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Neurochemistry International

Liping Liao, Jinguo Shi, Caibao Jiang, Liantao Zhang, Lisi Feng, Jiayong Liu, Jingxia Zhang
Oxidative stress is an important cause of neurodegenerative diseases. Antioxidant is an potential important method to treat such diseases. The aim of this study is to discover new and effective antioxidants and their mechanism. The neuroprotective effect of six curcumin pyrozole compounds were first evaluated on sodium nitroprusside (SNP) - induced PC12 cell injury by testing cell viability and LDH release. The results showed that four compounds (C1-C4) have more significant protective effects compared to curcumin and edaravone...
February 13, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Seo Young Jeon, Young-Hoon Kim, Sung Jin Kim, Soo Kyung Suh, Hye Jin Cha
25INBOMe ("25-I", "N-Bomb"), one of new psychoactive substances (NPSs), is being abused for recreational purpose. However, the liability for abuse or dependence has not been systematically studied yet. The objective of the present study was to evaluate rewarding and reinforcing effects of 25INBOMe using conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) paradigms. In addition, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) were measured to investigate relationships between USVs and emotional state regarding dependence on psychoactive substances...
February 12, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Liqing Chen, Yan Yan, Tinggui Chen, Liwei Zhang, Xiaoxia Gao, Chenhui Du, Huizhi Du
In the study, the neuroprotectivities of forsythiaside, a main constituent of Forsythia suspensa (Thunb.) Vahl (F. suspensa, Lianqiao in Chinese), were investigated in the hippocampal slices. Forsythiaside suppressed the overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) proteins induced by β-amyloid (Aβ25-35 ) to upregulate the levels of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), an endogenous endocannabinoids. Then the inhibition of forsythiaside on COX-2 was deeply studied by the molecular docking...
February 12, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Hiroki Kurosaki, Kentaro Yamaguchi, Kohei Man-Yoshi, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Satoshi Hara, Hiroshi Ichinose
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second common neurodegenerative disorder. Deficit of the nigro-striatal dopaminergic neurons causes the motor symptoms of PD. While the oxidative stress is thought to be deeply involved in the etiology of PD, molecular targets for the oxidative insults has not been fully elucidated. 6R-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme for production of dopamine, and easily oxidized to its dihydro-form. In this study, we examined the alteration in the metabolism of BH4 caused by a parkinsonian neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)...
February 7, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Alice Kunzler, Camila Tiefensee Ribeiro, Juciano Gasparotto, Lyvia Lintzmaier Petiz, Helen Thais da Rosa Silva, Jeferson Delgado da Silva, Rafael Bortolin, Priscila Oliveira de Souza, Fabiano Barreto, Pedro Espitia-Perez, Carlos Eduardo Schnorr, Nauana Somensi, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira, Daniel Pens Gelain
Vitamin A (retinol) is involved in signaling pathways regulating gene expression and was postulated to be a major antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compound of the diet. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons, involving oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory activation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of retinol oral supplementation against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 12 μg per rat) nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation in Wistar rats...
February 7, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Katarina Ondicova, Andrej Tillinger, Jan Pecenak, Boris Mravec
The mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of antidepressants are only partially understood. Published data indicate that the vagal anti-inflammatory pathway could be involved in mediating this effect. Therefore, we investigated the influence of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on the anti-inflammatory effect of fluoxetine in rats injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce an inflammatory response. The extent of this response was determined by measurement of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 plasma levels, along with gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the spleen and selected structures of the brain...
February 6, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Hidetsugu Fujigaki, Akihiro Mouri, Yasuko Yamamoto, Toshitaka Nabeshima, Kuniaki Saito
Phencyclidine (PCP) is a dissociative anesthetic that induces psychotic symptoms and neurocognitive deficits in rodents similar to those observed in schizophrenia patients. PCP administration in healthy human subjects induces schizophrenia-like symptoms such as positive and negative symptoms, and a range of cognitive deficits. It has been reported that PCP, ketamine, and related drugs such as N-methyl-D-aspartate-type (NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonists, induce behavioral effects by blocking neurotransmission at NMDA receptors...
February 4, 2019: Neurochemistry International
C Kirkedal, B Elfving, H K Müller, F A Moreira, L Bindila, B Lutz, G Wegener, N Liebenberg
Altered endocannabinoid (eCB) signaling is suggested as an important contributor to the pathophysiology of depression. To further elucidate this, we conducted a study using a genetic rat model of depression, the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL), and their controls, the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) rats. Plasma, right and left prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus were isolated from FSL and FRL rats. We analyzed each region for the eCB anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) levels by liquid chromatography/multiple reaction monitoring (LC/MRM), mRNA and protein levels of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1 R), fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL) by real time qPCR and Western blotting...
February 1, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Eduardo F Gallo
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2Rs) mediate many of the actions of dopamine in the striatum, ranging from movement to the effortful pursuit of reward. Yet despite significant advances in linking D2Rs to striatal functions with pharmacological and genetic strategies in animals, how dopamine orchestrates its myriad actions on different cell populations -each expressing D2Rs- remains unclear. Furthermore, brain imaging and genetic studies in humans have consistently associated striatal D2R alterations with various neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, but how and which D2Rs are involved in each case is poorly understood...
February 1, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Fumino Fujiyama, Tomo Unzai, Fuyuki Karube
The neostriatum has a mosaic organization consisting of striosome and matrix compartments. It receives glutamatergic excitatory afferents from the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Recent behavioral studies in rats revealed a selectively active medial prefronto-striosomal circuit during cost-benefit decision-making. However, clarifying the input/output organization of striatal compartments has been difficult because of its complex structure. We recently demonstrated that the source of thalamostriatal projections are highly organized in striatal compartments...
January 30, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Ya-Jen Chiu, Yu-Hsuan Hsieh, Te-Hsien Lin, Guan-Chiun Lee, Hsiu Mei Hsieh-Li, Ying-Chieh Sun, Chiung-Mei Chen, Kuo-Hsuan Chang, Guey-Jen Lee-Chen
The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is involved in the aggregation of misfolded amyloid β (Aβ), which upregulates the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), enhances neuroinflammation, and eventually leads to neuronal death. Therefore, compounds targeting these mechanisms may be candidates for multitarget drugs in AD treatment. We found that two quinoline derivatives, VB-030 and VB-037, markedly reduced Aβ aggregation and ROS levels in the thioflavin T biochemical assay and Tet-On Aβ-green fluorescent protein (GFP) 293 AD cell model...
January 29, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Umadevi V Wesley, Vijesh J Bhute, James F Hatcher, Sean P Palecek, Robert J Dempsey
Metabolic dysfunction impacts stroke incidence and outcome. However, the intricate association between altered metabolic program due to aging, and focal ischemia in brain, circulation, and peripheral organs is not completely elucidated. Here we identified locally and systemically altered metabolites in brain, liver, and plasma as a result of normal aging, ischemic-stroke, and extended time of reperfusion injury. Comprehensive quantitative metabolic profiling was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 29, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Xuzhao Zhou, Yo Oishi, Yoan Cherasse, Mustafa Korkutata, Shinya Fujii, Chia-Ying Lee, Michael Lazarus
Sleep and wakefulness are controlled by a wide range of neuronal populations in the mammalian brain. Activation of adenosine A2A receptor (A2A R)-expressing neurons in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core promotes slow-wave sleep (SWS). The neuronal mechanism by which activation of NAc A2A R neurons induces SWS, however, is unknown. We hypothesized that the ability of NAc activation to induce sleep is mediated by the classic somnogen adenosine, which can be formed by various processes in all types of cells. Here, to investigate whether astrocytes are involved in the ability of the NAc to regulate SWS, we ablated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells in the NAc core of mice by virus-mediated expression of diphtheria toxin (DT) receptors and intraperitoneal administration of DT...
January 25, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Abdeslam Chagraoui, Sara Whitestone, Lynn Baassiri, Julien Manem, Giuseppe Di Giovanni, Philippe De Deurwaerdère
Serotonin2C receptor (5-HT2C ) agonists are promising drugs for the treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases. However, their effect is not completely understood in part because they possibly affect several neurobiological networks simultaneously. We studied the effect of the 5-HT2C receptor agonist WAY-163909 (0.3 and 3 mg/kg; i.p.) on the tissue concentration of dopamine (DA), 5-HT and noradrenaline (NA) in 29 rat brain regions related to motor, cognitive, mood and vegetative networks. We found that WAY-163909, without altering the tissue concentration of NA, increased 5-HT concentrations in the medial orbitofrontal cortex and the motor cortex M2 at 3 mg/kg and decreased it in the dorsolateral orbitofrontal cortex at 0...
January 24, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Huynh Nhu Mai, Yoon Hee Chung, Eun-Joo Shin, Dae-Joong Kim, Naveen Sharma, Yu Jeung Lee, Ji Hoon Jeong, Seung-Yeol Nah, Choon-Gon Jang, Hyoung-Chun Kim
Converging evidence has demonstrated that oxidative burdens are associated with drug dependence induced by psychostimulants. Here, we investigated whether oxidative stress directly mediates conditioned place preference and behavioral sensitization (drug dependence) induced by cocaine and whether glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPx-1), a major GPx, modulates cocaine-induced psychotoxic changes in mice. Cocaine-induced drug dependence was followed by increases in c-Fos-immunoreactivity (c-Fos-IR) in the nucleus accumbens...
January 24, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Dora Reglodi, Denes Toth, Viktoria Vicena, Sridharan Manavalan, Dwayne Brown, Bruk Getachew, Yousef Tizabi
Alcohol addiction is a worldwide concern as its detrimental effects go far beyond the addicted individual and can affect the entire family as well as the community. Considerable effort is being expended in understanding the neurobiological basis of such addiction in hope of developing effective prevention and/or intervention strategies. In addition, organ damage and neurotoxicological effects of alcohol are intensely investigated. Pharmacological approaches, so far, have only provided partial success in prevention or treatment of alcohol use disorder (AUD) including the neurotoxicological consequences of heavy drinking...
January 22, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Bo Zhang, Xuhui Chen, Youyou Lv, Xi Wu, Lingli Gui, Yue Zhang, Jin Qiu, Guizhi Song, Wenlong Yao, Li Wan, Chuanhan Zhang
Post-stroke survivors exhibited cognitive deficits and performed emotional impairment. However, the effect of global cerebral ischemia on standard behavioral measures of emotionality and underlying mechanism remain largely unknown. Our previous work identified that down-regulation of Cdh1 contributed to ischemic neuronal death in rat, thus we hypothesized that Cdh1 exerts a role in emotionality after cerebral ischemia, and we investigated the effect of Cdh1 overexpression on neurogenic behaviors and possible mechanisms in transient global cerebral ischemia reperfusion (tGCI/R) rats...
January 21, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Chan Sol Park, Jee Youn Lee, Hae Young Choi, Bong Gun Ju, Inchan Youn, Tae Young Yune
After spinal cord injury (SCI), blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and hemorrhage lead to blood cell infiltration and progressive secondary injuries including inflammation. Inflammatory response is one of the major events resulting in apoptosis, scar formation and neuronal dysfunction after SCI. Here, we investigated whether protocatechuic acid (PCA), a natural phenolic compound, would attenuate BSCB disruption and hemorrhage, leading to functional improvement after SCI. After a moderate contusion injury at T9, PCA (50 mg/kg) was administrated via intraperitoneal injection immediately, 6 h, and 12 h after SCI, and the same dose of PCA once a day until 7 d after injury...
January 18, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Patricia Bonnavion, Elisa Pozuelo Fernández, Christophe Varin, Alban de Kerchove d'Exaerde
The striatum as the main entry nucleus of the basal ganglia is long known to be critical for motor control. It integrates information from multiple cortical areas, thalamic and midbrain nuclei to refine and control motion. By tackling this incredible variety of input signals, increasing evidences showed a pivotal role, particularly of the dorsal striatum, in executive functions. The complexity of the dorsal striatum (DS) in its compartmentalization and in the nature and origin of its afferent connections, makes it a critical hub controlling dynamics of motor learning and behavioral or cognitive flexibility...
January 16, 2019: Neurochemistry International
TaeHee Kim, Bharath Chelluboina, Anil K Chokkalla, Raghu Vemuganti
Despite the immeasurable burden on patients and families, no effective therapies to protect the CNS after an acute injury are available yet. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms that promote neuronal death and functional deficits after injury remain to be poorly understood. The prevalence, age of onset, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of many CNS insults differ significantly between males and females. In the case of stroke, younger males tend to show a higher risk than younger females, while this trend reverses with age...
January 14, 2019: Neurochemistry International
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