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Journal of Hospital Infection | Page 2

Jenine Leal, Paul Ronksley, Elizabeth Ann Henderson, John Conly, Braden Manns
In a population-based, 5-year retrospective cohort study of 5304 adult patients with hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection across Alberta (n=101 hospitals), 30-day all-cause and attributable mortality were 12.2% and 4.5%, respectively. Patients >75 years had the highest odds of attributable mortality (OR 9.34, 95% CI 2.92-29.83) and largest difference in mean length of stay (11.7 days, 95% CI 8.2-15.2). A novel finding was elevated white blood cell count at admission was associated with reduced attributable mortality (OR 0...
April 13, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Z Bravo, M Orruño, T Navascues, E Ogayar, J Ramos-Vivas, V R Kaberdin, I Arana
BACKGROUND: While being a cause of healthcare-associated infections, Acinetobacter baumannii possesses considerable potential to survive on inanimate hospital surfaces under hostile conditions (e.g. disinfection or desiccation). AIMS: To learn more about its survival strategy and capacity to persist in liquid media and on surfaces mimicking hospital environments. METHODS: We studied the effect of temperature, nutrient deprivation, permanence on inanimate surfaces and exposure to disinfectants on the survival of four A...
April 12, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
J Machuca, R Lopez-Rojas, F Fernandez-Cuenca, Á Pascual
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polyhexanide (polyhexamethylene biguanide)-betaine (PHMB-B) compared with 2% chlorhexidine against biofilms of high-risk and/or multidrug-resistant bacterial clones. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of both biocides were determined by microdilution. The effect of PHMB-B and chlorhexidine on biofilm was evaluated by spectrophotometry and cell viability assays. At commercial concentrations, PHMB-B reduced 24 h, 48 h and 1-week biofilms of all pathogens tested...
April 12, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Daisuke Inoue, Chi Xu, Hamidreza Yazdi, Javad Parvizi
BACKGROUND: It is not known whether age alone or the increased comorbidities in the older patients are responsible for the higher rate of periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) in the older patients. The hypothesis of this study was that age alone is not a risk factor for PJI after total joint arthroplasty. METHODS: This retrospective study includes the review of 23,966 patients undergoing primary total hip and knee arthroplasty between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2016 at a single institution...
April 10, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
R A Hobday
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 9, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
M Weinbren, V Weston, S Woods, M Collins, A Coultas, N H O'Connell, C P Dunne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 8, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Marko Jelić, Jasna Hrenović, Svjetlana Dekić, Ivana Goić-Barišić, Arjana Tambić Andrašević
We report the first occurrence of KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in river water, in Croatia. In total, four KPC-2-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were analysed. All isolates shared similar genetic background belonging to ST258. Isolates displayed uniform, multiple-drug resistant profiles susceptible to colistin. blaSHV-1 , aac(3')-II, aac(6')-Ib and aph(3')-Ia genes were detected in all isolates. The blaKPC-2 gene in all isolates was localized on a single non-conjugative IncFII plasmid that varied in size (∼140, ∼230, ∼225 and ∼220 kb)...
April 5, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Boussamet L, Launay E, Thomas E, Gras Leguen C, Lepelletier D
Catheter-relate bloodstream infection (CR-BSI) treatment is based on empiric antibiotherapy associated with or without catheter removal. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of failures in neonates and children with S. aureus CR-BSI with or without rapid catheter removal. Treatment failure was defined as the persistence of positive blood cultures, onset or aggravation of a local or systemic complication or relapse. We analyzed 54 CR-BSI in 225 patients (33 and 21 conservative and non-conservative treatments) with 3 and 10 failures, respectively (P<0...
April 4, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Yeimer Ortiz-Martínez, Alejandro Aristizábal-Agudelo, Yazmín Arroyo-Nisperuza, Jhonatan Niño-Mendoza, Alberto Sotomayor-Hernández, Sandy Moreno-Uparela, Karolay Mendoza-Borja
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
V R Williams, J A Leis, P Trbovich, T Agnihotri, W Lee, B Joseph, L Glen, M Avaness, F Jinnah, N Salt, J E Powis
A key component of transmission-based precautions (TBPs) is the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) but healthcare worker (HCW) adherence remains suboptimal. A human factors-based intervention was implemented to improve adherence to TBPs including (i) improved signage, (ii) standardized placement of signage, (iii) introduction of a mask with integrated face shield, and (iv) improvement in PPE availability. Donning of the correct PPE by HCWs improved significantly (79.7 vs 56.4%; P < 0.001). This approach may be more effective than education alone, but further study is required to determine sustainability and subsequent impact on transmission of healthcare-associated infections...
March 29, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Hyun-Ju Seo, Kyeong-Yae Sohng, Sung Ok Chang, Seung Kyo Chaung, Jongsoon Won, Min-Jung Choi
BACKGROUND: The emergency department (ED) is where hand hygiene problems are significant as the procedures in the ED are often high risk and invasive. To date, there have been no comprehensive reviews on hand hygiene in EDs. AIM: To investigate hand hygiene compliance (HHC) rate, factors affecting the HHC rate, and intervention strategies to improve HHC in EDs. METHODS: Electronic databases were used to search for research published from 1948 to January 2018...
March 29, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
F Omar, A Khan, P Wilson, K Montanheiro, I Taylor, E Wiley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Benjamin P Geisler, Nikolaus Jilg, Richard G Patton, Jan B Pietzsch
BACKGROUND: Blood culture contamination (BCC) increases length of stay (LOS) and leads to unnecessary anti-microbial therapy and/or hospital-acquired conditions (HACs). AIM: We sought to quantify the magnitude of the additional LOS, costs to hospitals and society as well as the harm to patients attributable to BCC. METHODS: A retrospective matched survival analysis was performed involving hospitalized patients with septicaemia-compatible symptoms...
March 27, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Vera Tavoukjian
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a growing global problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and presents a significant financial and economic burden on healthcare. FMT has been proven effective for curing recurrent Clostridium difficile infections, however no systematic review to date has addressed its effectiveness for decolonisation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from the gut. AIM: To answer the following research question: Does faecal microbiota transplantation decolonise antibiotic-resistant bacteria from the gut of colonised adults? METHODS: A systematic review was performed by undertaking a comprehensive search on MEDLINE, Embase, CENTRAL, PubMed and CINAHL databases for evidence up till May 2018...
March 26, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
A A L Traversari, S P M van Heumen, F L J van Tiem, C Bottenheft, M J Hinkema
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of an airflow system in preventing entrainment of particles carrying micro-organisms from the periphery of an operating room (OR) or instrument lay-up room (ILR) is affected by many variables. It is suspected that differences in the design of the systems affect the effective protection ratio (EPR): the ratio of the size of the protected area to the surface area of the supply canopy. However, no analysis has yet been done to determine which design variables have a significant effect on this ratio...
March 25, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
A Salmanov, S Vozianov, V Kryzhevsky, O Litus, A Drozdova, I Vlasenko
BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are one of the commonest adverse events in patient care and account for substantial morbidity and mortality. AIM: To obtain the first estimates of the current prevalence of HAIs and antimicrobial resistance in acute care hospitals in Kyiv, Ukraine. METHODS: Prospective surveillance was conducted from January 2014 to December 2016 in five Kyiv acute care hospitals. Definitions of HAIs were adapted from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Healthcare Safety Network...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
G Bianco, M Boattini, M Iannaccone, F Sidoti, R Cavallo, C Costa
Molecular assays may constitute a valid method to timely predict antimicrobial resistance and optimize empirical antibiotic therapies. We assessed ELITe MGB® assays in blood culture workflow to detect main carbapenemase and ESBL genes, Staphylococcus aureus and mec genes in less than 3h. Excellent agreement results between genotypic and conventional phenotypic approaches were obtained. Retrospective analysis of medical records revealed that approximately 50% of bloodstream infections caused by ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, or MRSA were initially treated with inactive drugs...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
L Tavoschi, L Mason, U Petriti, E Bunge, I Veldhuijzen, E Duffell
BACKGROUND: In the EU/EEA approximately 9 million people are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV), and many are undiagnosed. Targeted active case finding initiatives are needed. Iatrogenic transmission of HBV/HCV is relevant in Europe but people at risk of infection are often overlooked. We aimed to identify groups at increased risk of HBV/HCV infection due to iatrogenic transmission, including health care workers, and to estimate incidence and prevalence...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
L Porte, F Valdivieso, D Wilmes, P Gaete, C Díaz, L Thompson, J M Munita, R Alliende, C Varela, V Rickerts, T Weitzel
Coccidioides is a primary pathogenic fungus, which infects humans through highly infectious arthroconidia, causing substantial morbidity including life-threatening disseminated infections. Due to the low infectious dose, laboratory personnel might become infected during diagnostic procedures. Accordingly, coccidioidomycosis is reported as the most frequent laboratory-acquired systemic mycosis worldwide. This risk is aggravated in non-endemic countries, where the diagnosis may not be suspected. We report on an inadvertent exposure of 44 persons to Coccidioides posadasii in a clinical microbiology laboratory in Chile, the measures of containment after rapid diagnosis with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and the lessons learnt in a non-endemic setting...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Fernanda Gomes Lodi, Giselle Fukita Viana, Ana Paula Uber, Nayara Helisandra Fedrigo, Ana Paula Montemezzo de Farias, Márcia Maria Dos Anjos Szczerepa, Celso Luiz Cardoso, Sheila Alexandra Belini Nishiyama, Maria Cristina Bronharo Tognim
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
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