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American Journal of Infection Control

Suluck Soontaros, Nattawut Leelakanok
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has emerged in health care facilities around the world. Several studies demonstrated data regarding clinical outcomes for CRE infections including death. This systematic review and meta-analysis summarized literature discussing association between CRE and mortality. METHODS: A systematic literature review was performed by searching EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstract databases, PubMed, and Scopus and to identify studies that assessed the association between CRE and death published from April 2012 to October 2017...
May 7, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Charles E Edmiston, Abhishek S Chitnis, Jason Lerner, Ekoué Folly, Chantal E Holy, David Leaper
BACKGROUND: The frequency of primary and revision total knee and hip replacements (pTKRs, rTKRs, pTHRs, and rTHRs, respectively) is increasing in the United States due to demographic changes. This study evaluated the impact of preoperative patient and clinical factors on the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) within the 90-day period after primary and revision total joint replacements (TJR). METHODS: A retrospective observational cohort study was designed using the IBM MarketScan and Medicare databases, 2009-2015...
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Lynn Gregory, Lauren E Weston, Molly Harrod, Jennifer Meddings, Sarah L Krein
BACKGROUND: Caring for patients in contact precautions can be challenging. In this pilot study, we sought to understand, using qualitative and visual methods, how nurses provide care for patients in contact precaution rooms and to identify potential breakdowns in practice that could increase risk of disease transmission. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected while shadowing 4 nurses on 2 medical/surgical units at a university medical center between September and October 2016...
May 6, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Brenda Ehlert, Anthony Zeimet
When Ascension Wisconsin was formed, it merged 4 long-established health systems: Ministry Health Care, Affinity Health System, Wheaton Franciscan Healthcare, and Columbia St Mary's. One of the challenges encountered during the first year was redundancy in many policies and processes. Setting a structure, establishing goals, and evaluating progress led to success for Ascension Wisconsin's Infection Prevention Council.
May 4, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Anna K Barker, Elise S Cowley, Linda McKinley, Marc-Oliver Wright, Nasia Safdar
Using an innovative, covert, in-room observer method to evaluate infection control practices for patients with Clostridioides difficile infection, we found no difference between physician and nursing hand hygiene compliance and contact precaution usage. There was also no diurnal variation in hand hygiene practices, but decreased contact precaution usage at night. Conversely, hospital-wide data from overt observations collected over the same time period showed significantly higher hand hygiene compliance among nurses than physicians...
May 4, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Anne T Köhler, Arne C Rodloff, Manja Labahn, Mario Reinhardt, Uwe Truyen, Stephanie Speck
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB) constitute a threat to health care worldwide. Disinfectants are used to prevent and control the spread of MDR-GNB in a hospital setting but their efficacy might be impaired by bacterial mechanisms that may act on both antimicrobials and disinfectants. Determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations is mainly used to determine bacterial susceptibility against disinfectants, but practical tests on surfaces might be more suitable to predict in-use conditions...
May 4, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Mayssa Abuali, Andrea Zivot, Sandra Guerguis, Enrique Valladares, Samia Aleem, Francisco Gonzalez-Salazar, Brittany Rouchou, Nicolas Mottola, Leonard Braitman, Andrew Paoletti
Little is known about antibiotic prescribing differences between academic and community outpatient settings. This retrospective, cross-sectional chart review compares compliance with Infectious Diseases Society of America and American Academy of Pediatrics prescribing guidelines for otitis media, sinusitis, and pharyngitis in academic and affiliated community practices. The study results for correct antibiotic prescribing rate in the academic setting (67%) compared with the community setting (21%) demonstrate the urgent need for stewardship in community outpatient clinics...
May 2, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Hana Hakim, Craig Gilliam, Li Tang, Jiahui Xu, Linda D Lee
BACKGROUND: For a clean hospital environment, we evaluated whether ultraviolet-C (UV-C) air disinfection reduces airborne and surface microbial contamination in an outpatient pediatric oncology center. METHODS: A pre- and post-intervention study compared 6 test locations, where continuous shielded UV-C air disinfection devices were installed, with 10 control locations without UV-C. Pre- and post-intervention air and surface samples were collected for bacterial and fungal cultures...
May 1, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Michelle DeVries, Janice Lee, Lisa Hoffman
BACKGROUND: To reduce excess central line use and provide an option for difficult venous access patients through the introduction of a midline catheter. METHODS: Design included prospective monitoring of the implementation of a quality improvement project. The setting was a 576 bed, urban, community, nonprofit, Magnet recognized, level 3 trauma center serving primarily adult patients. Midline and peripherally inserted central catheters were inserted by a specialty nursing team; care and maintenance of all devices were provided by front line staff...
April 29, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Mark K Weng, Richard B Brooks, Janet Glowicz, M Shannon Keckler, Bryan E Christensen, Victoria Tsai, Clifford S Mitchell, Lucy E Wilson, Ron Laxton, Heather Moulton-Meissner, Ryan Fagan
A Pseudomonas aeruginosa outbreak was investigated in a neonatal intensive care unit that had experienced a prior similar outbreak. The 8 cases identified included 2 deaths. An investigation found the cause of the outbreak: tap water from contaminated hospital plumbing which was used for humidifier reservoirs, neonatal bathing, and nutritional preparation. Our findings reinforce a recent Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services memo recommending increased attention to water management to improve awareness, identification, mitigation, and prevention of water-associated, health care-associated infections...
April 29, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Ophélie Hereng, Aurélien Dinh, Jérôme Salomon, Benjamin Davido
BACKGROUND: Isolation precautions used against multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms are responsible for many emotional side effects. We evaluated patient's feeling after a hospitalization for an MDR infection. METHODS: We conducted a qualitative study that included 11 interviews from August 2017 to June 2018. We used phenomenology and verbatim transcription analysis was performed using NVivo software. Patients reported mainly negative feelings. Among them, 4 main themes were expressed: a desire to "be free from carriage," self-questioning regarding its nosocomial origin, the reduction of the therapeutic arsenal, and the expression of many fears especially relapse...
April 29, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Arufumi Shiota, Nobuhiro Asai, Yusuke Koizumi, Hiroki Watanabe, Miki Sakata, Ai Kurumiya, Tomoko Takahashi, Yuki Muramatsu, Mao Hagihara, Hiroyuki Suematsu, Yuka Yamagishi, Hiroshige Mikamo
In some Japanese hospitals, patients using infusion bags for parenteral nutrition containing amino acids have developed Bacillus cereus bloodstream infections. We considered that proliferation of contaminated B cereus in the bag during prolonged drip infusion might be one of the causes of infection. This study indicated that 8 h is the maximum appropriate drip infusion time for peripheral parental nutrition containing amino acids to prevent B cereus bloodstream infections.
April 29, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Ayodeji Otufowora
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Consuelo G Tinajero, Miriam Bobadilla-Del Valle, Jose A Alvarez, Juan L Mosqueda, Alfredo Ponce De Leon, Alejandro E Macias
A recent study reported enterococci that developed alcohol tolerance. We measured minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of isopropyl alcohol against 55 vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium. We did not find an increase in MICs when comparing the periods before and after the use of alcohol for hand hygiene in a hospital, and we did not find a single isolate with a MIC higher than 11.5%. We consider alcohol to still be an effective measure for hand antisepsis.
April 27, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Alysha D M Robinson, Franklin Dexter, Valerie Renkor, Sundara Reddy, Randy W Loftus
BACKGROUND: Operating room (OR) reservoir Staphylococcus aureus isolates have been linked to 50% of surgical site infections. We aimed to assess S aureus transmission dynamics in today's ORs to further guide health care-associated infection prevention. METHODS: Forty OR case-pairs were randomly selected for observation in a 5-month prospective cohort study. Case-pair S aureus transmission dynamics were mapped using OR PathTrac. RESULTS: S aureus pathogens were isolated from ≥1 OR reservoirs in 45...
April 27, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
William Stoudemire, Xiaotong Jiang, Juyan J Zhou, Philip Maykowski, Michael R Kosorok, Marianne S Muhlebach, Lisa Saiman
BACKGROUND: The Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Foundation disseminated an updated guideline for infection prevention and control (IP&C) practices for CF care programs in 2013. Assessing adoption rates of IP&C recommendations is crucial to evaluate their impact. METHODS: CF care programs provided their written IP&C policies for CF. Policies were analyzed to determine adoption of selected recommendations new in 2013, as well as recommendations made in both 2003 and 2013...
April 26, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Xiaofei Ding, Changwei Tian, Hua Wang, Wenming Wang, Xiaoming Luo
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination has been recommended for young adults aged 18-26 years. METHODS: Data from the 2016 and 2017 National Health Interview Survey were pooled. RESULTS: The prevalence of HPV vaccination initiation (≥1 dose) was 32.54% in 2016 and 37.92% in 2017, and the prevalence of HPV vaccination completion (≥3 doses) was 17.05% in 2016 and 19.38% in 2017 among young adults aged 18-26 years. Being female sex (odds ratio: 4...
April 26, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Peter DeJonge, Emily T Martin, Michael Hayashi, Andrew N Hashikawa
BACKGROUND: Environmental decontamination is one of the most effective methods to prevent transmission of infectious pathogens in child care centers (CCCs). Alongside state recommendations, national organizations-including the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)-offer best-practice policies. In Michigan, these sets of guidelines differ, and the extent to which CCC practices agree with either set of protocols is unknown. METHODS: A survey of environmental decontamination practices was administered at a professional meeting of CCC directors (N = 24) in a single Michigan county...
April 26, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Rajiv S Vasudevan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
Alex S Jorge, Barbara S Horvath, Claudia Ariati, Jessica C Silva, Lucas B Lima, Josana D Horvath, Jorge Juarez Vieira Teixeira, Dennis Armando Bertolini
BACKGROUND: Children with vertically transmitted hepatitis B virus develop chronic infection up to 90% of the time. This study aimed to verify the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in pregnant patients treated in a Brazilian public hospital and analyze the prophylactic measures in newborns. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted by collcting data in the electronic charts of patients who attended the obstetric and maternity departments, from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2016, and evaluating the results of pregnant women's HBsAg, prophylaxis in newborns, and clinical follow-up...
April 24, 2019: American Journal of Infection Control
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