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Xiaofang Hu, Hengdao Liu, Jie Du, Ying Chen, Ming Yang, Yuhong Xie, Juan Chen, Siyuan Yan, Shaxi Ouyang, Zhicheng Gong
A deficiency of complement factor H may lead to excessive consumption of C3 and an increase in C3b deposition, which are important pathological characteristics of lupus nephritis. Complement factor H-related proteins (CFHRs), comprising CFHR1 to CFHR5 (CFHR1-5), are members of the wider factor H/CFHR family. Their role in lupus nephritis remains unclear. In this study, we compared circulating levels of CFHR1-5 in 152 patients diagnosed with lupus nephritis and 20 unrelated healthy individuals to explore the relationship between the expression of CFHR1-5 and development of the disease...
April 3, 2019: Immunobiology
Flávia T F Pacheco, Silvia S Carvalho, Luciana S Cardoso, Lorena S Andrade, Gisele M T das Chagas, Daisy C Gomes, Cristiane F Mercês, Felipe C Rocha, Luciano K Silva, Neci M Soares, Márcia C A Teixeira
In this study, we evaluated serum markers of immune responses in children infected with G. duodenalis and compared them with the characterized parasite isolates. The reactivity indexes (RI) of IgG (1.503 ± 0.819) and IgA (2.308 ± 1.935) antibodies were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in infected children than in non-infected children. There were also statistically significantly higher serum levels (P < 0.05) of IFN-γ (393.10 ± 983.90 pg/mL) as well as serum (30.03 ± 10.92 μmol/L) and saliva nitric oxid derivatives (NOx ) (192...
April 3, 2019: Immunobiology
Pei-Chi Lo, Akira Maeda, Tasuku Kodama, Chihiro Takakura, Tomohisa Yoneyama, Rieko Sakai, Yuki Noguchi, Rei Matsuura, Hiroshi Eguchi, Katsuyoshi Matsunami, Hiroomi Okuyama, Shuji Miyagawa
Innate immunity plays a major role in xenograft rejection. However, the majority of immunosuppressants focus on inhibiting acquired immunity and not innate immunity. Therefore, a novel immunosuppressant suitable for use in conjunction with xenografts continues to be needed. It has been reported that prenylated quinolinecarboxylic acid-18 (PQA-18), a p21-activated kinase 2 (PAK2) inhibitor, exerts an immunosuppressive function on T cells. Hence, the possibility exists that PQA-18 might be used in conjunction with xenografts, which prompted us to investigate the efficacy of PQA-18 on macrophages compared with Tofacitinib, a janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor...
April 2, 2019: Immunobiology
Salvatore Chirumbolo, Geir Bjørklund, Antonio Vella
A comment on D'Auria E., De Amici M., Licari A., Caimmi S., Mantegazza C., Zuccotti G. and Marseglia G., Basophil activation test in children with autoimmune chronic spontaneous urticaria: Iis it ready for clinical practice?, Immunobiology 224 (1), 2019, 30-33.
March 23, 2019: Immunobiology
Sayan Das, Rimi Chowdhury, Ananda Pal, Keinosuke Okamoto, Santasabuj Das
Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovars, Typhi (S. Typhi) and Paratyphi (S. Paratyphi) is a major public health challenge for the developing nations. Globally, the disease affects ˜15-30 million individuals every year, resulting in >200,000 deaths. Multidrug-resistant S. Typhi H58 strain has emerged as the dominant circulating strain in a large part of the world and an extensively drug-resistant (XDR) subclade of the strain was recently reported. Many believe that vaccination of the susceptible populations is urgently needed and the best option to control the infection...
March 22, 2019: Immunobiology
Xiaofen Lu, Tengteng Meng
Docetaxel (DTXL), a new member of the taxoid family, has been used for cancer treatment. However, increasing cases of DTXL resistance have been reported. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in tumor invasion and chemo-resistance. Eliminating TAMs by inhibiting colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) has emerged as a promising strategy for cancer treatment. BLZ945 is a CSF-1R inhibitor and has anti-tumor function. In present study, anti-tumor effects of combination treatment of BLZ945 and DTXL were investigated...
March 22, 2019: Immunobiology
Ming-Hao Yan, Jun-Hong Hao, Xue-Gang Zhang, Chao-Chao Shen, Da-Jun Zhang, Ke-Shan Zhang, Hai-Xue Zheng, Xiang-Tao Liu
Tumor progression locus 2 (TPL2) is a serine/threonine kinase that belongs to the MAP3K family. The activated TPL2 regulates the innate immune-relevant signaling pathways, such as ERK, JNK, and NF-κB, and the differentiation of immune cells, for example, CD4+ T and NK cells. Therefore, TPL2 plays a critical role in regulating the innate immune response. The present review summarizes the recent advancements in the TPL2-regulated innate immune response.
March 5, 2019: Immunobiology
Edward C So, Ariana Khaladj-Ghom, Yaping Ji, Julian Amin, Yang Song, Erin Burch, Hua Zhou, Haoping Sun, Shaodong Chen, Soren Bentzen, Ronna Hertzano, Xiaoyu Zhang, Scott E Strome
Given the heightened interest in manipulation of co-signaling cascades for cancer immunotherapy, we sought to determine how/whether tumors decorated with therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) impact the expression of co-signaling molecules on human NK cells. Stimulation of NK cells with aggregated IgG1 resulted in the upregulation of HAVCR2 - the gene encoding T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin-containing domain (Tim)-3 - known to be involved in the induction of peripheral T cell tolerance. This upregulation of HAVCR2 was recapitulated at the protein level, following NK cell stimulation by either mAb opsonized tumors, recombinant human IgG1 Fc multimer, and/or non-Fc stimuli e...
March 2, 2019: Immunobiology
Yangyang Song, Mingqin Zhu, Caiyun Liu, Chao Zheng, Yang Zhou, Jie Zhu, Tao Jin
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is an autoimmune inflammatory neurological disease characterized by longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) and optic neuritis. Interleukin (IL)-36 is a novel cytokine of the IL-1 family that is involved in the development of inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of IL-36α in NMOSD. We retrospectively collected 73 patients, who fulfilled the 2015 criteria for NMOSD diagnosis and were admitted to the Department of Neurology of the First Hospital of Jilin University from 2015 to 2016...
March 1, 2019: Immunobiology
Tamara Sáez, Paul de Vos, Jeroen Kuipers, Luis Sobrevia, Marijke M Faas
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) is characterized by hyperglycemia and associated with low grade inflammation affecting both endothelial cells and monocytes. Exosomes are nanovesicles, allow communication between endothelial cells and monocytes and have been associated with diabetic complications. In this study we evaluated whether high glucose can activate monocytes and endothelial cells and whether exosomes play a role in this activation. Moreover, we studied whether endothelial cells and monocytes communicate with each other via exosomes under high and basal glncubation...
February 22, 2019: Immunobiology
Lin Cheng, Xian Tang, Liumei Xu, Lukun Zhang, Huichun Shi, Qiaoli Peng, Fang Zhao, Yang Zhou, Yun He, Hui Wang, Boping Zhou, Zhiliang Gao, Zhiwei Chen
BACKGROUND: We recently identified a novel alternatively spliced isoform of human programmed cell death 1 (PD-1), named Δ42PD1, which contains a 42-base-pair in-frame deletion compared with the full-length PD-1. Δ42PD1 is likely constitutively expressed on human monocytes and down-regulated in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). The mechanism underlying the regulation of Δ42PD-1 expression in monocytes remains unknown. METHODS: By flow cytometry, we investigated the effect of Interferon-gamma (INF-γ) on the expression of Δ42PD1 in primary human monocytes as well as monocytic cell lines THP-1 and U937 cells...
February 21, 2019: Immunobiology
Goro Matsuzaki, Masatoshi Yamasaki, Toshiki Tamura, Masayuki Umemura
Mycobacterial antigen-specific CD4+ Th1 cells have pivotal role in protective immunity against mycobacterial infections including pulmonary tuberculosis. In the course of the infection, Th1 cells differentiate in the lung-draining lymph nodes and migrate into the infected lung. Chemokine receptors on T cells are involved in T cell migration into the intestine and skin. However, role of chemokine receptors in the migration of CD4+ T cells into the lung is not yet established. To address the issue, the role of chemokine receptors in T cell migration into the mycobacteria-infected lung was analyzed using mycobacterial Ag85B peptide 25-specific T cell receptor-transgenic (P25) CD4+ T cells...
February 16, 2019: Immunobiology
B Groen, T P Links, P P van den Berg, P de Vos, M M Faas
The incidence of pregnancy complications in women with type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1D) is greater than in healthy pregnant women. This has mostly been attributed to hyperglycemia. However, despite the implementation of stricter guidelines regarding glycemic control, pregnancy complications remain more common in women with T1D. This may suggest that other etiological factors are involved. We suggest that the immune response may play a role, since the immune response has to adapt during pregnancy in order to facilitate implantation, placental and fetal development, and aberrant immunological adaptations to pregnancy are involved in various pregnancy complications...
February 15, 2019: Immunobiology
Shahrzad Talebian, Jalal Gharesouran, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Behnaz Salek Esfahani, Shahram Arsang-Jang, Mir Davood Omrani, Mohammad Taheri, Maryam Rezazadeh
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Nearly 85% of MS patients are recognized with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), a typical clinical course of disease which is distinguished by several episodes of relapses, separated by remissions of neurological impairment. Failure of repair mechanisms is a main factor in progression of neurological dysfunction in MS. Several lines of evidence suggest that Reelin (RELN) signaling pathway can contribute in the regulation of repair mechanisms in MS patients...
February 12, 2019: Immunobiology
Ahmed A Al-Qahtani, Valarmathy Murugaiah, Hani A Bashir, Ansar A Pathan, Suhair M Abozaid, Evgeny Makarov, Beatrice Nal-Rogier, Uday Kishore, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal
Hydrophilic lung surfactant proteins have emerged as key immunomodulators which are potent at the recognition and clearance of pulmonary pathogens. Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a surfactant-associated innate immune molecule, which is known to interact with a variety of pathogens, and display anti-microbial effects. SP-A, being a carbohydrate pattern recognition molecule, has a wide range of innate immune functions against respiratory pathogens, including influenza A virus (IAV). Some pandemic pH1N1 strains resist neutralization by SP-A due to differences in the N-glycosylation of viral hemagglutinin (HA)...
February 11, 2019: Immunobiology
Rui-Jie Ma, Ya-Qin Tan, Gang Zhou
OBJECTIVES: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T cell-mediated immune-related chronic disease, featured by accumulation of T cells and apoptosis of keratinocytes. Insulin-like growth factors 1 (IGF1) signaling, in combination with its downstream PI3K/AKT/MTOR cascade, plays pivotal roles in the regulation of inflammation and immune response. Meanwhile, TRB3 acts as a connective protein in the pathway. This study investigated the possible function of IGF1-PI3K/AKT/MTOR pathway in the local immunity of OLP...
February 10, 2019: Immunobiology
Sumayya Shahzad, Somaiya Mateen, Asif Hasan, Shagufta Moin
BACKGROUND: Etiopathogenesis of myocardial infarction (MI) is contributed by oxidative injury and inflammatory response. The interplay of these processes determines outcomes in MI patients. However, studies showing the relationship of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines with prognosis and severity of MI are lacking. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to assess the degree of oxidative stress and inflammation in correlation with GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events) risk score in patients of MI...
February 10, 2019: Immunobiology
Lara Vargas Becker, Daniela Ferreira Passos, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa Leal, Vera Maria Morsch, Maria Rosa Chitolina Schetinger
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune and inflammatory disease with periods of exacerbation and remission. SLE is characterized by the irreversible breakdown of immunological self-tolerance, where there is deregulation of multiple aspects of the immune system. SLE immune dysfunction is characterized by activation of autoreactive T lymphocytes, and hyperactivity of B lymphocytes with consequent production of several autoantibodies. ATP is a purinergic mediator released into the extracellular space in response to cell and tissue damage which operates as a danger signal to modulate immune and inflammatory responses...
February 8, 2019: Immunobiology
Adrian Y S Lee, Heinrich Körner
Traditionally, chemokine immunobiology has focused on chemotaxis and the positioning of cells at sites of inflammation and within lymphoid organs. More recently, however, regulation of intricate immune responses has emerged as a function attributed to chemokines and their receptors. One such pair, CCR6 and its chemokine ligand CCL20, has been receiving interest for its potential role in the coordination and regulation of humoral immune responses and in particular, memory responses, at the cellular level. B cells up-regulate CCR6 after activation in secondary lymphoid organs; however, its function is still unclear...
February 8, 2019: Immunobiology
Somkiat Ud-Naen, Tunsuda Tansit, Duangjit Kanistanon, Angkana Chaiprasert, Wanchai Wanachiwanawin, Yuttana Srinoulprasert
BACKGROUND: Pythium insidiosum has been mainly reported to cause morbidity and mortality in thalassemia patients. P. insidiosum zoospores can germinate to be hyphae within a few hours; therefore, it is difficult to study the initial immune response that P. insidiosum zoospores induce. The present study aims to compare immune responses against P. insidiosum zoospore infection by comparing monocytes/macrophages from thalassemia patients with those from non-thalassemia controls. METHODS: In order to keepP...
February 8, 2019: Immunobiology
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