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Immunobiology | Page 2

Sayan Das, Rimi Chowdhury, Ananda Pal, Keinosuke Okamoto, Santasabuj Das
Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovars, Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) is a major public health challenge for the developing nations. Globally, the disease affects ˜15-30 million individuals every year, resulting in >200,000 deaths. Multidrug-resistant S. Typhi H58 strain has emerged as the dominant circulating strain in a large part of the world and an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) subclade of the strain was recently reported. Many believe that vaccination of the susceptible populations is urgently needed and the best option to control the infection...
May 2019: Immunobiology
Edward C So, Ariana Khaladj-Ghom, Yaping Ji, Julian Amin, Yang Song, Erin Burch, Hua Zhou, Haoping Sun, Shaodong Chen, Soren Bentzen, Ronna Hertzano, Xiaoyu Zhang, Scott E Strome
Given the heightened interest in manipulation of co-signaling cascades for cancer immunotherapy, we sought to determine how/whether tumors decorated with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) impact the expression of co-signaling molecules on human NK cells. Stimulation of NK cells with aggregated IgG1 resulted in the upregulation of HAVCR2 - the gene encoding T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-containing domain (Tim)-3 - known to be involved in the induction of peripheral T cell tolerance. This upregulation of HAVCR2 was recapitulated at the protein level, following NK cell stimulation by either mAb opsonized tumors, recombinant human IgG1 Fc multimer, and/or non-Fc stimuli e...
May 2019: Immunobiology
Rabia Bilge Özgül Özdemir, Alper Tunga Özdemir, Ayla Eker Sarıboyacı, Onur Uysal, Mehmet İbrahim Tuğlu, Cengiz Kırmaz
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are strong immunomodulatory cells investigated in numerous clinical studies on fatal pathologies, such as graft versus host disease and autoimmune diseases; e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Macrophages are one of the critical cells linking the innate and adaptive immune system, and it has been shown that MSCs can differentiate between pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype of macrophages. However, it has not yet been fully clarified whether these differentiated macrophages are functional...
April 30, 2019: Immunobiology
Miao Yu, Yuanyuan Guo, Peng Zhang, Jing Xue, Jiali Yang, Qian Cai, Xuehong You, Jia Ma, Dandan Yang, Yuanyuan Jia, Yujiong Wang, Feng Li, Shuhong Chi, Mengshu Cao, Juan Chen, Xiaoming Liu
An early diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is important for guiding treatments of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ILD (RA-ILD) in clinical settings. The non-canonical Wnt signaling representative ligand Wnt5a was recently found to involve in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pathogenesis of RA. The goal of this study was to examine the clinical relevance of Wnt5a in RA-ILD. In this report, the clinical relevance of plasma Wnt5a protein was evaluated in 40 RA-ILD patients and 41 non-ILD RA cohorts...
April 30, 2019: Immunobiology
Feifei Huo, Xiaodong Shi, Xueyang Zou, Shuang Wang, Yi Zhang, Wei Yang, Yi Li
Autoimmune regulator (Aire), primarily expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), maintains central immune tolerance through the clearance of self-reactive T cells. Aire can also be expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), and DCs can mediate T follicular helper (TFH ) cell differentiation and self-reactive B cell activation through inducible costimulator molecule ligand (ICOSL) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which can cause autoimmune diseases. To confirm whether Aire in DCs affects TFH cell differentiation and to determine the role of Aire in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance, this study observed the effects of Aire deficiency on TFH cells using Aire knockout mice...
April 19, 2019: Immunobiology
Mohammad A Uddin, Mohammad S Akhter, Agnieszka Siejka, John D Catravas, Nektarios Barabutis
The tumor suppressor protein P53 is strongly involved in orchestrating cellular defenses in the diverse variety of human tissues. Anomalies to lung endothelium permeability are streaming severe consequences towards human health, often associated with fatal outcomes. Ongoing investigations suggest that P53 exerts a prominent strategic role in crucial signaling cascades, in charge of both the maintenance and defense of pulmonary endothelium against toxic intruders. The current study employs human and bovine lung microvascular cells, as well as pharmacologic and genetic P53 modulators to demonstrate the negative regulation of APE1/Ref1 by P53...
April 18, 2019: Immunobiology
Mona Patoughi, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Mohammad Taheri
Expressions of the Growth arrest specific 8 (GAS8) and its naturally occurring anti-sense RNA (GAS8-AS1) have been assessed in tumoral tissues of different origins. However, their association with immune-related disorders has been poorly understood. In the current study, we evaluated expression levels of these genes in 50 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Expressions of both genes were significantly higher in total MS patients compared with controls (P = 0...
April 13, 2019: Immunobiology
Xiaofang Hu, Hengdao Liu, Jie Du, Ying Chen, Ming Yang, Yuhong Xie, Juan Chen, Siyuan Yan, Shaxi Ouyang, Zhicheng Gong
A deficiency of complement factor H may lead to excessive consumption of C3 and an increase in C3b deposition, which are important pathological characteristics of lupus nephritis. Complement factor H-related proteins (CFHRs), comprising CFHR1 to CFHR5 (CFHR1-5), are members of the wider factor H/CFHR family. Their role in lupus nephritis remains unclear. In this study, we compared circulating levels of CFHR1-5 in 152 patients diagnosed with lupus nephritis and 20 unrelated healthy individuals to explore the relationship between the expression of CFHR1-5 and development of the disease...
April 3, 2019: Immunobiology
Flávia T F Pacheco, Silvia S Carvalho, Luciana S Cardoso, Lorena S Andrade, Gisele M T das Chagas, Daisy C Gomes, Cristiane F Mercês, Felipe C Rocha, Luciano K Silva, Neci M Soares, Márcia C A Teixeira
In this study, we evaluated serum markers of immune responses in children infected with G. duodenalis and compared them with the characterized parasite isolates. The reactivity indexes (RI) of IgG (1.503 ± 0.819) and IgA (2.308 ± 1.935) antibodies were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in infected children than in non-infected children. There were also statistically significantly higher serum levels (P < 0.05) of IFN-γ (393.10 ± 983.90 pg/mL) as well as serum (30.03 ± 10.92 μmol/L) and saliva nitric oxid derivatives (NOx ) (192...
April 3, 2019: Immunobiology
Pei-Chi Lo, Akira Maeda, Tasuku Kodama, Chihiro Takakura, Tomohisa Yoneyama, Rieko Sakai, Yuki Noguchi, Rei Matsuura, Hiroshi Eguchi, Katsuyoshi Matsunami, Hiroomi Okuyama, Shuji Miyagawa
Innate immunity plays a major role in xenograft rejection. However, the majority of immunosuppressants focus on inhibiting acquired immunity and not innate immunity. Therefore, a novel immunosuppressant suitable for use in conjunction with xenografts continues to be needed. It has been reported that prenylated quinolinecarboxylic acid-18 (PQA-18), a p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) inhibitor, exerts an immunosuppressive function on T cells. Hence, the possibility exists that PQA-18 might be used in conjunction with xenografts, which prompted us to investigate the efficacy of PQA-18 on macrophages compared with Tofacitinib, a janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor...
April 2, 2019: Immunobiology
Qian Yu, Yu Zhang, Yu-Zhao Zhang, Chao Yan, Xiao-Tian Wang, Xiao-Cui Li, Ren-Xian Tang, Kui-Yang Zheng
A high level of serum IgE is a hallmark of helminthic disease. Secretory IgE can bind FcεRI or FcεRII/CD23. The combination of IgE and FcεRI, a high-affinity interaction, has long received attention and is believed to facilitate helminth control, while the properties of CD23-bound IgE have long been unexplored. Here, we established a Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) infection model with different mouse strains and investigated membrane-bound IgE on B cells during infection. We show that after infection, the increase in CD23 expression on B cells was obvious, even in relatively resistant C57BL/6 mice, as well as in susceptible BALB/c and FVB mice...
March 31, 2019: Immunobiology
Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund, Antonio Vella
A comment on D'Auria E., De Amici M., Licari A., Caimmi S., Mantegazza C., Zuccotti G. and Marseglia G., Basophil activation test in children with autoimmune chronic spontaneous urticaria: Iis it ready for clinical practice?, Immunobiology 224 (1), 2019, 30-33.
March 23, 2019: Immunobiology
Xiaofen Lu, Tengteng Meng
Docetaxel (DTXL), a new member of the taxoid family, has been used for cancer treatment. However, increasing cases of DTXL resistance have been reported. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in tumor invasion and chemo-resistance. Eliminating TAMs by inhibiting colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer treatment. BLZ945 is a CSF-1R inhibitor and has anti-tumor function. In present study, anti-tumor effects of combination treatment of BLZ945 and DTXL were investigated...
March 22, 2019: Immunobiology
Ming-Hao Yan, Jun-Hong Hao, Xue-Gang Zhang, Chao-Chao Shen, Da-Jun Zhang, Ke-Shan Zhang, Hai-Xue Zheng, Xiang-Tao Liu
Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the MAP3K family. The activated TPL2 regulates the innate immune-relevant signaling pathways, such as ERK, JNK, and NF-κB, and the differentiation of immune cells, for example, CD4+ T and NK cells. Therefore, TPL2 plays a critical role in regulating the innate immune response. The present review summarizes the recent advancements in the TPL2-regulated innate immune response.
March 5, 2019: Immunobiology
Yangyang Song, Mingqin Zhu, Caiyun Liu, Chao Zheng, Yang Zhou, Jie Zhu, Tao Jin
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory neurological disease characterized by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and optic neuritis. Interleukin (IL)-36 is a novel cytokine of the IL-1 family that is involved in the development of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-36α in NMOSD. We retrospectively collected 73 patients, who fulfilled the 2015 criteria for NMOSD diagnosis and were admitted to the Department of Neurology of the First Hospital of Jilin University from 2015 to 2016...
March 1, 2019: Immunobiology
Tamara Sáez, Paul de Vos, Jeroen Kuipers, Luis Sobrevia, Marijke M Faas
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with low grade inflammation affecting both endothelial cells and monocytes. Exosomes are nanovesicles, allow communication between endothelial cells and monocytes and have been associated with diabetic complications. In this study we evaluated whether high glucose can activate monocytes and endothelial cells and whether exosomes play a role in this activation. Moreover, we studied whether endothelial cells and monocytes communicate with each other via exosomes under high and basal glncubation...
February 22, 2019: Immunobiology
Lin Cheng, Xian Tang, Liumei Xu, Lukun Zhang, Huichun Shi, Qiaoli Peng, Fang Zhao, Yang Zhou, Yun He, Hui Wang, Boping Zhou, Zhiliang Gao, Zhiwei Chen
BACKGROUND: We recently identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of human programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), named Δ42PD1, which contains a 42-base-pair in-frame deletion compared with the full-length PD-1. Δ42PD1 is likely constitutively expressed on human monocytes and down-regulated in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The mechanism underlying the regulation of Δ42PD-1 expression in monocytes remains unknown. METHODS: By flow cytometry, we investigated the effect of Interferon-gamma (INF-γ) on the expression of Δ42PD1 in primary human monocytes as well as monocytic cell lines THP-1 and U937 cells...
February 21, 2019: Immunobiology
Goro Matsuzaki, Masatoshi Yamasaki, Toshiki Tamura, Masayuki Umemura
Mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ Th1 cells have pivotal role in protective immunity against mycobacterial infections including pulmonary tuberculosis. In the course of the infection, Th1 cells differentiate in the lung-draining lymph nodes and migrate into the infected lung. Chemokine receptors on T cells are involved in T cell migration into the intestine and skin. However, role of chemokine receptors in the migration of CD4+ T cells into the lung is not yet established. To address the issue, the role of chemokine receptors in T cell migration into the mycobacteria-infected lung was analyzed using mycobacterial Ag85B peptide 25-specific T cell receptor-transgenic (P25) CD4+ T cells...
February 16, 2019: Immunobiology
B Groen, T P Links, P P van den Berg, P de Vos, M M Faas
The incidence of pregnancy complications in women with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D) is greater than in healthy pregnant women. This has mostly been attributed to hyperglycemia. However, despite the implementation of stricter guidelines regarding glycemic control, pregnancy complications remain more common in women with T1D. This may suggest that other etiological factors are involved. We suggest that the immune response may play a role, since the immune response has to adapt during pregnancy in order to facilitate implantation, placental and fetal development, and aberrant immunological adaptations to pregnancy are involved in various pregnancy complications...
February 15, 2019: Immunobiology
Shahrzad Talebian, Jalal Gharesouran, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Behnaz Salek Esfahani, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Mir Davood Omrani, Mohammad Taheri, Maryam Rezazadeh
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Nearly 85% of MS patients are recognized with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), a typical clinical course of disease which is distinguished by several episodes of relapses, separated by remissions of neurological impairment. Failure of repair mechanisms is a main factor in progression of neurological dysfunction in MS. Several lines of evidence suggest that Reelin (RELN) signaling pathway can contribute in the regulation of repair mechanisms in MS patients...
February 12, 2019: Immunobiology
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