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Infant Mental Health Journal

Hannah F Behrendt, Wolfgang Scharke, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Kerstin Konrad, Christine Firk
Social-Emotional competencies evolve early in life. For example, early emotion regulation is learned primarily in the context of mother-child interaction, which may allow for maternal influences to shape children's social-emotional development. The aim of the current study was to longitudinally examine maternal determinants of children's early social-emotional development in a community-based sample of first-time mothers (N = 61, aged 22-39 years). Specifically, we used structural equation modeling to examine how maternal emotion regulation difficulties and subclinical depression directly and indirectly, through sensitivity and postnatal bonding, assessed at 6 to 8 months predicted child outcomes at 12 to 16 months...
February 7, 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Yoko Nomura, Kei Davey, Patricia M Pehme, Jackie Finik, Vivette Glover, Wei Zhang, Yonglin Huang, Jessica Buthmann, Kathryn Dana, Sachiko Yoshida, Kenji J Tsuchiya, Xiao Bo Li, Jacob Ham
This study examined the effects of in utero exposure to maternal depression and Superstorm Sandy, a hurricane that hit metropolitan New York in 2012, on infant temperament at 6 months. Temperament was assessed using the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Maternal depression was measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The main effects and the interaction of maternal depression and Sandy exposure on infant temperament were examined using a multivariable generalized linear model. Results show that prenatal maternal depression was associated with lower emotion regulation and greater distress...
February 5, 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Christina M Padilla, Rebecca M Ryan
Numerous studies have shown that children's temperamental characteristics impact the quality and quantity of parent-child interactions. However, these studies have largely focused on middle-class samples, have not compared multiple domains of parenting across mothers and fathers, and have not considered the possibility of nonlinear associations between temperament and parenting. The present study addresses these gaps by examining the potentially nonlinear role of two temperamental characteristics-negative emotionality and sociability-in predicting the quality and quantity of low-income mothers' and fathers' parenting...
February 5, 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Sabrina Koch, Leonardo De Pascalis, Fabielle Vivian, Anelise Meurer Renner, Lynne Murray, Adriane Arteche
It is estimated that postpartum depression affects up to 25% of men. Despite such high prevalence, the majority of studies on postpartum depression are focused on mothers, and the role of paternal depression and its effects on infant development have been overlooked by researchers and clinicians. The present study aimed to fill this gap by investigating the effect of paternal postpartum depression on father-infant interactions. In addition, we examined whether differences in face recognition mediated the effects of paternal postpartum depression on father-infant interactions...
February 5, 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Katri Lahti, Mervi Vänskä, Samir R Qouta, Safwat Y Diab, Kaisa Perko, Raija-Leena Punamäki
We examined, first, how prenatal maternal mental health and war trauma predicted mothers' experience of their infant crying, indicated by emotions, cognitions, and behavior; and second, how these experiences influenced the mother-infant interaction and infant development. Participants were 511 Palestinian mothers from the Gaza Strip, reporting their war trauma, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and perceived stress during pregnancy (Time 1). They reported experiences of infant crying at 4 months (Time 2), and the mother-infant interaction and infant sensorimotor and language development at 12 months of infants' age (Time 3)...
February 4, 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Carolyn F Palmer, Daniel Rindler, Barbara Leverone
"Back to sleep" messages can reduce prone practice for infants, with potential for motor delay and cranial deformation. Despite recommendations for "tummy time," young infants fuss in prone, and parents report uncertainty about how to help infants tolerate prone positioning. We hypothesized that a Child'Space Method lesson, teaching proprioceptive touch and transitions to prone, would facilitate prone tolerance, parent behavioral support, and parent self-efficacy. This randomized study recruited parents (N = 37) of 2- to 5-month-old infants...
January 25, 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Katherine W Paschall, Ann M Mastergeorge, Catherine C Ayoub
Clinicians working with Early Head Start (EHS) families consider family well-being and positive parent-child relationships as foundational to school readiness. Understanding the links between risk factors and these dimensions of family engagement can inform clinical decision-making, as risk assessments are used to tailoring program services. The current study examined the associations between high risk, or potential, for child physical abuse and both parenting quality and children's emotion regulation (ER) during toddlerhood; EHS participation was examined as a buffer...
January 18, 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Richard E Tremblay, Sylvana M Côté
This article reviews the state of knowledge on the development of chronic physical aggression (CPA), with the aim of identifying the most effective prevention strategies. We specifically focus on the early development of physical aggression, on sex differences in the use of physical aggression, and on the transmission of behavior problems from one generation to the other. The body of research on the development of CPA from the past three decades that we review shows increasing evidence that its prevention requires a long-term biopsychosocial developmental approach which also must include an intergenerational perspective...
January 8, 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Sara R Jaffee
Although rates of violent crime have been on the decline in the United States for the past two decades, young people-and particularly young men-continue to commit and fall victim to alarmingly high rates of violence. Effective prevention requires data on what the determinants of violence are and when in the life course they emerge. The goal of this review was to identify early-in-life risk factors for violence and to describe (a) who is most affected and (b) effect mechanisms. I focus on abuse and neglect and exposure to lead as risk factors for violence that disproportionately affect young children and that are likely to have causal effects on development...
January 3, 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Paul Golding, Hiram E Fitzgerald
We apply a biopsychosocial approach to introduce early-in-life experiences that explain a significant part of the male preponderance in the perpetration of violence. Early caregiver abuse and neglect, father absence, and exposure to family and neighborhood violence exacerbate boys' greater risk for aggressive behavior and increase the probability of carrying out violent acts later in life. We examine the development of the psychological self and explore conditions that encourage physical aggression, focusing on the impact on the infant and toddler's emergent mental representation of self, others, and self-other relationships...
January 2, 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Shannon M Savell, Sean R Womack, Melvin N Wilson, Daniel S Shaw, Thomas J Dishion
Discrimination has been shown to be related to diminished psychological adjustment and greater risk for substance use when personally experienced by adolescents and when their caregivers experience discrimination. Our research considers the impact of primary caregiver experiences of racial- and socioeconomic-based discrimination in early (age 3-5 years) and late childhood (age 9½) on adolescent disruptive behaviors (age 14) with a large sample of diverse caregiver-child dyads (N = 634). In addition, we examine the potential protective effects of parent-child relationship quality in early and late childhood in buffering the effects of caregiver discrimination on adolescent disruptive behaviors...
December 26, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Kenneth Corvo
Research on risks and causes of domestic violence is hampered by a policy framework that not only does not fund but in some cases suppresses inquiry into those causes. This discussion, then, will be placed in the context of those policy frameworks that hamper and distort inquiry. This includes an overview of ideological, political, and historical issues that have shaped those frameworks. Related explanatory theories and theories of practice are summarized. The article will examine known early-life risk factors for those disorders and behaviors associated with domestic violence perpetration...
December 26, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Adrian Raine
Research is increasingly documenting a neurobiological basis to violence. This review takes a neurodevelopmental perspective on the very small group of males who grow up to become persistent violent offenders. After outlining six criteria for what constitutes a neurodevelopmental disorder, the extent to which chronic violence meets these definitional criteria is examined, covering the fields of genetics, structural and functional brain imaging, and neuropsychology. Early health risk factors for violence are then outlined, including birth complications, minor physical anomalies, prenatal smoking and alcohol exposure, poor nutrition, lead exposure, and traumatic brain injury...
December 26, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Sarah Terrell, Elisabeth Conradt, Lynne Dansereau, Linda Lagasse, Barry Lester
Children with prenatal substance exposure are at increased risk for externalizing behavior problems and violence. However, the contribution of early life experiences for placing these individuals at risk is not well understood. Utilizing a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal substance exposure from the Maternal Lifestyle Study, we attempt to shed light on these contributing factors by examining the impact of infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and early life stress on the expression of violent behavior at ages 12 through 14 years...
December 21, 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Jorge Luis García, James J Heckman, Anna L Ziff
This article presents new evidence on the crime-reducing impacts of a high-quality, intensive early childhood program with long-term follow-up, evaluated by a randomized controlled trial. Proportionately, more women than men decrease their criminal activity after participating in the program. This gender difference arises because of the worse home environments for girls, with corresponding greater scope for improvement by the program. For both genders, treatment effects are larger for the least-advantaged children, as measured by their mother's education at baseline...
January 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Richard Mizen
Violence is a complex matter, and understandingly perhaps, it is the objective, behavioral aspects that are commonly focused on. Here, however, it is the subjective psychological and especially affective substrates of violence that are brought to the fore. Psychoanalytic perspectives provide a way of thinking about these that also sets them in a human-developmental context. In this essay, psychoanalytic ideas about aggression and violence are considered, and what they have to say about the relationship between states of mind and behavior is critically reviewed...
January 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Andrea L Glenn
Psychopathy is a disorder that occurs primarily in males. Offenders with psychopathic traits are responsible for a disproportionate amount of crime in society, particularly violent crime. Early childhood is a time when individual differences in empathy and guilt-key indicators of the construct of psychopathy-are first evident. A growing number of longitudinal studies have begun to investigate how factors in infancy and early childhood predict psychopathic-like traits in later childhood, adolescence, and adulthood...
January 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Stephanie L Sitnick, Chardée A Galán, Daniel S Shaw
Research on early childhood predictors of violent behaviors in early adulthood is limited. The current study investigated whether individual, family, and community risk factors from 18 to 42 months of age were predictive of violent criminal arrests during late adolescence and early adulthood using a sample of 310 low-income male participants living in an urban community. In addition, differences in trajectories of overt conduct problems (CP), hyperactivity/attention problems (HAP), and co-occurring patterns of CP and HAP from age 1½ to 10 years were investigated in regard to their relationship to violent and nonviolent behaviors, depression, and anxiety at age 20...
January 2019: Infant Mental Health Journal
Marinus H Van Ijzendoorn, Miriam Steele, Pehr Granqvist
In the service of children's best interests, we argue for a sharpening of the evidentiary standards used in family court decision making, from preponderance of (occasionally substandard) evidence to "beyond a reasonable doubt." Second, we call for a move in child protection cases from static diagnoses (e.g., attachment classifications) to assessments of the potential for enhanced parenting. Finally, informed by the implications of the replication crisis in the biomedical and psychological sciences, we applaud the move of the attachment field forward to large-scale, collective research agendas and goals...
November 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
Susan J Spieker, Patricia M Crittenden
The historic publication of the "consensus statement" on not using the "D/disorganized" category in the infant Strange Situation (M. Ainsworth, M. Blehar, E. Waters, & S. Wall, 1978) for case-specific child protection work (P. Granqvist et al., 2017) opens the door for a broader discussion of different branches of attachment theory and different attachment classificatory systems applied to infants, young children, and their parents. We agree with the consensus authors that Strange Situation classifications alone, regardless of coding method, are insufficient for decision-making...
November 2018: Infant Mental Health Journal
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