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Lasers in Surgery and Medicine

Yeachan Lee, Hyejin Kim, Namgue Hong, Jin-Chul Ahn, Hyun Wook Kang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Fibrosis is a highly prevalent disease, which is responsible for 45% of deaths through pathological effects in developed countries. Previous studies have reported that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) can modulate fibrotic activity, but significant enhancement of therapeutic efficacy is still required for clinical translation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasible effect of LLLT combined with phloroglucinol (PHL) on the inhibition of fibrosis in vitro...
July 9, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Ewa Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Anna Rzepakowska, Maria Sobol, Antoni Bruzgielewicz, Kazimierz Niemczyk
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Controversial prognostic factors of primary CO2 laser cordectomy are anterior commissure involvement (ACI) and status of margin. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of oncological outcomes in 102 patients with early glottic cancer undergoing laser cordectomy between 2013 and 2015. RESULTS: The T stages distribution included: 72.6% T1a, 14.7% T1b, and 12.7% T2. The ACI was diagnosed in 26 patients...
July 8, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Yunsong Zhang, Yanhua Liu, Bing Cai, Chengen Luo, Dongni Li, Suijiang Wang, Zhongsheng Sun, Sheng-Kang Luo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laser therapy during the early stage of wound healing can reduce surgical scar formation. Previous clinical trials showed that ablative fractional laser (AFL) therapy might have achieved the best outcomes; however, there was no consensus on the laser therapy protocol. The current study investigated the efficacy of early intervention with carbon dioxide FL (CO2 FL) in reducing the surgical scars in patients of all age groups to understand the effects of specific intervention timing, light dose, number of treatments, treatment interval on the therapeutic outcome, and side effects...
July 8, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Weilu Chai, Qiyu Zhao, Dexing Kong, Tian'an Jiang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Limited data have been used to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of percutaneous laser ablation (PLA) (a modality that has been proven to be a safe method for tumors in high-risk locations) for hepatic tumors in the space between the portal vein and inferior vena cava (IVC). The goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics and therapeutic effectiveness of ultrasound-guided PLA of hepatic tumors in the portacaval space. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten patients, who had hepatic tumors in the portacaval space (defined as tumors located in the space formed by the hepatic portal vein and IVC less than 5 mm from the margins of both vessels), receiving ultrasound-guided PLA between January 2016 and June 2017 were analyzed...
July 8, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Rachel L Goldstein, Jane M Tsui, Gem Runyan, Mark A Randolph, Michael C McCormack, Martin C Mihm, Robert W Redmond, William G Austen
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Wound contracture formation from excessive myofibroblast activity can result in debilitating morbidities. There are currently no treatments to prevent contracture. Photochemical tissue passivation (PTP), an established, safe, and user-friendly treatment modality, crosslinks collagen by a light-activated process, thus modulating the wound healing response and scarring. We hypothesised that PTP treatment would reinforce wounds by blunting the fibrotic response thus limiting contracture...
July 6, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Ronen Shavit, Christine Dierickx
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Percutaneous drug delivery (PDD) is a means of increasing the uptake of topically applied agents into the skin. Successful delivery of a photosensitizer into the skin is an important factor for effective photodynamic therapy. To evaluate the efficacy of pretreatment by thermomechanical fractional injury (TMFI) (Tixel®, Novoxel®, Israel) at low-energy settings in increasing the permeability of the skin to a known hydrophilic-photosensitizer medication, 5-amino-levulinic-acid hydrochloride (ALA) in compounded 20% ALA gel...
June 28, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Thomas Noh, Brent Griffith, James Snyder, Yuren Zhou, Laila Poisson, Ian Lee
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive therapeutic option for the treatment of brain tumors. Previous studies have quantitatively followed the ablated volumes of high-grade gliomas. Reported treatment volumes range from 28% to 100%, with no reported interobserver analysis. Because these volumes are subjectively measured, it is necessary to establish concordance between clinicians. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Utilizing Brainlab tumor analysis software (Brainlab, Munich, Germany), five physician users traced out tumor volumes slice-by-slice on 10 treated tumors in eight patients...
June 28, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Attila Gergely Sipos, Bence Kozma, Robert Poka, Kindra Larson, Peter Takacs
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the improvement on pelvic floor distress (PFD)-related urogenital symptoms using validated questionnaires after intravaginal CO2 laser treatment. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty postmenopausal women with genitourinary symptoms of menopause (GSM) were enrolled into this prospective cohort study and underwent vaginal laser treatment using MonaLisa Touch® fractional CO 2 laser system. Patients received three vaginal laser treatments with 360° probe 4 weeks apart...
June 25, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Nami Davoodzadeh, Mildred S Cano-Velázquez, David L Halaney, Carrie R Jonak, Devin K Binder, Guillermo Aguilar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Microcirculation plays a critical role in physiologic processes and several disease states. Laser speckle imaging (LSI) is a full-field, real-time imaging technique capable of mapping microvessel networks and providing relative flow velocity within the vessels. In this study, we demonstrate that LSI combine with multispectral reflectance imaging (MSRI), which allows for distinction between veins and arteries in the vascular flow maps produced by LSI. We apply this combined technique to mouse cerebral vascular network in vivo, comparing imaging through the skull, to the dura mater and brain directly through a craniectomy, and through a transparent cranial "Window to the Brain" (WttB) implant...
June 24, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
William A Fried, Kenneth H Chan, Cynthia L Darling, Donald A Curtis, Daniel Fried
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have demonstrated that near-infrared (IR) imaging can be used to acquire high-contrast images of root caries and calculus on the root surfaces of extracted teeth at wavelengths longer than 1450 nm. The purpose of this study was to determine if image-guided laser ablation can be used to selectively remove calculus from tooth surfaces with minimal damage to the underlying sound cementum and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, sequential near-IR images at 1500-1700 nm were used to guide a diode-pumped (DPSS) Er:YAG laser for the removal of calculus from the root surfaces of 10 extracted teeth...
June 24, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Matija Milanic, Blaz Tasic Muc, Nejc Lukac, Matjaz Lukac
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a numerical model for hyperthermic laser lipolysis in human subjects to improve understanding of the procedure and find optimal therapeutic parameters. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: A numerical model of hyperthermic laser lipolysis (HTLL) on human subjects was developed that is based on light and heat transport, including the effects of blood perfusion and forced air cooling. Tissue damage was evaluated using the Arrhenius model...
June 22, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Ahmed Al-Badr, Waleed H Alkhamis
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Laser vaginal tightening (LVT) outpatient procedures have become increasingly popular for cosmetic reasons, for enhancement of sexual functioning and to treat vaginal laxity, mild pelvic organ prolapsed (POP), and urinary incontinence, although scientific short- and long-term evidence is lacking. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Report of three patients with vaginal laxity who previously underwent LVT procedures. RESULTS: Three premenopausal women who previously underwent LVT for vaginal laxity but had no improvement...
June 18, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Matija Milanic, Adam Cenian, Nina Verdel, Witold Cenian, Jost Stergar, Boris Majaron
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the temperature depth profiles induced in human skin in vivo by using a pulsed 975 nm diode laser (with 5 ms pulse duration) and compare them with those induced by the more common 532 nm (KTP) and 1,064 nm (Nd:YAG) lasers. Quantitative assessment of the energy deposition characteristics in human skin at 975 nm should help design of safe and effective treatment protocols when using such lasers. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Temperature depth profiles induced in the human skin by the three lasers were determined using pulsed photothermal radiometry (PPTR)...
June 13, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Julene B Samuels, Andrea Pezzella, Joseph Berenholz, Red Alinsod
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Urinary incontinence is a common and distressing condition which interferes with everyday life. Patients frequently experience discomfort related to urine leakage and the subsequent need to use absorbent pads. Since the continence mechanism is primarily maintained by a proper function of pelvic floor muscles (PFM), many treatment methods focused on strengthening of the PFM have been introduced in the past. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a high-intensity focused electromagnetic technology (HIFEM) for treatment of urinary incontinence with emphasis on effects on prospective patients' quality of life...
June 7, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Sarathkumar Loganathan, Soundarapandian Santhanakrishnan, Ravi Bathe, Muthukumaraswamy Arunachalam
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The employability of the non-invasive femtosecond laser ablation technique for dental treatment has been severely limited by its low ablation rate despite the advantage of minimal tissue damage. The study explores a means of improving the femtosecond laser ablation rate and efficiency by physiochemical surface modification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Surface modification of dental hard tissues has been carried out by food graded orthophosphoric acid and Carie care gel pretreatment...
June 5, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Kamila Pasternak-Mnich, Barbara Ziemba, Aleksandra Szwed, Karolina Kopacz, Marek Synder, Maria Bryszewska, Jolanta Kujawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: We have investigated how low intensity laser irradiation emitted by a multiwave-locked system (MLS M1) affects the viability and proliferation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) depending on the parameters of the irradiation. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cells isolated surgically from the femoral bone during surgery were identified by flow cytometry and cell differentiation assays. For irradiation, two wavelengths (808 and 905 nm) with the following parameters were used: power density 195, 230, and 318 mW/cm 2 , doses of energy 3, 10, and 20 J (energy density 0...
June 4, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Christine Petti, Jacqueline Stoneburner
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Liposuction has become increasingly popular in the past decade due to advances in technique and technology. Despite the demand, there exists a significant population of patients who have contour deformities post-liposuction. The 1,060 nm diode laser has been Food and Drug Administration approved for the removal of unwanted fat, so it was theorized that this noninvasive laser system could be efficacious to smooth these areas of post-liposuction contour deformities...
June 4, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Ying Wang, Raquel Ferrer-Espada, Yan Baglo, Ying Gu, Tianhong Dai
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, safety, and mechanism of action of antimicrobial blue light (aBL) for the inactivation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the etiological agent of gonorrhea. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: The susceptibilities of N. gonorrhoeae (ATCC 700825) in planktonic suspensions to aBL at 405- and 470-nm wavelengths were compared. The roles of oxygen in the anti-gonococcal activity of aBL were studied by examining the effects of hypoxic condition (blowing N2 ) on the anti-gonococcal efficiency of 405-nm aBL...
June 3, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Adel Zeidan, Dukho Do, Dongkyun Kang, Mitsuhiro Ikuta, Jiheun Ryu, Guillermo J Tearney
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Spectrally encoded endoscopy (SEE) is an optical imaging technology that uses spatial wavelength multiplexing to conduct endoscopy in miniature, small diameter probes. Contrary to the previous side-viewing SEE devices, forward-viewing SEE probes are advantageous as they provide a look ahead that facilitates navigation and surveillance. The objective of this work was to develop a miniature forward-viewing SEE probe with a wide field of view and a high spatial resolution...
May 26, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Bin Zhang, Yan Chu, Zigang Xu, Yujuan Sun, Li Li, Xiaofeng Han, Chen Wang, Li Wei, Yuanxiang Liu, Lin Ma
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Café-au-lait spots, also known as café-au-lait macules (CALMs), are a common pigmentary disorder. Although various laser modalities have been used to treat CALMs, the efficacy of laser treatment in children differs from that in adults. We investigated the efficacy, safety, and clinical factors of the treatment of CALMs using Q-switched alexandrite laser (755 nm) therapy in children. METHODS: In total, 471 children with CALMs underwent Q-switched alexandrite laser therapy at a treatment interval of 3-12 months...
May 25, 2019: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
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