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International Journal of Primatology

Camille A Troisi, Will J E Hoppitt, Carlos R Ruiz-Miranda, Kevin N Laland
Many animals emit calls in the presence of food, but researchers do not always know the function of these calls. Evidence suggests that adult golden lion tamarins ( Leontopithecus rosalia ) use food-offering calls to teach juveniles which substrate (i.e., microhabitat) to forage on, or in, for food. However, we do not yet know whether juveniles learn from this aspect of the adults' behavior. Here we examine whether juveniles learn to associate food-offering calls with a foraging substrate, as a step toward assessing whether these calls qualify as teaching behavior...
2018: International Journal of Primatology
Isabella Mandl, Marc Holderied, Christoph Schwitzer
Temperature, rainfall, and resource availability may vary greatly within a single year in primate habitats. Many primate species show behavioral and physiological adaptations to this environmental seasonality, including changes to their diets and activity. Sahamalaza sportive lemurs ( Lepilemur sahamalaza ) inhabit the northwest of Madagascar and have been studied only during the dry, colder period of the year. We investigated potential effects of climate seasonality on this species by collecting behavioral data between October 2015 and August 2016, encompassing both the warmer wet and the colder dry seasons...
2018: International Journal of Primatology
Alexandra Palmer, Nicholas Malone
The majority of studies in ethnoprimatology focus on areas of sympatry where humans and nonhuman primates (hereafter, primates) naturally coexist. We argue that much can be gained by extending the field's scope to incorporate settings where humans manage most aspects of primates' lives, such as zoos, laboratories, sanctuaries, and rehabilitation centers (hereafter, managed settings). We suggest that the mixed-methods approach of ethnoprimatology, which facilitates examination of both humans' and primates' responses to one another, can reveal not only how humans' ideas about primates shape management strategies, but also how those management strategies affect primates' lives...
2018: International Journal of Primatology
Hannah E Parathian, Matthew R McLennan, Catherine M Hill, Amélia Frazão-Moreira, Kimberley J Hockings
One of the main challenges when integrating biological and social perspectives in primatology is overcoming interdisciplinary barriers. Unfamiliarity with subject-specific theory and language, distinct disciplinary-bound approaches to research, and academic boundaries aimed at "preserving the integrity" of subject disciplines can hinder developments in interdisciplinary research. With growing interest in how humans and other primates share landscapes, and recognition of the importance of combining biological and social information to do this effectively, the disparate use of terminology is becoming more evident...
2018: International Journal of Primatology
Amanda H Korstjens, Julia Lehmann, R I M Dunbar
To understand how species will respond to environmental changes, it is important to know how those changes will affect the ecological stress that animals experience. Time constraints can be used as indicators of ecological stress. Here we test whether time constraints can help us understand group sizes, distribution patterns, and community sizes of forest guenons ( Cercopithecus/Allochrocebus ). Forest guenons typically live in small to medium sized one-male-multifemale groups and often live in communities with multiple forest guenon species...
2018: International Journal of Primatology
Lydia Katsis, Pamela M K Cunneyworth, Katy M E Turner, Andrea Presotto
Electrocution from power infrastructure threatens many primate species, yet knowledge of effective evidence-based mitigation strategies is limited. Mitigation planning requires an understanding of the spatial distribution of electrocutions to prioritize high-risk areas. In Diani, a coastal Kenyan town, electrocution is an important cause of death for five primate species. In this study we aim to describe the spatial patterns of electrocutions and electric shock incidents (collectively referred to as electrocutions hereafter) and identify electrocution hotspots to guide an effective primate conservation approach in Diani...
2018: International Journal of Primatology
Michelle A Rodrigues
Most primates live in habitats with some level of anthropogenic disturbance, and such disturbances have a larger impact on frugivorous primates that are more sensitive to ecological disruptions than folivores. Fecal glucocorticoid metabolites provide insight into how the external environment affects internal physiological state, and thus provide information on how anthropogenic pressures become embodied. Here, I examine how subgroup size and glucocorticoids vary with high and low fruit abundance, and how fruit abundance, subgroup size, and activity budget affect fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in female spider monkeys ( Ateles geoffroyi ) living in an anthropogenically disturbed habitat...
October 2017: International Journal of Primatology
Naomi Ishii, Takuya Kato, Taiki Uno, Ichirou Tanaka, Hiroshi Kajigaya, Shin-Ichi Hayama
During grooming, primates remove harmful ectoparasites, such as ticks and lice, and there is direct evidence for a health benefit of tick removal. Grooming behaviors differ among primates with respect to age and sex. Moreover, the number of ectoparasite may exhibit seasonal variation. Therefore the number of ectoparasites on a host may vary with effects, host age and sex, and season. However, these effects have not been a focus of louse infestation studies of primates. Grooming in Japanese macaques is related to sex and age, with developmental changes in behavior corresponding to the timing of tooth eruption...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Dan Hending, Grainne McCabe, Marc Holderied
Primates require secure sleeping sites for periods of rest, but despite their importance, the characteristics of desired sleeping sites are poorly known. Here we investigated the sleeping ecology of a radio-collared population of the Sambirano mouse lemur, Microcebus sambiranensis , during the nonreproductive season in the Anabohazo forest, northwestern Madagascar. We also investigated their ranging behavior and examined the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the home ranges of the collared individuals...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Lydia V Luncz, Magdalena S Svensson, Michael Haslam, Suchinda Malaivijitnond, Tomos Proffitt, Michael Gumert
Anthropogenic disturbances have a detrimental impact on the natural world; the vast expansion of palm oil monocultures is one of the most significant agricultural influences. Primates worldwide consequently have been affected by the loss of their natural ecosystems. Long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascilularis ) in Southern Thailand have, however, learned to exploit oil palm nuts using stone tools. Using camera traps, we captured the stone tool behavior of one macaque group in Ao Phang-Nga National Park. Line transects placed throughout an abandoned oil palm plantation confirmed a high abundance of nut cracking sites...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Dan Hending, Marc Holderied, Grainne McCabe
Primate vocalizations convey a variety of information to conspecifics. The acoustic traits of these vocalizations are an effective vocal fingerprint to discriminate between sibling species for taxonomic diagnosis. However, the vocal behavior of nocturnal primates has been poorly studied and there are few studies of their vocal repertoires. We compiled a vocal repertoire for the Endangered Sambirano mouse lemur, Microcebus sambiranensis, an unstudied nocturnal primate of northwestern Madagascar, and compared the acoustic properties of one of their call types to those of M...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Antje Engelhardt, Laura Muniz, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Anja Widdig
Genetic analyses based on noninvasively collected samples have become an important tool for evolutionary biology and conservation. Crested macaques (Macaca nigra), endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia, are important for our understanding of primate evolution as Sulawesi macaques represent an exceptional example of primate adaptive radiation. Crested macaques are also Critically Endangered. However, to date we know very little about their genetics. The aim of our study was to find and validate microsatellite markers useful for evolutionary, conservation, and other genetic studies on wild crested macaques...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
David Fernández, Diane Doran-Sheehy, Carola Borries, Carolyn L Ehardt
Females of several catarrhine primate species exhibit exaggerated sexual swellings that change in size and coloration during the menstrual cycle and, in some species, gestation. Although their function remains under debate, studies indicate that swellings may contain information males could use to discern ovulation and the probability that a cycle will be conceptive. Here we combine visual ratings of swellings with hormonal data for a group of Sanje mangabeys (18 adult, 3 adolescent females) to determine if their swellings provide reliable information on female fertility...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Nicholas E Newton-Fisher
Among studies of social species, it is common practice to rank individuals using dyadic social dominance relationships. The Elo-rating method for achieving this is powerful and increasingly popular, particularly among studies of nonhuman primates, but suffers from two deficiencies that hamper its usefulness: an initial burn-in period during which the model is unreliable and an assumption that all win-loss interactions are equivalent in their influence on rank trajectories. Here, I present R code that addresses these deficiencies by incorporating two modifications to a previously published function, testing this with data from a 9-mo observational study of social interactions among wild male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Uganda...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Joanna M Setchell, Emilie Fairet, Kathryn Shutt, Siân Waters, Sandra Bell
Biodiversity conservation is one of the grand challenges facing society. Many people interested in biodiversity conservation have a background in wildlife biology. However, the diverse social, cultural, political, and historical factors that influence the lives of people and wildlife can be investigated fully only by incorporating social science methods, ideally within an interdisciplinary framework. Cultural hierarchies of knowledge and the hegemony of the natural sciences create a barrier to interdisciplinary understandings...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Maureen S McCarthy, Jack D Lester, Craig B Stanford
As habitat loss and fragmentation place growing pressure on endangered nonhuman primate populations, researchers find increasing evidence for novel responses in behavior. In western Uganda between the Budongo and Bugoma Forests, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) inhabit a mosaic landscape comprising forest fragments, human settlements, and agricultural land. We recorded nests and feeding evidence of unhabituated chimpanzees in this region over a 12-mo period. We found extensive evidence of nesting in introduced tree species, including eucalyptus (Eucalyptus grandis), guava (Psidium guajava), cocoa (Theobroma cacao), and Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea)...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Nicola Bryson-Morrison, Joseph Tzanopoulos, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Tatyana Humle
Many primate populations inhabit anthropogenic landscapes. Understanding their long-term ability to persist in such environments and associated real and perceived risks for both primates and people is essential for effective conservation planning. Primates in forest-agricultural mosaics often consume cultivars to supplement their diet, leading to potentially negative encounters with farmers. When crossing roads, primates also face the risk of encounters with people and collision with vehicles. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa, face such risks regularly...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Katarzyna Nowak, Kirsten Wimberger, Shane A Richards, Russell A Hill, Aliza le Roux
Wild species use habitats that vary in risk across space and time. This risk can derive from natural predators and also from direct and indirect human pressures. A starving forager will often take risks that a less hungry forager would not. At a highly seasonal and human-modified site, we predicted that arboreal samango monkeys (Cercopithecus albogularis labiatus) would show highly flexible, responsive, risk-sensitive foraging. We first determined how monkeys use horizontal and vertical space across seasons to evaluate if high-risk decisions (use of gardens and ground) changed with season, a proxy for starvation risk...
2017: International Journal of Primatology
Christin Minge, Andreas Berghänel, Oliver Schülke, Julia Ostner
Male care for offspring is unexpected in polygynandrous mammals. Evidence from nonhuman primates, however, indicates not only the existence of stable male-immature associations in multimale-multifemale groups, but also male care in the form of protection from infanticidal attacks and conspecific harassment. Here, we investigate the relationship characteristics, dynamics, and consequences of male-immature associations in wild Assamese macaques, Macaca assamensis, at Phu Khieo Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, to inform hypotheses of their evolutionary origins...
2016: International Journal of Primatology
Charlie J Gardner
Despite an increasing recognition of the ecosystem services provided by mangroves, we know little about their role in maintaining terrestrial biodiversity, including primates. Madagascar's lemurs are a top global conservation priority, with 94 % of species threatened with extinction, but records of their occurrence in mangroves are scarce. I used a mixed-methods approach to collect published and unpublished observations of lemurs in mangroves: I carried out a systematic literature search and supplemented this with a targeted information request to 1243 researchers, conservation and tourism professionals, and others who may have visited mangroves in Madagascar...
2016: International Journal of Primatology
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