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Shaghik Barani, Seyed Vahid Hosseini, Abbas Ghaderi
BACKGROUND: A set of activating and inhibitory KIRs (aKIR, iKIR) are involved in NK cell mediated immunity. This study was carried out in order to investigate the KIRs pattern and its association with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development and clinical outcomes. METHODS: Sequence-specific primers-polymerase chain reaction (SSP-PCR) for typing of 16 KIR genes was utilized in 165 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma with 165 age and gender matched healthy controls (CNs)...
June 20, 2019: Immunobiology
Mosale Seetharam Sumanth, Kandahalli Venkataranganayaka Abhilasha, Shancy Petsel Jacob, Vyala Hanumanthareddy Chaithra, Venkatesha Basrur, Belinda Willard, Thomas M McIntyre, K Sandeep Prabhu, Gopal K Marathe
Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP-1) is a major positive acute phase glycoprotein with unknown functions that likely play a role in inflammation. We tested its involvement in a variety of inflammatory responses using human AGP-1 purified to apparent homogeneity and confirmed its identity by immunoblotting and mass spectrometry. AGP-1 alone upregulated MAPK signaling in murine peritoneal macrophages. However, when given in combination with TLR ligands, AGP-1 selectively augmented MAPK activation induced by ligands of TLR-2 (Braun lipoprotein) but not TLR-4 (lipopolysaccharide)...
June 20, 2019: Immunobiology
Amit Kumar Kureel, Smita Kumari, Sheetal Saini, Satyaprakash, Bharat Singh, Ambak Kumar Rai
CD6 is a transmembrane glycoprotein, mainly expressed by all T cells and a subset of B cells. It has been shown that the human CD6 gene has six reported transcript isoforms, including full length and Δ3 isoforms. These are CD6a, CD6b, CD6c, CD6d, CD6e and CD6Δ3. In every isoform, particular exon(s) are known to be alternatively spliced out. In our findings, we observed a novel transcript isoform of CD6, where exon 9 is spliced out. Semi-qPCR and nucleotide sequencing confirmed the presence of a novel isoform of CD6 i...
June 20, 2019: Immunobiology
Emrah Yucesan, Beyza Goncu, Burcu Ozdemir, Oguz Idiz, Yeliz Emine Ersoy, Erhan Aysan
Parathyroid allotransplantation is increasingly practiced for patients who have permanent hypoparathyroidsm. Parathyroid allotransplantation success is varied, and no defined criteria about immunologic monitoring for pre-/post-transplantation follow-up. This study sought to evaluate the possible role of immunological tests. Four unrelated recipients and one living donor who have chronic kidney disease were evaluated for HLA-typing, PRA, CXM tests to conduct parathyroid allotransplantation. Parathyroid glands were obtained and resected from the donor, then cells were isolated and cryopreserved...
June 10, 2019: Immunobiology
Ievgen O Koliesnik, Nico Andreas, Andreas Thuy, Sravya Sreekantapuram, Ronny Haenold, Falk Weih
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) maintain immune homeostasis and play an important role in tissue regeneration after injury. Mutations affecting development or homeostasis of Tregs lead to immune pathologies in humans and are often fatal in mouse models. Although the pathways required for Treg development are being increasingly characterized, factors crucial for Treg homeostasis are not completely understood. Previously we have found a role for alternative NF-κB pathway in restricting T cell activation and Th17 differentiation...
June 7, 2019: Immunobiology
Cristián Falcón-Beas, Andrés Tittarelli, Gabriela Mora-Bau, Fabián Tempio, Claudio Pérez, Daniel Hevia, Carolina Behrens, Iván Flores, Felipe Falcón-Beas, Paola Garrido, Gabriel Ascui, Cristián Pereda, Fermín E González, Flavio Salazar-Onfray, Mercedes N López
BACKGROUND: Dendritic cells (DCs) are usually immunogenic, but they are also capable of inducing tolerance under anti-inflammatory conditions. Immunotherapy based on autologous DCs loaded with an allogeneic melanoma cell lysate (TRIMEL/DCs) induces immunological responses and increases melanoma patient survival. Glucocorticoids can suppress DC maturation and function, leading to a DC-mediated inhibition of T cell responses. METHODS: The effect of dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid extensively used in cancer therapies, on TRIMEL/DCs phenotype and immunogenicity was examined...
June 6, 2019: Immunobiology
Washigton Luiz Gomes de Medeiros, Isabelle Pastor Bandeira, André Eduardo de Almeida Franzoi, Wesley Nogueira Brandão, Ana Carolina Cardoso Dos Santos Durão, Marcus Vinícius Magno Gonçalves
Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is characterized as an autoimmune, inflammatory and demyelinating disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS). Its pathogenesis is due to the presence of anti-aquaporin 4 immunoglobulin G1 antibodies (anti-AQP4IgG), with presence of lymphocytes T Helper 1 and 17 (TH1 and TH17), in addition to previous neuroinflammation. The Mast cell (MC) is a granular cell present in all vascularized tissues, close to vessels, nerves, and meninges. In CNS, MCs are in the area postrema, choroid plexus, thalamus and hypothalamus...
June 1, 2019: Immunobiology
Daniela P Lage, Amanda S Machado, Fernanda F Ramos, Patrícia C Silveira, Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Grasiele S V Tavares, Lourena E Costa, Thaís T O Santos, Bethina T Steiner, Mírian I Fagundes, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Sandra Lyon, Ricardo L F Moreira, Mariana C Duarte, Daniel Menezes-Souza, Rachel B Caligiorne, Ricardo A Machado-de-Ávila, Antônio L Teixeira, Eduardo A F Coelho
The measures for leishmaniasis control include the precise diagnosis of disease. However, although several recombinant antigens have been tested with this biotechnological purpose, no effective product exists, which could detects patients with the active disease, as well as differentiates them from cured and treated patients. In this study, a conserved Leishmania hypothetical protein, which was identified in Leishmania infantum parasites, but evaluated to presents high homology in the amino acid sequences between distinct parasite species, was evaluated for the diagnosis of tegumentary and visceral leishmaniasis...
May 30, 2019: Immunobiology
Anabella A Barrios, Leticia Grezzi, Sebastián Miles, Mara Mariconti, Gustavo Mourglia-Ettlin, Paula I Seoane, Alvaro Díaz
Persistent extracellular tissue-dwelling pathogens face the challenge of antibody-dependent activation of the classical complement pathway (CCP). A prime example of this situation is the larva of the cestode Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato, causing cystic echinococcosis. This tissue-dwelling, bladder-like larva is bounded by a cellular layer protected by the outermost acellular "laminated layer" (LL), to which host antibodies bind. The LL is made up of a mucin meshwork and interspersed nano-deposits of calcium inositol hexakisphosphate (calcium InsP6 )...
May 29, 2019: Immunobiology
Hong Bui, Yassine Amrani, Brian Deeney, Reynold A Panettieri, Omar Tliba
Airway remodeling in asthma manifests, in part, as enhanced airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass, due to myocyte proliferation. While the anti-proliferative effects of glucocorticoid (GC) were investigated in normal ASM cells (NASMC), little is known about such effects in ASM cells derived from asthma subjects (AASMC). We posit that GC differentially modulates mitogen-induced proliferation of AASMC and NASMC. Cells were cultured, starved, then treated with Epidermal growth factor (EGF) (10 ng/ml) and Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (10 ng/ml) for 24 h and/or fluticasone propionate (FP) (100 nM) added 2 h before...
May 23, 2019: Immunobiology
Paweł Leszek Bernatowicz, Agnieszka Pampuch, Paweł Golec, Ewa Sacharzewska, Michał Szczesiul, Paweł Bielecki, Krzysztof Kowal
BACKGROUND: The CD163 is a marker of monocyte/macrophage anti-inflammatory function. Its soluble form (sCD163) also exert anti-inflammatory activities including inhibition of T cell proliferation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of dexamethasone (Dx) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) on ex vivo production of sCD163 by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). METHODS: PBMCs from 26 allergic asthma patients (AAs) and 12 non-atopic healthy controls (HCs) were cultured with Dp, Dx, Dp + Dx or without any stimulation for up to 144 h (T144 )...
May 22, 2019: Immunobiology
Ju Kim, Ye Lin Yang, Yong-Suk Jang
Beta-defensins contribute to host innate defense against various pathogens, including viruses, although the details of their roles in innate immune cells are unclear. We previously reported that human β-defensin 2 (HBD 2) activates primary innate immunity against viral infection and suggested that it plays a role in the induction of the adaptive immune response. We analyzed the mechanisms by which HBD 2 primes innate antiviral immunity and polarized activation of macrophage-like THP-1 cells using the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) spike protein (S RBD) as a model antigen...
May 18, 2019: Immunobiology
Peter J Lachmann
Factor I was first discovered in 1966. Its importance became apparent with the description of the original Factor I deficient patient in Boston in 1967. This patient presented with a hyperactive alternative complement pathway resulting in secondary complement deficiency due to continuous complement consumption. On the basis of these findings, the mechanism of the alternative pathway was worked out. In 1975, the surprise finding was made that elevating levels of Factor I in plasma down-regulated the alternative pathway...
May 10, 2019: Immunobiology
Edson A Queiroz, Nayara I Medeiros, Rafael T Mattos, Ana Paula M Carvalho, Marina L Rodrigues-Alves, Walderez O Dutra, Francisco C Félix-Lana, Juliana A S Gomes, Rodrigo Correa-Oliveira
Hansen's disease (or leprosy) still persists as a serious public health issue. Its diagnosis is based primarily on the detection of clinical signs that are characteristic of the disease. Studies have pointed to the selection of a set of serological and cellular biomarkers of subclinical infection that result in an efficient diagnosis. The aim of this study was compare index cases and their household contacts to identify differentially expressed biomarkers of immune response in leprosy that could provide reliable evidence of subclinical infection in household contacts...
May 8, 2019: Immunobiology
Zachary P Guinn, Thomas M Petro
IFN-γ produced during viral infections activates the IFN-γ receptor (IFNGR) complex for STAT1 transcriptional activity leading to expression of Interferon Regulatory Factors (IRF). Simultaneous activation of TBK/IKKε via TLR3 during viral infections activates the transcription factor IRF3. Together these transcription factors contributes to expression of intracellular proteins (e.g. ISG49, ISG54) and secreted proteins (e.g. IFN-β, IP-10, IL-15) that are essential to innate antiviral immunity. Here we examined the role of IRF3 in expression of innate anti-viral proteins produced in response to IFN-γ plus TLR3 agonist...
May 2, 2019: Immunobiology
Yi Wei Bryan Teo, Yeh Ching Linn, Goh Yeow Tee, Shang Li, Liam Pock Ho
Simulated Infective Protocol (SIP) is an ex-vivo culture system modeled after the temporal changes of essential cytokines in an acute infection, and previously proven successful in converting T lymphocytes harvested and activated from peripheral blood of normal donors, to revertant CD45RA + Central Memory T lymphocytes (Tcmra) demonstrating properties akin to T Memory Stem Cells (Tscm). In this study, we applied similar SIP on tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) from bone marrow of patients diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and replicated the feasibility to convert activated TILs into Tcmra phenotype...
May 2, 2019: Immunobiology
Rabia Bilge Özgül Özdemir, Alper Tunga Özdemir, Ayla Eker Sarıboyacı, Onur Uysal, Mehmet İbrahim Tuğlu, Cengiz Kırmaz
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are strong immunomodulatory cells investigated in numerous clinical studies on fatal pathologies, such as graft versus host disease and autoimmune diseases; e.g., systemic lupus erythematosus, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Macrophages are one of the critical cells linking the innate and adaptive immune system, and it has been shown that MSCs can differentiate between pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype and anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype of macrophages. However, it has not yet been fully clarified whether these differentiated macrophages are functional...
April 30, 2019: Immunobiology
Miao Yu, Yuanyuan Guo, Peng Zhang, Jing Xue, Jiali Yang, Qian Cai, Xuehong You, Jia Ma, Dandan Yang, Yuanyuan Jia, Yujiong Wang, Feng Li, Shuhong Chi, Mengshu Cao, Juan Chen, Xiaoming Liu
An early diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD) is important for guiding treatments of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated ILD (RA-ILD) in clinical settings. The non-canonical Wnt signaling representative ligand Wnt5a was recently found to involve in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and pathogenesis of RA. The goal of this study was to examine the clinical relevance of Wnt5a in RA-ILD. In this report, the clinical relevance of plasma Wnt5a protein was evaluated in 40 RA-ILD patients and 41 non-ILD RA cohorts...
April 30, 2019: Immunobiology
Feifei Huo, Xiaodong Shi, Xueyang Zou, Shuang Wang, Yi Zhang, Wei Yang, Yi Li
Autoimmune regulator (Aire), primarily expressed in medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), maintains central immune tolerance through the clearance of self-reactive T cells. Aire can also be expressed in dendritic cells (DCs), and DCs can mediate T follicular helper (TFH ) cell differentiation and self-reactive B cell activation through inducible costimulator molecule ligand (ICOSL) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), which can cause autoimmune diseases. To confirm whether Aire in DCs affects TFH cell differentiation and to determine the role of Aire in the maintenance of peripheral immune tolerance, this study observed the effects of Aire deficiency on TFH cells using Aire knockout mice...
April 19, 2019: Immunobiology
Mohammad A Uddin, Mohammad S Akhter, Agnieszka Siejka, John D Catravas, Nektarios Barabutis
The tumor suppressor protein P53 is strongly involved in orchestrating cellular defenses in the diverse variety of human tissues. Anomalies to lung endothelium permeability are streaming severe consequences towards human health, often associated with fatal outcomes. Ongoing investigations suggest that P53 exerts a prominent strategic role in crucial signaling cascades, in charge of both the maintenance and defense of pulmonary endothelium against toxic intruders. The current study employs human and bovine lung microvascular cells, as well as pharmacologic and genetic P53 modulators to demonstrate the negative regulation of APE1/Ref1 by P53...
April 18, 2019: Immunobiology
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