic alternatives, medication errors, and treatment delays, and are especially concerning for medications with no adequate substitute...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
June M McKoy, Frank J Giles
An increasing availability of biosimilars is an important step in the process of delivering optimal care while improving access for patients with cancer. Evolving regulatory mechanisms deal with biosimilars with different approaches within major regulatory agencies. We discuss some of the specific properties of biosimilars that merit attention in terms of optimizing their safety, delivering on appropriate related cost savings, and ensuring that appropriate premiums on innovative research are available to ensure ongoing progress in anticancer therapy...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Brian Chen, John Restaino, Elizabeth Tippett
Adverse drug reactions, or unintended and harmful outcomes related to the administration of a pharmaceutical product, are a major public health concern, particularly for cancer patients. If counted as a separate cause of death, adverse drug reactions would represent the fourth leading cause of death in the United States. Several legal strategies are available to help mitigate their occurrences and to compensate victims for the harm that results from adverse events. Prior to FDA approval of a drug, the limited size and duration of clinical trials often fail to detect adverse drug reactions...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
Dustin B Liebling, Emmanuel Cordova, Gary Deng, June M McKoy
With the increase in utilization of alternative medications to manage cancer treatment-related side effects, pharmacovigilance of alternative drug therapies, specifically herbal supplements, has become of increasing importance in the oncologic setting. This chapter focuses on the pharmacovigilance of herbal supplements in the setting of cancer drug therapy and explores national and international drug policies that have been employed to mitigate adverse herbal supplement events (AHEs). This chapter examines common drug-herbal supplement interactions, discusses the mechanisms behind these interactions, and investigates several common pharmacovigilance reporting methods clinicians can use to report adverse events...
2019: Cancer Treatment and Research
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