Md Asad Ullah, Bishajit Sarkar, Syed Sajidul Islam
Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic RNA virus that causes the Ebola haemorrhagic fever in human. This virus is considered as one of the dangerous viruses in the world with very high mortality rate. To date, no epitope-based subunit vaccine has yet been discovered to fight against Ebola although the outbreaks of this deadly virus took many lives in the past. In this study, approaches of reverse vaccinology were utilized in combination with different tools of immunoinformatics to design subunit vaccines against Ebola virus strain Mayinga-76...
May 1, 2020: Immunobiology
Sana Douaoui, Reda Djidjik, Mokhtar Boubakeur, Merzak Ghernaout, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa, Mustapha Oumouna, Fawzi Derrar, Yassine Amrani
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung inflammatory disease characterized by progressive airflow limitation, chronic respiratory symptoms and frequent exacerbations. There is an unmet need to identify novel therapeutic alternatives beside bronchodilators that prevent disease progression. Levels of both Nitric Oxide (NO) and IL-6 were significantly increased in the plasma of patients in the exacerbation phase (ECOPD, n = 13) when compared to patients in the stable phase (SCOPD, n = 38). Levels of both NO and IL-6 were also found to inversely correlate with impaired lung function (%FEV1 predicted)...
May 1, 2020: Immunobiology
Janez Ferluga, Hadida Yasmin, Mohammed N Al-Ahdal, Sanjib Bhakta, Uday Kishore
Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, remains a major global health emergency. It is estimated that one third of global population are affected, predominantly with latent granuloma form of the disease. Mtb co-evolved with humans, for its obligatory intra-macrophage phagosome habitat and slow replication, balanced against unique mycobacterial innate immunity, which appears to be highly complex. TB is transmitted via cough aerosol Mtb inhalation. Bovine TB attenuated Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) live vaccine has been in practice for protection of young children from severe disseminated Mtb infection, but not sufficiently for their lungs, as obtained by trials in TB endemic community...
April 27, 2020: Immunobiology
C B Holt, I T Hoffmann-Petersen, T K Hansen, H-H Parving, S Thiel, P Hovind, L Tarnow, P Rossing, J A Østergaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2020: Immunobiology
Shengyu Cai, Jiaxu Chen, Yousheng Li
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a chronic kidney disease caused by the long-term loss of renal function, which occurs in 20% - 40% of all diabetes and is also the primary cause of end-stage renal diseases. DN is related with other lethal diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases, leading to an increased risk of death. Therefore, an effective treatment for DN is required. Here we tested the protective effect of dioscin in a mouse model of streptozocin (STZ)-induced DN. First, STZ was intraperitoneally injected into C57BL/6 J mice and TLR4-/- mice respectively, on a daily basis for 5 days to induce diabetes...
April 19, 2020: Immunobiology
Maria Eduarda de Albuquerque Borborema, Sergio Crovella, Dinaldo Oliveira, Jaqueline de Azevêdo Silva
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: We performed an experimental, analytical and prospective study to evaluate the systemic activation of inflammasome in atherosclerosis' patients, in order to shed light into responsible mechanisms for plaque formation. SUBJECTS: We included sixty individuals distributed into 3 groups: 2 groups based on the report from the angiography (severe lesions - SL and primary lesions - PL) and 1 group enclosing healthy individuals (HC). METHODS: The expression assays of inflammasome genes NLRP1, NLRC4, CASP-1 and IL-1β were performed using Real Time qPCR, with specific Taqman Assays...
April 4, 2020: Immunobiology
Hamid Nawaz Tipu, Rubab Raza, Sadaf Jaffar, Alamgir Khan, Muhammad Zeeshan Anwar, Wasim Ahmad, Syed Irfan Raza
Leukocyte adhesion deficiency I (LADI) is an autosomal recessive type of primary immunodeficiency characterized by occurrence of repeated bacterial infections, impaired pus formation and wound healing. Genetic variations in the β-2 integrin subunit encoding gene ITGB2 have been implicated in causing the disorder. In the present study, we have investigated twelve patients presenting LAD1 features. After collecting clinical and family history, flow cytometry was used to determine levels of CD18 in the patients...
April 2, 2020: Immunobiology
Michelle H Townsend, Claudia M Tellez Freitas, Dallas Larsen, Stephen R Piccolo, K Scott Weber, Richard A Robison, Kim L O'Neill
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of elevated Hypoxanthine Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) on the immune response in the tumor microenvironment. METHODOLOGY: HPRT expression was evaluated in cancer patients and correlated with cytokine expression, survival, and immune cell infiltration. An HPRT knockdown cell line was created to evaluate HPRT impact on purine expression and subsequent purine treatment was administered to immune cells to determine their influence on cell activation...
March 20, 2020: Immunobiology
Lauar de Brito Monteiro, Gustavo Gastão Davanzo, Cristhiane Fávero de Aguiar, Felipe Corrêa da Silva, Jessica Rodrigues de Andrade, Ana Campos Codo, Jessica Aparecida da Silva Pereira, Leonardo Pimentel de Freitas, Pedro Manoel Moraes-Vieira
Macrophages are essential components of the immune system. Macrophages can be derived from the bone marrow of mice with either recombinant M-CSF or L929 supernatant. Recent literature considers recombinant M-CSF- and L929-derived macrophages as equals, even though L929-derived macrophages are exposed to other substances secreted in the L929 supernatant, and not only M-CSF. Thus, we decided to perform a comparative analysis of both inflammatory and metabolic profiles of macrophages differentiated under the aforementioned conditions, which is relevant for standardization and interpretation of in vitro studies...
March 19, 2020: Immunobiology
Jinyang Cai, Xin Li, Hongming Du, Chengfei Jiang, Siliang Xu, Yan Cao
Modulation of immune responses by immunoregulatory agents, such as the natural or synthetic immunomodulatory peptides, has been suggested as a potential strategy to modulate immune system against infection and other immune-related diseases. These compositionally simple peptides have attracted much attention for many drug developers, due to their high activity, low toxicity and clear target specificity. Host defence peptides and milk-derived peptides are two kinds of natural immunomodulatory peptides which have been widely studied in mammalians...
March 18, 2020: Immunobiology
Daniely Cornélio Favarin, Aline Beatriz Mahler Pereira, Ivo M B Francischetti, Marcos Vinicius da Silva, Virmondes Rodrigues, Paulo Roberto da Silva, Jesus G Valenzuela, David Nascimento Silva Teixeira, Carlo José Freire Oliveira, Alexandre de Paula Rogério
Sand fly saliva presents molecules with potential to development of compounds for treatment of inflammatory diseases. Agaphelin, isolated from the saliva of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties such as neutrophils chemotaxis inhibition. Here, we extend these results and evaluated the role of agaphelin (0.1-100 nM) in an in vitro model consisting in the activation of human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by IL-4 (50 ng/mL) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 ng/mL)...
March 18, 2020: Immunobiology
Maria Naiara Macedo Tavares, Valdison Pereira Reis, Cristina Matiele Alves Rego, Mauro Valentino Paloschi, Hallison Mota Santana, Alex Augusto Ferreira E Ferreira, Milena Daniela Souza Silva, Sulamita Silva Setúbal, Consuelo Latorre Fortes-Dias, Juliana Pavan Zuliani
Crotalus neutralising factor (CNF) is an endogenous γ-type phospholipase A2 (PLA2 ) inhibitor that inhibits the toxic action of crotoxin, a neurotoxin present in Crotalus durissus terrificus venom. However, its effects on the activation and modulation of immune cells, which play a major role in the development of inflammation, is not known. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of CNF on human leukocyte modulation in vitro by analysing the following parameters: cell viability, phagocytic capacity, lipid droplet formation, reactive oxygen species production, nitric oxide production, p38 MAPK activation, and cytosolic PLA2 (cPLA2 ) gene expression...
March 12, 2020: Immunobiology
Fang Wang, Jing Zhang, Gang Zhou
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T-cell-mediated inflammatory mucosal disease. T cells require rapid metabolic reprogramming for their effector functions after activation by immunologic stimuli. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central player in the metabolic reprogramming and immune responses of T cells. The present study investigated the role of mTOR in the immunometabolism of OLP. mTOR and its direct target eukaryotic initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) were highly phosphorylated in peripheral T cells of OLP patients...
March 9, 2020: Immunobiology
Kai Dai, Zubing Chen, Sha She, Jinzhi Shi, Jiling Zhu, Yabing Huang
NK-92 cell line has been used as anti-tumor cytotoxic effector cells in immunotherapy. Leucine-rich repeats and calponin homology domain containing 1 (LRCH1) is a novel gene of which the function is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of LRCH1 in NK-92 cell cytotoxicity. LRCH1 was ablated in NK-92 cells through CRISP-Cas9-mediated knockout. LRCH1 knockout did not influence the basal behavior of NK-92 cells such as cell survival, expression of natural cytotoxicity receptors, and proliferation...
March 9, 2020: Immunobiology
Paul Splitthoff, Erik Rasbach, Philip Neudert, Gabriel A Bonaterra, Anja Schwarz, Lilli Mey, Hans Schwarzbach, Lee E Eiden, Eberhard Weihe, Ralf Kinscherf
The neuropeptide, pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is vasoactive and cytoprotective and exerts immunoregulatory functions throughout the nervous, neuroendocrine cardiovascular and immune systems in health and disease. PACAP mainly acts through PAC1 receptor signaling in neuronal communication, but the role of PAC1 in immune regulation of atherosclerosis is not known. Here, we generated PAC1-/- /ApoE-/- mice to test, whether PAC1-/- influences plasma cholesterol-/triglyceride levels and/or atherogenesis in the brachiocephalic trunk (BT) seen in ApoE-/- mice, under standard chow (SC) or cholesterol-enriched diet (CED)...
February 29, 2020: Immunobiology
Meryem Ozlem Kutuk, Ali Evren Tufan, Fethiye Kilicaslan, Tuba Mutluer, Cem Gokcen, Mehmet Karadag, Cigdem Yektas, Hasan Kandemir, Ahmet Buber, Gulen Guler Aksu, Zehra Topal, Asli Giray, Fatma Celik, Ufuk Acikbas, Ozgur Kutuk
Immune dysregulation may be important in the etiology of obsessive-compulsive and related disordersandbody-focusedrepetitivebehaviors, such as Trichotillomania (TTM). The role of inflammation and inflammatory markers in TTM has received relatively little attention. This study was aimed to determine the expression levels of inflammatory markers (i.e. IL-1β, IL-1α, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α and TGF-β) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children with TTM and healthy controls and to evaluate their association with clinical variables...
February 26, 2020: Immunobiology
Julia Michalski, Andrea Deinzer, Lena Stich, Elisabeth Zinser, Alexander Steinkasserer, Ilka Knippertz
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an environmental sensor and ligand-activated transcription factor that is critically involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses and the induction of tolerance by modulating immune cells. As dendritic cells (DCs) express high AhR levels, they are efficient to induce immunomodulatory effects after being exposed to AhR-activating compounds derived from the environment or diet. To gain new insights into the molecular targets following AhR-activation in human monocyte-derived (mo)DCs, we investigated whether the natural AhR ligand quercetin or the synthetic ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) modulates the function of human moDCs regarding their capability to prime naïve T cells or to migrate...
February 24, 2020: Immunobiology
Dong Hwan Kim, Parkyong Song, Jung-Hwa Han, Jin Hur
Regulatory T cells (T-reg) are important components of immune system required to understand the mechanistic details of cancer immunity and autoimmune diseases. However, reliable and efficient methods of regulatory T cell expansion have not been established yet. Here, we show that a human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMNC) derived blood-born hematosphere (BBHS) culture without cytokine treatment increased T-reg and T helper 2 cell (Th2) populations in the cell suspension. We found that the isolated cells suspended around the hematospheres expressed T helper cell markers...
February 22, 2020: Immunobiology
Patricia Kovacs, Livia Szelig, Szilard Kun, Csaba Loibl, Gabor Laszlo Woth, Gergo A Molnar, Istvan Wittmann, Lajos Bogar, Attila Miseta, Csaba Csontos
PURPOSE: Serious burn injury leads to oxidative stress resulting in production of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, while para-tyrosine is the physiological isoform. Our aim was to investigate the metabolism of these tyrosine isoforms following major burn injury. METHODS: Fifteen patients requiring intensive care were followed for 5 consecutive days after major burn injury. Serum and urine concentrations of para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were measured with high performance liquid chromatography...
February 21, 2020: Immunobiology
Danhua Xu, Enhao Zhao, Chunchao Zhu, Wenyi Zhao, Chaojie Wang, Zizhen Zhang, Gang Zhao
Gastric Cancer (GC) is the fifth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, and in urgent need of specific therapeutic targets to acquire prominent effectiveness. T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domain (TIGIT) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are identified to be abnormally overexpressed in various types of cancers including GC. This study aimed to investigate whether TIGIT and PD-1 could serve as potential prognostic biomarkers for GC. Firstly, TCGA GC dataset analysis and correlation analysis were utilized to inspect the relationship between expression of TIGIT, PD-1 and CD8 + T cells in GC and adjacent normal tissues...
February 19, 2020: Immunobiology
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