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Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology

A J Villatoro, C Alcoholado, M C Martín-Astorga, V Fernández, M Cifuentes, J Becerra
The two main sources of mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) in the canine species are bone marrow (cBM-MSCs) and adipose tissue (cAd-MSCs). The secretion of multitude bioactive molecules, included under the concept of secretome and found in the cultured medium, play a predominant role in the mechanism of action of these cells on tissue regeneration. Although certain features of its characterization are well documented, their secretory profiles remain unknown. We described and compared, for the first time, the secretory profile and exosomes characterization in standard monolayer culture of MSCs from both sources of the same donor as well as its immunomodulatory potential...
February 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sarah Raabis, Wenli Li, Laura Cersosimo
Gut microbial colonization and establishment are vital to ruminant health and production. This review article focuses on current knowledge and methods used to understand and manipulate the gut microbial community in ruminant animals, with a special focus on probiotics treatment. This review highlights the most promising of studies in this area, including gut microbial colonization and establishment, effect of gastrointestinal tract microbial community on host mucosal innate immune function, impact of feeding strategies on gut microbial community, current probiotic treatments in ruminants, methods to manipulate the gut microbiota and associated antimicrobial compounds, and models and cell lines used in understanding the host immune response to probiotic treatments...
February 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Rodrigo Pereyra, Florencia Celeste Mansilla, Marcos Ivan Petersen, Victor Suarez, Alejandra Victoria Capozzo
Neospora caninum infection of cattle can be vertically transmitted, resulting in abortion or birth of infected calves. Vertical transmission occurs both in acutely or chronically infected cattle. There is little information on the immune response needed to prevent endogenous transplacental transmission, particularly from chronically infected cattle to their offspring in a natural environment. In this study, N. caninum seropositive pregnant cattle from three different farms with high avidity antibodies and low IgM titers were selected and their newborn colostrum-deprived calves were tested for anti-N...
February 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Qingsong Han, Xiaolong Gao, Zhili Chu, Xiangwei Wang, Fathalrhman Eisa Addoma Adam, Shuxia Zhang, Yanqing Jia, Xinxin Qiu, Xinglong Wang, Zengqi Yang
Melanoma Differentiation-Associated protein 5 (MDA5) is a cytoplasmic sensor for viral invasion and plays an important role in regulation of the immune response against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in chickens. MDA5 was used as an adjuvant to enhance the humoral immune response against influenza virus. In the current study, truncated chicken MDA5 [1-483 aa, chMDA5(483aa)] expressed by recombinant adenovirus was administered to specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens to improve the immune response induced by inactivated NDV vaccine...
February 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Daniel Pérez-Núñez, Sun-Young Sunwoo, Elena G Sánchez, Nicholas Haley, Raquel García-Belmonte, Marisa Nogal, Igor Morozov, Daniel Madden, Natasha N Gaudreault, Lina Mur, Vinay Shivanna, Juergen A Richt, Yolanda Revilla
African swine fever virus (ASFV) causes serious disease in domestic pigs for which there is no vaccine currently available. ASFV is a large DNA virus that encodes for more than 150 proteins, thus making the identification of viral antigens that induce a protective immune response difficult. Based on the functional roles of several ASFV proteins found in previous studies, we selected combinations of ASFV recombinant proteins and pcDNAs-expressing ASFV genes, to analyze their ability to induce humoral and cellular immune responses in pigs...
February 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Kaimin Hui, Qian Ren, Jun Cao
Intestine is not only the nutrients digestion and absorption centers, but also an important place of microbial infection. Therefore, intestine immunity plays a key defense means for the host against the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we use kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) as a model to study the intestine immune characteristics of shrimp against WSSV through next-generation sequencing technique. A total of 63,458 and 44,350 unigenes were generated from the control sample and the WSSV infection sample, respectively...
February 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Teresia Maina, Tracy Prysliak, Jose Perez-Casal
Bacterial pathogens have evolved to manipulate host cell death and survival pathways for their intracellular persistence. Understanding the ability of a bacterium to induce or inhibit cell death is essential for elucidating the disease pathogenesis and suggesting potential therapeutic options to manage the infection. In recent years, apoptosis inhibition by different bacteria has been suggested as a mechanism of survival by allowing the pathogen to replicate and disseminate in the host. Mycoplasma bovis has evolved mechanisms to invade and modulate apoptosis of bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), red blood cells (RBCs), primary macrophages and monocytes...
February 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Vijay Kumar Saxena, Alejandra Diaz, Jean-Pierre Y Scheerlinck
M cells play a pivotal role in the induction of immune responses within the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues. M cells exist principally in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of the isolated solitary lymphoid follicles as well as in the lymphoid follicles of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue and gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT). Through lymphatic cannulation it is possible to investigate local immune responses induced following nasal Ag delivery in sheep. Hence, identifying sheep M cell markers would allow the targeting of M cells to offset the problem of trans-epithelial Ag delivery associated with inducing mucosal immunity...
February 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Bahram Shojadoost, Raveendra R Kulkarni, Alexander Yitbarek, Adrianna Laursen, Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Tamiru Negash Alkie, Neda Barjesteh, Wanderly M Quinteiro-Filho, Trevor K Smith, Shayan Sharif
Selenium supplementation in poultry feeds has been known to have beneficial effects on the bird health and performance; however antiviral effects of selenium have remained largely unknown. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of supplementation of chicken diets with organic (Selenium Enriched Yeast; SEY) and inorganic selenium (Sodium Selenite; SS) on low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (H9N2) shedding in the cloacal and oropharyngeal swab samples as well as examined the expression of immune related genes...
January 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Mohammed Naghizadeh, Frederik T Larsen, Eva Wattrang, Liselotte R Norup, Tina S Dalgaard
Phagocytic activity of leukocytes in whole blood was assessed as a potential immune competence trait in chickens. A flow cytometry based whole blood phagocytosis (WBP) assay was set up and evaluated using blood from chickens homozygous for four different MHC haplotypes, B12, B15, B19 and B21. Fluorescent latex beads and two serotypes of fluorescently labelled heat-killed bacteria (Salmonella Infantis and Salmonella. Typhimurium) were evaluated as phagocytic targets. In addition, the opsonophagocytic potential (OPp) of individual sera from the birds was included in a phagocytosis assay using the HD11 chicken macrophage cell line...
January 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Shollie M Falkenberg, Rohana P Dassanayake, Paul Walz, Eduardo Casas, John D Neill, Julia F Ridpath
Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) cause acute and persistent infections. Acute infection results in generalized immunosuppression characterized by a decrease in circulating lymphocytes as a result of depletion of CD4+ and CD8 + T cell populations. Persistent infection with BVDV is the result of immune tolerance and is generally not associated with lymphocytopenia. The health outcome of persistently infected (PI) calves varies widely; some die of mucosal disease, some succumb to ill thrift and others appear normal and survive to adulthood...
January 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Marina Rodrigues de Abreu, Melissa Carolina Pereira, Patrícia Ucelli Simioni, Elen Fernanda Nodari, Lisiery Negrini Paiatto, Maria Izabel Camargo-Mathias
Rhipicephalus sanguineus s. l. is popularly known as the "brown dog tick" since dogs are its preferential hosts, but the species has been reported to parasitize other mammals, including humans, with significant medical-veterinary importance since it transmits several important pathogenic agents during the feeding period. The tick saliva is a complex mixture that has several functions, including the capability to modulate the hemostatic, inflammatory and immunologic systems of the host, allowing pathogens to settle...
January 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Franco Fiorani, Joaquín I Armendano, Yanina P Hecker, Virginia Araoz, Germán J Cantón, María R Leunda, Susana B Pereyra, Pablo M Corva, Anselmo C Odeón, Dadín P Moore
The aim of this study was to evaluate delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) induced by the intradermal inoculation of a Neospora caninum tachyzoite soluble lysate in cattle previously exposed with the protozoa. Four experimental groups were selected according to the prior exposure to N. caninum antigen. All cows were intradermally injected with a N. caninum tachyzoite soluble lysate and skinfold thickness growth at the inoculation sites was measured at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post inoculation (hpi). Additionally, specific antibodies and IFN-γ production were assessed...
January 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Christiane L Schnabel, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Bettina Wagner
C-X-C motif ligand 10 (CXCL10) is a pro-inflammatory chemokine and has been extensively evaluated in people and mice. In horses, CXCL10 and its involvement in host immunity has rarely been analyzed due to the lack of specific antibodies. We generated a mAb specific for the equine chemokine CXCL10 using hybridoma technology. Antibody specificity was confirmed by intracellular staining and flow cytometric analysis of Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells expressing equine rCXCL10, while CHO cells expressing equine rCXCL9 were not detected...
January 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Ilaria Caliani, Letizia Poggioni, Antonella D'Agostino, Maria Cristina Fossi, Silvia Casini
The sea turtles maintaining in rescue centres can cause physiological stress to the animals with subsequent effects, such as the imbalance of immune system components. It is therefore crucial to investigate how innate immune responses are influenced by stress within recovery centers with the aim to use them as primary tools for the evaluation of the rescued specimens' health status and for developing more effective conservative strategies. In this study we monitored for the first time different immune responses in hospitalized Mediterranean loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) (n = 88), comparing them with free-ranging animals (n = 11)...
January 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
U Lisiecka, K Kostro, K Dudek, A Brodzki, M Czop
The purpose of this study was to determine concentrations of IL-2, IL-10, TGF-β1 in serum and T regulatory cell (Treg) percentage in peripheral blood of dogs with perianal tumours. Investigations were conducted on 32 male dogs of mixed breed. The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups and control group. The groups were established depending on the tumour malignancy degree and the type of dominant hormones. All measurements of serum cytokine concentrations were conducted by the use of commercial diagnostic ELISA kits...
January 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
N Thema, S I Tshilwane, L Son, R M Smith, F E Faber, H C Steyn, M van Kleef, J Liebenberg, A Pretorius
Since CD8+ T cells play an important role in resistance to infection with heartwater, effective vaccines against this disease will likely require identification of antigens that contain CD8+ T cell epitopes responsible for cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. With the use of the fluorescent antigen-transfected target cell (FATT)-CTL assay, IFN-γ ELISPOT and flow cytometry, peptides that induce CTL, proliferation of CD8 + T cells and IFN-γ production were identified as possible target antigens for vaccine development...
January 2019: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Sara Prims, Ben Jurgens, Charlotte Vanden Hole, Steven Van Cruchten, Chris Van Ginneken, Christophe Casteleyn
Selection for prolificacy in modern pig farming has resulted in increasing litter sizes. Since rearing large litters is challenging, artificial rearing of piglets with a milk replacer is an alternative strategy. It is hypothesized that the development of the piglets' mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) is affected by these artificial conditions. Therefore, the stereologically estimated volumes of the tonsil of the soft palate, and the lingual, nasopharyngeal and paraepiglottic tonsils, as well as the jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches were statistically compared at day 21 postpartum between six conventionally reared piglets and six piglets that were artificially reared from day 7 onwards...
December 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Megan C Niederwerder
Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is the process by which fecal microbiota are donated from a healthy individual and subsequently transplanted into a diseased or young individual. The mechanism by which FMT is effective is believed to be due to enhanced beneficial microbes, increased microbiome diversity, and restored normal flora. Beneficial gut microorganisms not only play a role in maintaining an intestinal barrier and metabolizing nutrients, but importantly, these microbes help regulate local and systemic immune function...
December 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Vladimir Lopez, Elisabeth van der Heijden, Margarita Villar, Anita Michel, Pilar Alberdi, Christian Gortázar, Victor Rutten, José de la Fuente
There is an imperative need for effective control of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) on a global scale and vaccination of cattle may prove to be pivotal in achieving this. The oral and parenteral use of a heat-inactivated Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) vaccine has previously been found to confer partial protection against BTB in several species. A role for complement factor C3 has been suggested in wild boar, but the exact mechanism by which this vaccine provides protection remains unclear. In the present study, a quantitative proteomics approach was used to analyze the white blood cell proteome of vaccinated cattle in comparison to unvaccinated controls, prior (T0) and in response to vaccination, skin test and challenge (T9 and T12)...
December 2018: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
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