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Personality and Individual Differences

E S Naidu, J Patock-Peckham, A Ruof, D Bauman, P Banovich, T Frohe, R F Leeman
Devaluing or diminishing the worth of others is how many individuals destroy their relationships, such as by drinking beyond limits at inappropriate times and letting others down. Impaired control over drinking (IC) reflects consuming alcohol beyond predetermined limits. This investigation sought to determine whether facets of vulnerable narcissism (e.g., entitlement-rage, hiding-the-self, contingent-self-esteem, and devaluing) or narcissistic grandiosity (e.g. grandiose-fantasy, self-sacrificing-for-self-enhancement, and exploitativeness) were directly related to IC and indirectly related to drinking outcomes...
March 1, 2019: Personality and Individual Differences
Stephen J Read, Vita Droutman, Benjamin J Smith, Lynn C Miller
This paper presents a tutorial for creating neural network models of personality processes. Such models enable researchers to create explicit models of both personality structure and personality dynamics, and to address issues of recent concern in personality, such as, "If personality is stable, then how is it possible that within subject variability in personality states can be as large as or larger than between subject variability in personality?" or "Is it possible to understand personality dynamics and personality structure within a common framework?" We discuss why one should want to use neural networks, review what a neural network model is, review a previous model we have constructed, discuss how to conceptualize issues in such a way that they can be computationally modeled, show how that conceptualization can be translated into a model, and discuss the utility of such models for understanding personality structure and personality dynamics...
January 1, 2019: Personality and Individual Differences
Joshua Wilt, William Revelle
Prior research shows that personality traits predict time spent with different people and frequency of engagement in different activities. Further, personality traits, company, and activity are related to the experience of affect. However, little research has examined personality, context, and affect together in the same study. In the current study, 78 people described their Big Five traits and took part in a 1-week experience sampling study using mobile phones as a means for data collection. Participants indicated their current company, activity, and momentary affect along the dimensions of energetic arousal (EA), tense arousal (TA), and hedonic tone (HT)...
January 1, 2019: Personality and Individual Differences
Mohammed Al-Mosaiwi, Tom Johnstone
In social, personality and mental health research, the tendency to select absolute end-points on Likert scales has been linked to certain cultures, lower intelligence, lower income and personality/mental health disorders. It is unclear whether this response style reflects an absolutist cognitive style or is merely an experimental artefact. In this study, we introduce an alternative, more informative, flexible and ecologically valid approach for estimating absolute responding, that uses natural language markers...
November 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
Hedwig Eisenbarth, Sandy Krammer, Bethany G Edwards, Kent A Kiehl, Craig Neumann
Valid measurement of psychopathic traits in females using the Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL-R) continues to be an under researched topic. Previous latent variable and other psychometric studies have raised questions concerning the structure and predictive effects of psychopathic traits in females. New cross-cultural research finds good support for a four-factor model of psychopathy in females and the predictive effects of the psychopathy factors (Declercq, Carter, & Neumann, 2015; Neumann, Hare, & Pardini, 2015)...
July 15, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
Angelina R Sutin, Yannick Stephan, Antonio Terracciano
This research examines whether parental educational attainment and subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with adult offspring well-being and self-beliefs (broadly defined). Participants from the Health and Retirement Study were included if they completed the leave-behind questionnaire in 2006 or 2008 ( N =10,827; M age =68.38; SD =9.81; range=50-101). Participants reported on their own and both parents educational attainment, subjective childhood financial situation, and financial difficulties in childhood at study entry and on well-being in 2006/2008...
July 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
Stephen Nowicki, Genette Ellis, Yasmin Iles-Caven, Steven Gregory, Jean Golding
Although locus of control (LOC) has been the focus of thousands of studies we know little about how or if it changes over time and what is associated with change. Our lack of knowledge stems in part from the past use of cross-sectional and not longitudinal methodologies to study small numbers of participants from non-representative populations. The purpose of the present study was to use a longitudinal design with a large representative population to provide relevant information concerning the stability and change of adult LOC...
May 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
Ateka A Contractor, Stephanie Caldas, Nicole H Weiss, Cherie Armour
The experience of traumatizing events and resulting posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology relates to a range of impulsive behaviors. While both PTSD and impulsivity are heterogeneous and multidimensional constructs, no research has used person-centered approaches to examine subgroups of individuals based on these response endorsements. Hence, our study examined PTSD-impulsivity typologies and their construct validity in two samples: university students ( n = 412) and community participants recruited through Amazon's MTurk ( n = 346)...
April 15, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
Joshua Isen, Laura Baker, Melissa Kern, Adrian Raine, Serena Bezdjian
The appearance of positive adjustment is a theoretically relevant element of psychopathy, and is valuable for demonstrating its incremental validity over a broader antisocial orientation. We examined associations between psychopathic-like features and two measures of adaptive functioning: psychometric intelligence and (immunity to) internalizing problems. Ratings of psychopathy and behavioral problems were obtained in a community sample of children ( N =1210). A bifactor model was fit to the psychopathic personality items to capture the underlying variance common to all traits (i...
April 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
Danica C Slavish, Martin J Sliwinski, Joshua M Smyth, David M Almeida, Richard B Lipton, Mindy J Katz, Jennifer E Graham-Engeland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
Julie A Patock-Peckham, Jessica R Canning, Robert F Leeman
Tension Reduction Theory (Kushner et al., 1994) suggests alcohol is used as a means to alleviate negative affect (NA) such as shame and guilt. Shame is an internalized response in which blame is placed on the self, while guilt is not internalized and the blame is placed on the situation (Dearing et al., 2005). This study aims to investigate relationships of shame and guilt to alcohol use and problems through the mechanisms of multiple facets of impulsivity (i.e. UPPS) and impaired control over drinking (IC), which reflect behavioral control processes...
January 15, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
Nadia Chowdhury, Salpi Kevorkian, Sage E Hawn, Ananda B Amstadter, Danielle Dick, Kenneth S Kendler, Erin C Berenz
Low distress tolerance (DT) is related to negative mental health outcomes, particularly among trauma-exposed populations, who are at greater risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about potential etiological factors underlying the development of perceived (i.e., self-report) or behaviorally assessed DT. The present study examined associations between Big Five personality factors (i.e., openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, & neuroticism) and multiple measures of DT...
January 1, 2018: Personality and Individual Differences
A C Neubauer, M Wammerl, M Benedek, E Jauk, N JauĊĦovec
The past decades have witnessed a huge interest in uncovering the neural bases of intelligence (e.g., Stelmack, & Houlihan, 1995; Stelmack, Knott, & Beauchamp, 2003). This study investigated the influence of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on fluid intelligence performance and corresponding brain activation. Previous findings showed that left parietal theta tACS leads to a transient increase in fluid reasoning performance. In an attempt to extend and replicate these findings, we combined theta tACS with fMRI...
November 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Stefana Morgan, Bruce Cooper, Steven Paul, Marilyn J Hammer, Yvette P Conley, Jon D Levine, Christine Miaskowski, Laura B Dunn
Background: This study identified latent classes of cancer patients based on Big Five personality dimensions and evaluated for differences in demographic and clinical characteristics, depression, anxiety, and cancer-related symptoms. Methods: Patients (n=1248) with breast, gastrointestinal, gynecological, or lung cancer completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventories, NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS)...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Adam W Hanley, Anne K Baker, Eric L Garland
The association between mindfulness and selflessness is firmly grounded in classical Indo-Sino-Tibetan contemplative traditions, but has received limited empirical attention from Western researchers. In Buddhism, the relationship between mindfulness and the self is of central concern to the cultivation of well-being. Mindfulness is believed to encourage insight into the truly insubstantial nature of the self, an understanding that is thought to encourage well-being. The present study explores these relationships, attending to dispositional mindfulness, the self as it exists on a continuum from self-centered to selfless, and psychological well-being...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Frederick S Barrett, Matthew W Johnson, Roland R Griffiths
OBJECTIVES: Classic hallucinogens (e.g. psilocybin and LSD) have substantial effects on perception, cognition, and emotion that can often be psychologically challenging, however we know very little regarding the source of significant individual variability that has been observed in the frequency and intensity of challenging experiences (i.e. "bad trips") with psychedelics. Previous clinical and observational literature suggests that there may be an association between neuroticism and challenging psychedelic experiences...
October 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Benjamin P Chapman, Lewis R Goldberg
The traditional focus of work on personality and behavior has tended toward "major outcomes" such as health or antisocial behavior, or small sets of behaviors observable over short periods in laboratories or in convenience samples. In a community sample, we examined a wide set (400) of mundane, incidental or "every day" behavioral acts, the frequencies of which were reported over the past year. Using an exploratory methodology similar to genomic approaches (relying on the False Discovery Rate) revealed 26 prototypical acts for Intellect, 24 acts for Extraversion, 13 for Emotional Stability, nine for Conscientiousness, and six for Agreeableness...
October 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Karen D Ersche, Tsen-Vei Lim, Laetitia H E Ward, Trevor W Robbins, Jan Stochl
Our daily lives involve high levels of repetition of activities within similar contexts. We buy the same foods from the same grocery store, cook with the same spices, and typically sit at the same place at the dinner table. However, when questioned about these routine activities, most of us barely remember the details of our actions. Habits are automatically triggered behaviours in which we engage without conscious awareness or deliberate control. Although habits help us to operate efficiently, breaking them requires great effort...
October 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Jeremy W Luk, Ryan S Trim, Kenny A Karyadi, Inga Curry, Christian J Hopfer, John K Hewitt, Michael C Stallings, Sandra A Brown, Tamara L Wall
Risky driving behaviors are disproportionately high among young adults and impulsivity is a robust risk factor. Recent conceptualizations have proposed multidimensional facets of impulsivity comprised of negative urgency, premeditation, perseverance, sensation seeking, and positive urgency (UPPS-P model). Prior studies have found these facets are associated with risky driving behaviors in college student samples, but no prior studies have examined these facets in clinical samples. This study examined the unique and interactive effects of UPPS-P impulsivity facets on past-year risky driving behaviors in a sample of high-risk young adults (ages 18-30 years) with a history of substance use and antisocial behavior and their siblings ( n =1,100)...
August 1, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
Patty Van Cappellen, Barbara L Fredrickson, Vassilis Saroglou, Olivier Corneille
Although universal, the motivation to affiliate can vary as a function of individual differences and of the characteristics of the target. Three studies explored the extent to which religious beliefs and identity are related to social affiliation motivation. Because most religions advocate affiliation and provide opportunities for frequent experiences of affiliation, we reasoned that religious people might show greater affiliation motivation in everyday attitudes and behaviors. We found that religiosity was positively related to implicit and behavioral measures of general social affiliation (Studies 1 and 2)...
July 15, 2017: Personality and Individual Differences
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