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Journal of Animal Science

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30780163/effect-of-exogenous-butyrate-on-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-sheep-ii-hydrolytic-activity-in-the-rumen-and-structure-and-function-of-the-small-intestine
#1
Paweł Górka, Bogdan Śliwiński, Jadwiga Flaga, Jarosław Olszewski, Paulina Nawrocka, Klaudyna Sobkowiak, Renata Miltko, Michał M Godlewski, Romuald Zabielski, Zygmunt M Kowalski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30780162/effects-of-dietary-supplementation-with-essential-oils-and-organic-acids-on-the-growth-performance-immune-system-fecal-volatile-fatty-acids-and-microflora-community-in-weaned-piglets
#2
Caimei Yang, Lingling Zhang, Guangtian Cao, Jie Feng, Min Yue, Yinglei Xu, Bin Dai, Qianjie Han, Xiqin Guo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30780161/effect-of-exogenous-butyrate-on-the-gastrointestinal-tract-of-sheep-i-structure-and-function-of-the-rumen-omasum-and-abomasum1
#3
Paweł Górka, Bogdan Śliwiński, Jadwiga Flaga, Jarosław Olszewski, Marcin Wojciechowski, Klaudia Krupa, Michał M Godlewski, Romuald Zabielski, Zygmunt M Kowalski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785622/effects-of-long-term-diet-supplementation-with-gliricidia-sepium-foliage-mixed-with-enterolobium-cyclocarpum-pods-on-enteric-methane-apparent-digestibility-and-rumen-microbial-population-in-crossbred-heifers
#4
I C Molina-Botero, M D Montoya-Flores, L M Zavala-Escalante, R Barahona-Rosales, J Arango, J C Ku-Vera
In the last decades, strategies have been evaluated to reduce rumen methane (CH4) production by supplementing tropical forages rich in secondary compounds; however, most of these beneficial effects need to be validated in terms of their persistence over time. The aim of this study was to assess CH4 emissions over time in heifers fed with and without Gliricidia sepium foliage (G) mixed with ground pods of Enterolobium cyclocarpum(E). Two groups of four crossbred (Bos taurus x Bos indicus) heifers (284 ±17 kg initial weight) were fed with two diets (0 and 15% of a mixture of the pods and foliage [E+G:0 and E+G:15, respectively] over 80 days, plus two weeks before the experiment, in which every animal was fed a legume and pod-free diet...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772914/sex-dependent-differences-for-larkspur-delphinium-barbeyi-toxicosis-in-yearling-angus-cattle1
#5
Benedict T Green, John W Keele, Dale R Gardner, Kevin D Welch, Gary L Bennett, Daniel Cook, James A Pfister, T Zane Davis, Clint A Stonecipher, Stephen T Lee, Bryan L Stegelmeier
Larkspur (Delphinium spp.) poisoning is a long-term problem for cattle grazing on rangelands of western North America. Results from preliminary experiments have suggested that differences in larkspur toxicity may exist between heifers and bulls. The objective of this study was to compare the physiological responses of yearling Angus heifers, steers, and bulls with a standardized dose of Delphinium barbeyi and to test the hypothesis that the response is sex dependent. Clinical signs of intoxication, including muscle coordination and function, were measured 24 h after oral dosing with larkspur by walking the cattle at a pace of 5 to 6 km h-1 for up to 40 min on an oval dirt track...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772897/the-effect-of-alkaloid-composition-of-larkspur-delphinium-species-on-the-intoxication-of-angus-heifers1
#6
Benedict T Green, Dale R Gardner, James A Pfister, Kevin D Welch, Gary L Bennett, Daniel Cook
Cattle losses from larkspur (Delphinium spp.) toxicity are a long-term challenge on the rangelands of western North America. In addition to animal factors that affect livestock poisonings, plant alkaloid composition (chemotype) affects the intoxication of cattle because some chemotypes are significantly more toxic. Differences in larkspur chemotype toxicity are due to the ratios of N-(methylsuccinimido) anthranoyllycoctonine (MSAL)-type alkaloids to non-MSAL-type alkaloids and the concentrations of those alkaloids in the plant material...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30772895/impact-of-slick-hair-trait-on-physiological-and-reproductive-performance-in-beef-heifers-consuming-ergot-alkaloids-from-endophyte-infected-tall-fescue1
#7
Rebecca K Poole, Thomas L Devine, Kyle J Mayberry, Joan H Eisemann, Matt H Poore, Nathan M Long, Daniel H Poole
Fescue toxicosis is a multifaceted syndrome common in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of the slick hair trait on physiological and reproductive parameters in heifers experiencing fescue toxicosis. Angus × Senepol heifers (n = 31) were blocked by weight (393.5 ± 17.3 kg) and phenotype relative to hair coat at birth, and randomly fed novel endophyte fescue (EN) or endophyte-infected fescue (EI) haylage in a total mixed ration for 91 d. Weekly measurements were collected to monitor heifer growth and response during ergot alkaloids exposure...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770927/effects-of-a-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-fermentation-product-on-fecal-characteristics-nutrient-digestibility-fecal-fermentative-end-products-fecal-microbial-populations-immune-function-and-diet-palatability-in-adult-dogs
#8
Ching-Yen Lin, Celeste Alexander, Andrew J Steelman, Chiristine M Warzecha, Maria R C de Godoy, Kelly S Swanson
Yeast products may serve as functional ingredients due to their benefits on host health, but vary greatly in source, composition, and functionality, justifying research in host species of interest. In this study, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) was investigated as a dietary supplement for adult dogs. Adult female beagles (n = 12; mean age = 3.3 ± 0.8 yr; mean BW = 10.3 ± 0.68 kg) were fed the same diet, but supplemented with 3 levels of SCFP (125, 250 and 500 mg/d) or a placebo (sucrose) via gelatin capsules in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30770711/influence-of-a-whole-yeast-product-pichia-guilliermondii-fed-throughout-gestation-and-lactation-on-performance-and-immune-parameters-of-the-sow-and-litter
#9
B E Bass, T Tsai, H Yang, V Perez, D Holzgraefe, J Chewning, J W Frank, C V Maxwell
A study was conducted using 3 groups of gestating gilts and sows (n = 98) to determine the effects of Pichia guilliermondii (Pg), a whole cell inactivated yeast product (CitriStim; ADM Alliance Nutrition), on performance and immune parameters of dams and litters. Within 24 h of breeding, gilts and sows were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments consisting of a control (SC) diet or SC diet supplemented with 0.1 (S1) or 0.2% (S2) Pg. Dietary treatments were maintained through lactation. Colostrum and milk (d 14) samples were collected for IgA, IgG, and IgM analysis...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785190/synergy-between-mc1r-and-asip-for-coat-color-in-horses-equus-caballus
#10
Songyang Shang, Yan Yu, Wanyi Dang, Yuxin Zhao, Junpeng Zhang, Xia Qin, David M Irwin, Qin Wang, Fei Liu, Zhenshan Wang, Shuyi Zhang, Zhe Wang
Through domestication and human selection, horses have acquired various coat colors, including seven phenotypes: black, brown, dark bay, bay, chestnut, white and gray. Here we determined the genotypes for MC1R and ASIP in 709 horses from 15 breeds. We found that the EEEE genotype frequency at MC1R decreased from dark to light colors (black = 64.5%, brown = 67.5%, dark bay = 47.0%, bay = 16.5% and chestnut = 0.0%), whereas the AAAA genotype frequency at ASIP increased as coat color lightened (black = 0.0%, brown = 22...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30767013/evaluation-of-rambouillet-polypay-and-romanov-white-dorper-x-rambouillet-ewes-mated-to-terminal-sires-in-an-extensive-rangeland-production-system-body-weight-and-wool-characteristics
#11
T W Murphy, W C Stewart, D R Notter, M R Mousel, G S Lewis, J B Taylor
Though lamb sales account for the majority of annual receipts on U.S. sheep operations, wool is an important income source for many Western flocks. Crossing fine-wool sheep with prolific or composite hair sheep breeds can increase lamb production, but fleece quality and marketability may be reduced by a greater content of non-wool fibers (e.g., med and kemp). The objectives of this study were to compare BW and wool characteristics of Rambouillet, Polypay, and Romanov-White Dorper x Rambouillet (RW-RA) ewes under extensive rangeland management conditions...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30763439/ergot-alkaloid-exposure-during-gestation-alters-2-uterine-and-umbilical-artery-vasoactivity
#12
J L Klotz, J L Britt, M F Miller, M A Snider, G E Aiken, N M Long, S L Pratt, J G Andrae, S K Duckett
Previous research has shown that livestock exposed to ergot alkaloids results in decreased vasoactivity of gastrointestinal and peripheral vasculature. Little is known regarding the effect ergot alkaloid exposure during gestation may have on vasculature supporting the fetus. The objective of this study was to evaluate contractile responses of uterine and umbilical arteries collected from ewes consuming ergot alkaloids during gestation. On d 35 of gestation, 36 Suffolk ewes (78.24 ±9.5 kg) were assigned to endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue seed treatments that were fed either throughout or switched on d 86 of gestation, creating four seed treatments E+E+, E+E-, E-E+, E-E-...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30759199/impact-of-fetal-versus-maternal-contributions-of-bos-indicus-and-bos-taurus-genetics-on-embryonic-and-fetal-development
#13
Pedro L P Fontes, Nicola Oosthuizen, Francine M Ciriaco, Carla D Sanford, Luara B Canal, Ky G Pohler, Darren D Henry, Vitor R G Mercadante, Claire L Timlin, Alan D Ealy, Sally E Johnson, Nicolas DiLorenzo, G Cliff Lamb
To evaluate how the inclusion of Bos indicus genotype influences early fetal development in cattle, a reciprocal embryo transfer approach was used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in order to generate 55 pregnancies over 2 consecutive years (n = 55). Recipient cows were randomly assigned to 1) a diet that met daily energy maintenance requirements (MAINT), or 2) a diet that restricted intake to 70% of the energy maintenance requirements (RESTR). Angus (AN) and Brangus (BN) embryo donors were superovulated and artificially inseminated with female sexed-sorted semen from the same breed...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753616/the-effects-of-dietary-supplementation-with-hyodeoxycholic-acid-on-the-differentiation-and-function-of-enteroendocrine-cells-and-the-serum-biochemical-indices-in-weaned-piglets
#14
Enyan Zong, Shanling Yan, Meiwei Wang, Lanmei Yin, Qiye Wang, Jia Yin, Jianzhong Li, Yali Li, Xueqin Ding, Pengfei Huang, Shanping He, Huansheng Yang, Yulong Yin
Bile acid, a cholesterol metabolite, promotes gastrointestinal tract digestion and absorption of cholesterol, lipids, and fat-soluble vitamins. It is a signaling regulatory molecule that influences a variety of endocrinal and metabolic activities. This study investigated the effects hyodeoxycholic acid (HDCA) as a dietary supplement on endocrine cell differentiation and function and weaned piglet serum biochemical indices. Sixteen piglets (Duroc × [Landrace × Yorkshire]) were individually housed and weaned at 21 days of age (body weight of 6...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753602/effect-of-dietary-zinc-pectin-oligosaccharides-chelate-on-growth-performance-enzyme-activities-zn-accumulation-metallothionein-concentration-and-gene-expression-of-zn-transporters-in-broiler-chickens
#15
Z C Wang, H M Yu, J J Xie, H Cui, H Nie, T T Zhang, X H Gao
This study was to investigate the effect of zinc pectin oligosaccharides chelate (Zn-POS) on growth performance, serum enzyme activities, tissue zinc accumulation, metallothionein (MT) concentrations, and gene expression of zinc transporters (ZnT) in broilers. Five hundred forty 1-d-old Arbor Acres broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 5 dietary groups with 6 replicates of 18 birds per replicate. The diets were formulated with the same supplemental Zn level (80 mg/kg diet) but different amount of the Zn-POS: 0, 200, 400, 600, 800 mg Zn-POS /kg diet...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753520/sows-in-mid-parity-are-best-for-the-pre-and-post-weaning-performance-of-both-light-and-heavy-piglets
#16
A M S Huting, P Sakkas, I Kyriazakis
To improve the performance of lightweight piglets during suckling, producers are advised to create uniform litters using young sows. However, fostering piglets to primiparous sows may confer penalties due to their lower milk yield and milk immunoglobulin concentrations compared with multiparous sows. The objective was to determine the effect of foster sow parity (primiparous (F), second (S), and mid parity (M: parity 3 - 5)) on the performance from birth to d68 of piglets born light (L: ≤1.25 kg) or heavy (H: 1...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753515/effects-of-heat-stress-during-late-gestation-on-the-dam-and-its-calf
#17
Sha Tao, Geoffrey E Dahl, Jimena Laporta, John K Bernard, Ruth M Orellana Rivas, Thiago N Marins
Heat stress during late gestation in cattle negatively impacts the performance of the dam and its calf. This brief exposure to an adverse environment before parturition impacts the physiological responses, tissue development, metabolism and immune function of the dam and her offspring, thereby limiting their productivity. During the dry period of a dairy cow, heat stress blunts mammary involution by attenuating mammary apoptosis and autophagic activity, and reduces subsequent mammary cell proliferation, leading to impaired milk production in the next lactation...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753509/immunocontraception-as-a-possible-tool-to-reduce-feral-pig-populations-recent-and-future-perspectives
#18
Claudio Oliviero, Lena Lindh, Olli Peltoniemi
The feral pig populations of many countries continue to increase. Scientific studies on population size are scarce, while the numbers of reported observations on presence of and damage caused by feral pigs are increasing. Feral pigs can carry and spread several diseases (including zoonotic), but African Swine Fever (ASF) is of most concern. It is a highly transmissible viral disease associated with an extremely high mortality rate. Since 2009 ASF has appeared in several European countries, with cases being identified first among local feral pigs and consequently in domestic pig production units, indicating a clear linkage with the movement of the feral pig population and the spread of the disease across national boundaries...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753502/immunomodulatory-effects-of-whole-yeast-cells-and-capsicum-in-weanling-pigs-challenged-with-pathogenic-escherichia-coli
#19
S Wojnicki, A Morris, B N Smith, C W Maddox, R N Dilger
An experiment was conducted to evaluate growth performance, fecal bacterial counts, frequency of diarrhea, and clinical blood parameters in weanling pigs inoculated with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) who were fed a whole yeast cell (WYC) product and capsicum, a plant essential oil. Weanling pigs (34 barrows and 30 gilts, 21 d of age, 5.90 ± 1.03 kg BW) were allotted to experimental treatments in a randomized complete block design based on litter, sex, and initial BW. Four pigs were individually housed within each containment chamber and assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments, which included a control diet without or with 0...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30785187/dressing-percentage-and-the-differential-between-live-weight-and-carcass-weight-in-cattle-is-influenced-by-both-genetic-and-non-genetic-factors
#20
J M Coyne, R D Evans, D P Berry
The objective of the present study was to quantify the genetic and non-genetic contributors to variability in both carcass dressing percentage and dressing difference (i.e., the difference between carcass weight and live weight immediately prior to slaughter) in young animals and cows. The datasets contained 18,479 young animals from 653 herds, and 2,887 cows from 665 herds. Live weight records within 7 d of slaughter and associated carcass weight were available for all animals. Association analyses were undertaken using linear mixed models with fixed effects for the model of young animals consisting of animal breed, days between the date of last recorded live weight and slaughter date, heterosis and recombination loss coefficients, dam parity, a three-way interaction between whether the animal originated in a dairy or beef herd, animal sex, and age at slaughter, as well as a two-way interaction between calendar year of slaughter and month of slaughter; contemporary group was included as a random effect...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
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