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Journal of Public Health Policy

Sarah Steele, Gary Ruskin, Martin McKee, David Stuckler
Concerns about conflicts of interest in commercially funded research have generated increasing disclosure requirements, but are these enough to assess influence? Using the Coca-Cola Company as an example, we explore its research agreements to understand influence. Freedom of Information requests identified 87,013 pages of documents, including five agreements between Coca-Cola and public institutions in the United States, and Canada. We assess whether they allowed Coca-Cola to exercise control or influence. Provisions gave Coca-Cola the right to review research in advance of publication as well as control over (1) study data, (2) disclosure of results and (3) acknowledgement of Coca-Cola funding...
May 8, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Ronald Labonté, Raphael Lencucha, Fastone Goma, Richard Zulu, Jeffrey Drope
Zambia, a tobacco-growing country, provides manufacturing incentives to attract foreign and domestic investment. In an earlier study, we cautioned that these incentives could lead to local tobacco manufacturing, undermining its domestic tobacco control efforts. In 2018, as part of our continuing research program, we conducted key informant interviews (n = 15) and document analyses. Our early caution proved correct. In 2018, taking advantage of tax incentives, British American Tobacco Zambia and Roland Imperial Tobacco opened new cigarette-manufacturing facilities in the Lusaka Multi-Facility Economic Zone...
May 4, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 11, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Anaïs Léger, Lis Alban, Anouk Veldhuis, Gerdien van Schaik, Katharina D C Stärk
Current legislation governing monitoring of drug residues in foodstuff of animal origin is being revised at the European level. This study provides a qualitative comparison of the legislation, public and private standards in the European Union, the United States of America (USA) and the Eurasian Customs Union/Russia. We made a quantitative comparison of Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) applied in each region for pork kidneys for tetracycline (with a focus on doxycycline), penicillin and chloramphenicol. The Customs Union generally applied lower levels than the other regions, with MRLs for tetracyclines in pig kidneys being 1200 times lower than those applied in the USA...
April 11, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Irshad Ahmad, Ajaz A Rather, Billal Rashid, Ikhlaq Ul Aziz Bhat, Mohd Ilyas, Yaqoob Hassan
We assessed the level of regular, periodic deworming and awareness of National Deworming Day in the local population in the endemic region of Kashmir by conducting a cross-sectional survey in the local population of patients (or their attendants for patients 18 years of age or younger) who visited the hospital as outpatients or were admitted as inpatients. The study team presented questionnaires with simple questions about deworming and child immunization to 1150 participants, noted responses, and then compiled the data...
March 29, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Katharina T Paul, Kathrin Loer
This paper seeks to contribute to a more nuanced discourse on vaccination policy. Current polarization between either mandatory and entirely voluntary is misleading, as virtually all immunization programs feature a combination of instruments that comprise mandatory and voluntary elements. We develop this argument by presenting five case studies from the European Union (EU). By systematically acknowledging the nuances of political and institutional varieties, we build the case for reframing the terms of the debate in the EU and beyond...
March 20, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Donley Studlar, Paul Cairney
Campaigns against risk factors for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) caused by smoking and obesity have become increasingly common on multiple levels of government, from the local to the international. Non-governmental actors have cooperated with government bodies to make policies. By analysing the policies of the World Trade Organization, the World Health Organization, the European Union, and the United Kingdom and United States governments, we identify how the struggles between public health advocates and commercial interests reached the global level, and how the relatively successful fight to 'denormalize' tobacco consumption has become a model for anti-obesity advocates...
March 1, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Gregory Fayard
In just a few decades, China has undergone probably the fastest motorization of a transportation system in history. Now possessing the longest roadway network and the highest volume of car sales in the world, China has also faced major public health impacts from adopting automobiles, including air pollution and traffic fatalities. This paper synthesizes various sources to present the challenges to road safety in China. The country's rapid development expresses many patterns and features familiar to developed nations, such as declining urban density, increased use of sport utility vehicles, and strict drunk-driving laws...
February 26, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Charlotte Cliffe, Maddalena Miele, Steven Reid
We review the international literature on a neglected aspect of maternal mortality: maternal homicide. Reported rates range from 0.97 to 10.6 per 100,000 live births. Women murdered in the perinatal period constituted a highly vulnerable group: they were younger, more likely to be from minority ethnic groups, and unmarried. Domestic violence was a significant risk factor for attempted and completed homicide. Compared to other countries, pregnancy-associated homicide rates were highest in the US. It is unclear how much of the difference to attribute to better case identification or to actual risk...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Jing Cheng, Jing Chai, Yehuan Sun, Debin Wang
Children with upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) are among the highest receivers of antibiotics. Using a retrospective cross-sectional study, we described clinical management in rural China of recent URTIs in children. We explored antibiotics using behaviors and associations of caregivers' variables and children's symptoms. Children with URTIs had a high consultation rate and a high prescription rate of antibiotics. For the children, some caregivers adopted, without rationale, 'self-medication' with antibiotics...
January 23, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Susan Greenhalgh
Soda industry efforts to manipulate obesity science and policy in the US are well documented, yet little is known about whether the industry has pursued similar efforts abroad. In-depth research in China-analyses of interviews with prominent Chinese obesity experts, and of trends in obesity-related activities documented in newsletters of China's lead organization on obesity, a branch of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a US-based, corporate-funded, global nonprofit strongly influenced by the Coca-Cola Company-showed that from 1999 to 2015, China's obesity science and policy shifted markedly toward physical activity as Coca-Cola's influence in China increased...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Danielle Solomon
As the United Kingdom (UK) negotiates its separation from the European Union (EU), it is important to remember the public health mechanisms that are directly facilitated via our relationship with the EU. One such mechanism is the UK's role within the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Global health protection is an area that is currently experiencing an unprecedented wave of innovation, both technologically and ideologically, and we must therefore ensure that our future relationship with ECDC is one that facilitates full involvement with the global health security systems of the future...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Hans V Hogerzeil, Sterre Recourt
Diabetes mellitus is rapidly becoming one of the major diseases affecting people's health globally. Over half of 100 million diabetes patients who need insulin to survive, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), are not able to get this medicine and die prematurely. Since 2000, insulin-producing companies have started support programmes with a component of insulin donations to children and youth with type 1 diabetes in 43 LMIC. Based on their experiences we conclude, contrary to common belief, that the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of fatal complications in children with type 1 diabetes in LMIC are very possible in practice, with large improvements in survival, mean body weight, mean glucose levels, and frequency of complications...
January 9, 2019: Journal of Public Health Policy
Heidi Beidinger-Burnett, Lacey Ahern, Michelle Ngai, Gabriel Filippelli, Matthew Sisk
Lead exposure is a major health hazard affecting children and their growth and is a concern in many urban areas around the world. One such city in the United States (US), South Bend Indiana, gained attention for its high levels of lead in blood and relatively low testing rates for children. We assessed current lead screening practices in South Bend and the surrounding St. Joseph County (SJC). The 2005-2015 lead screening data included 18,526 unique children. Lead screening rates ranged from 4.7 to 16.7%. More than 75% of children had 'elevated blood lead levels' (EBLL) ≥ 1 micrograms per deciliter (µg/Dl) and 9...
December 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
Anthony Biglan, Mark Van Ryzin, Erika Westling
Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and experimental studies have found a link between youth exposure to cigarette marketing and youth initiation of smoking. These decisive research findings led to regulations of cigarette marketing to youth-including no television or radio ads, prohibitions on the use of cartoons, bans on transit and billboard advertisements, and disallowing tobacco brand sponsorships of sporting events or concerts. Similar products that may cause more harm than benefits include alcohol, electronic cigarettes, and opioids...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
Arun Gupta, Shoba Suri, J P Dadhich, Marta Trejos, Barbara Nalubanga
Breastfeeding could save the lives of more than 820,000 children and 20,000 women. Worldwide, despite evidence of the importance of both, only 42% women begin breastfeeding within an hour of birth, and 41% practice exclusive breastfeeding. In 2002, to mobilise action and support optimal breastfeeding, the World Health Assembly adopted the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. The WHO identified the need to assess implementation of policies and programmes at the national level and provided an assessment tool...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
Luca Zamengo, Giampietro Frison, Guus Zwitser
The new psychoactive substances (NPS) phenomenon has emerged as a global threat that challenges public health and institutions. There are important qualitative differences between the NPS and traditional drugs phenomena. We discuss these differences and explore the complex structure of the NPS phenomenon. We analyse the entire phenomenon with a global, holistic approach. We present an original framework to help policy makers, healthcare practitioners, and community workers understand the NPS phenomenon's structure and to plan comprehensive policy responses and prevention strategies...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
Haesoo Kim, Se Won Kwon, Yong Min Ahn, Hong Jin Jeon, Subin Park, Jin Pyo Hong
For more than 10 years, the suicide rate in South Korea has been the highest among members of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Suicide-prevention strategies, such as restricting access to lethal suicide methods, have been implemented in Korea. In this paper, we discuss suicide-prevention strategies that restrict access to the five leading methods for committing suicide: pesticide ingestion, inhalation of charcoal fumes, jumping from heights, placing oneself in front of moving subway trains, and hanging oneself by the neck...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Public Health Policy
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