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Journal of Hospital Infection

Brice Leclère, David L Buckeridge, Didier Lepelletier
BACKGROUND: Labelling outbreaks in surveillance data is necessary to train advanced analytical methods for outbreak detection, but there is a lack of software tools dedicated to this task. AIM: The goal of this study was to evaluate the usability of a web-based tool by infection control practitioners for labelling potential outbreaks. METHODS: A mixed-methods design was used to evaluate how 25 experts from France and Canada interacted with a web-based application to identify potential outbreaks...
May 13, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Hisato Kobayashi, Masayoshi Shinjoh, Koji Sudo, Shingo Kato, Miyuki Morozumi, Goro Koinuma, Takao Takahashi, Yaoko Takano, Yuko Tamura, Naoki Hasegawa
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infections by respiratory viruses undetected by rapid tests are not often diagnosed. For paediatric patients with background diseases, nosocomial infection could be fatal. AIM: To determine the relationship between developing symptoms by respiratory viruses undetectable by rapid tests and respiratory risks and to improve the management of infection control. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated two episodes of nosocomial infection by human bocavirus (HBoV) and human rhinovirus (HRV) in a paediatric ward in a tertiary hospital in Japan...
May 9, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Elisabeth M Terveer, Muireann Fallon, Margriet E M Kraakman, Angela Ormond, Margaret Fitzpatrick, Monique A A Caljouw, Alan Martin, Sofie M van Dorp, Man C Wong, Ed J Kuijper, Fidelma Fitzpatrick
A prevalence study in two nursing homes (ine each in the Netherlands and Ireland) found four (11%) Dutch and six (9%) Irish residents colonised with 11 extended-spectrum B-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, ten containing CTX-M-15. Four Dutch isolates, from three residents of the same ward belonged to E. coli O25:H4, sequence type (ST) 131 and were part of the same cluster type by whole genome sequencing. Four Irish residents on three different wards were colonised with an identical E. coli O89:H9, ST131, complex type 1478...
May 8, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Damian Mawer, Fiona Byrne, Sarah Drake, Claire Brown, Alison Prescott, Ben Warne, Rachel Bousfield, Jordan P Skittrall, Isobel Ramsay, Donald Somasunderam, Moira Bevan, Julie Coslett, Jyothi Rao, Philip Stanley, Adrian Kennedy, Rosemarie Dobson, Sandra Long, Tobi Obisanya, Taher Esmailji, Christina Petridou, Kordo Saeed, Kelly Brechany, Karen Davis-Blue, Helen O'Horan, Bruce Wake, Jessica Martin, Jennifer Featherstone, Charlotte Hall, Joanna Allen, Greta Johnson, Cheryll Hornigold, Nurul Amir, Kathleen Henderson, Catriona McClements, Ignatius Liew, Ashutosh Deshpande, Elen Vink, Debbie Trigg, Jane Guilfoyle, Matthew Scarborough, Claire Scarborough, Th Nicholas Wong, Timothy Walker, Nicola Fawcett, Gayti Morris, Kim Tomlin, Caroline Grix, Emma O'Cofaigh, David McCaffrey, Michael Cooper, Kim Corbett, Kathryn French, Susan Harper, Claire Hayward, Matthew Reid, Vanessa Whatley, Jodie Winfield, Selina Hoque, Lynn Kelly, Isobel King, Amy Bradley, Bernie McCullagh, Carleen Hibberd, Monica Merron, Caroline McCabe, Samantha Horridge, Johnathan Taylor, Sharon Koo, Fadwa Elsanousi, Rosalind Saunders, Felicia Lim, Amy Bond, Sheldon Stone, Iain D Milligan, Damien Jf Mack, Aaron Nagar, Robert M West, Mark H Wilcox, Andrew Kirby, Jonathan At Sandoe
BACKGROUND: The National Health Service in England advises hospitals collect data on hospital-onset diarrhoea (HOD). Contemporaneous data on HOD are lacking. AIM: To investigate prevalence, aetiology and management of HOD on medical, surgical and elderly-care wards. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a volunteer sample of UK hospitals, which collected data on one winter and one summer day in 2016. Patients admitted ≥72 hours were screened for HOD (definition: ≥2 episodes of Bristol Stool Type 5-7 the day before the study, with diarrhoea-onset >48 hours after admission)...
May 8, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
M H Wilcox, A Dyche
We designed a service evaluation to examine the effect of installation of alcohol-releasing Surfaceskins doorplates on routine alcohol hand gel hygiene use by healthcare workers. There was an approximate doubling increase in healthcare worker use of alcohol hand gel dispensers following the installation of Surfaceskins doorplates in two operating theatre suites. We found no evidence that Surfaceskins doorplates replaced routine hand hygiene. We conclude that these devices represent a useful adjunct to routine hand hygiene practice in healthcare environments, and potentially in other settings (e...
May 6, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
B Lytsy, W Whyte
The World Health Organization published guidelines in 2016 for preventing surgical site infections. The guidelines contained a conditional recommendation that laminar airflow (LAF) ventilation systems should not be used to reduce the risk of infection after total joint arthroplasty (TJA). This recommendation was largely based on a systematic review and meta-analysis of information from hospital infection surveillance registries. The recommendation contradicts information published in earlier major studies carried out by Charnley and the UK Medical Research Council (MRC)...
May 3, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Warnke P, Köller T, Kreikemeyer B, Barrantes I, Mach H, Podbielski A
BACKGROUND: Moraxella catarrhalis is a common agent causing upper and lower respiratory tract infections, particularly of ventilated patients. The bacteria are transmitted between humans by direct and indirect contacts. However, reports of nosocomial outbreaks by this pathogen are scarce. AIM: M. catarrhalis strains isolated during an outbreak in a medical rehabilitation centre were analyzed to reveal their clonal relationship and to elucidate potential transmission ways...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Andreas G Tsantes, Dimitrios V Papadopoulos, Theodore Lytras, Argyrios E Tsantes, Andreas F Mavrogenis, Anastasios V Korompilias, Ioannis D Gelalis, Charalambos G Tsantes, Stefanos Bonovas
BACKGROUND AND AIM: A growing body of evidence associates malnutrition with several adverse outcomes. We aimed to investigate the link of malnutrition with surgical site and periprosthetic joint infections (SSI and PJI) following total knee and hip arthroplasty (TKA and THA) through a comprehensive meta-analysis of observational studies. METHODS: We systematically searched PUBMED and SCOPUS databases through December 2018, and recent proceedings of major orthopedic meetings...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Łyszkowska Małgorzata, Kowalewski Grzegorz, Szymczak Marek, Polnik Dariusz, Mikołajczyk Agata, Kaliciński Piotr
Central venous access poses a risk of developing CRIs. The aim of the study was to evaluate prophylactic use of taurolidine-citrate (T-C) solution on the number of CRIs. 97 catheters, used in 86 children, were randomly divided into 2 groups: T(-) (n=49) - standard aseptic procedures; T(+) (n=48) - additional filling of the catheters with T-C solution during intervals in the cycles of parenteral nutrition or drug supply. A significant difference was found in the number of catheter-related infections in the two groups: T(-) n=16, T(+) n=1 (p<0...
May 2, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Andrzej Maciejczak, Andzelina Wolan-Nieroda, Marta Wałaszek, Małgorzata Kołpa, Zdzisław Wolak
BACKGROUND: Despite general consensus on the use of single dose antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP) in instrumented spine surgery, evidence supporting this approach is not robust. AIM: To compare the efficacies of single-dose and 72-hour AMP protocols for the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI) in instrumented (ISS) in a before-and-after study. METHODS: Prospective non-randomized cohort study on 5208 patients who underwent spine surgery in one neurosurgical department between 2003 and 2014...
April 30, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
J Henderson, H Ciesielczuk, S M Nelson, M Wilks
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade there has been a rapid, worldwide increase in carbapenem resistance, which is of growing concern. The main protagonists, the carbapenemases Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC), oxacillinase β-lactamase 48 (OXA-48), imipenemase metallo-β-lactamase (IMP), Verona integron-borne metallo-β-lactamase (VIM), and New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) have also been reported across the UK. However, these reports are derived from a combination of reactive screening, outbreak control, inpatient surveillance, and diagnostic samples...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
David Rm Smith, Koen B Pouwels, Susan Hopkins, Nichola R Naylor, Timo Smieszek, Julie V Robotham
BACKGROUND: Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) and bloodstream infection (CABSI) are leading causes of healthcare-associated infection in England's National Health Service (NHS), but health-economic evidence to inform investment in prevention is lacking. AIMS: To quantify the health-economic burden and value of prevention of urinary catheter-associated infection among adult inpatients admitted to NHS Trusts in 2016/17. METHODS: A decision-analytic model was developed to estimate annual prevalence of CAUTI and CABSI, and their associated excess health burdens (quality-adjusted life-years, QALYs) and economic costs (£ 2017)...
April 29, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Emma Wiley, Corinna Smith, Janaki Thakerar, Peter Wilson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 28, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Angela Tucker, Ryan George, William Welfare, Paul Cleary, Julie Cawthorne, Andrew Dodgson
Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are a growing problem in UK hospitals. Preventing transmission requires early detection. This study evaluates a new screening policy for patients with a history of blaKPC-associated CPE (KPC-CPE) in a higher incidence hospital. Previous policy assumed "once positive always positive". New policy uses rapid screening and risk assessment. Results show most (76.5%) patients with a history of KPC-CPE do not have detectable KPC-CPE on readmission or during their subsequent hospital stay but repeat screening after an initial negative result is required...
April 27, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Stephanie J Dancer, Claire E Adams, Jennifer Smith, Bruno Pichon, Angela Kearns, Donald Morrison
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus remains an important bacterial pathogen worldwide. This study utilized known staphylococcal epidemiology to track S. aureus between different ecological reservoirs in one ten-bed intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Selected hand-touch surfaces, staff hands and air were systematically screened ten times during ten months, with patients screened throughout the study. S. aureus isolates were subjected to spa typing and epidemiological analyses, followed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to provide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data...
April 27, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
L F Dantas, B Dalmas, R M Andrade, S Hamacher, F A Bozza
BACKGROUND: Infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative (MDRGN) bacteria are among the greatest contemporary health concerns, especially in intensive care units (ICUs), and may be associated with increased hospitalization time, morbidity, costs, and mortality. AIM: The study aimed to predict carbapenem-resistant MDRGN acquisition in ICUs, to determine its risk factors, and to assess the impact of this acquisition on mortality rate. METHODS: A matched case-control study was performed in patients admitted to the ICU at a large Brazilian hospital over a five-year period...
April 27, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Molnár Szabolcs, Flonta Mirela Maria Margareta, Almaș Ariana, Buzea Mariana, Licker Monica, Rus Maria, Földes Annamaria, Székely Edit
Several Romanian hospitals noted increasing isolation of Providencia stuartii strains in recent years, with an alarming rate of carbapenem-resistance. In order to provide molecular epidemiological data regarding their dissemination, we analyzed 77 P. stuartii strains collected from 5 hospitals located in different regions of Romania. All strains harbored IncA/C plasmid, and 67 carried the blaNDM-1 gene. 6 clonal clusters were differentiated by PFGE. The predominant subtype was found in all five hospitals. Our study highlights the need for efficient infection control measures, the optimization of antibiotic use and the targeted surveillance for carbapenemase-producing P...
April 27, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Tamalee Roberts, Direk Limmathurotsakul, Paul Turner, Nicholas P J Day, Warunee P Vandepitte, Ben S Cooper
Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalised neonates in South and South-East Asia. We aimed to determine the dynamics of colonisation with antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative bacteria amongst infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Thailand. From a total of 97 enrolled infants, 52% of neonates were colonised by an extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) organism at some point during their stay and 64% were colonised by a carbapenem-resistant organism...
April 14, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
F Barbut, M H Wilcox, K Redway
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 13, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
Jenine Leal, Paul Ronksley, Elizabeth Ann Henderson, John Conly, Braden Manns
In a population-based, 5-year retrospective cohort study of 5304 adult patients with hospital-acquired Clostridioides difficile infection across Alberta (n=101 hospitals), 30-day all-cause and attributable mortality were 12.2% and 4.5%, respectively. Patients >75 years had the highest odds of attributable mortality (OR 9.34, 95% CI 2.92-29.83) and largest difference in mean length of stay (11.7 days, 95% CI 8.2-15.2). A novel finding was elevated white blood cell count at admission was associated with reduced attributable mortality (OR 0...
April 13, 2019: Journal of Hospital Infection
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