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Archives of Pharmacal Research

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30997601/three-new-ent-abietane-diterpenoids-from-the-roots-of-euphorbia-fischeriana-and-their-cytotoxicity-in-human-tumor-cell-lines
#1
Minghui Li, Fang He, Yuan Zhou, Meigui Wang, Pingde Tao, Qingmei Tu, Guanghui Lv, Xintao Chen
Three new ent-abietane diterpenoids, termed fischerianoids A-C (1-3), were isolated and identified from the ethyl acetate extracts of roots of the medicinally valuable plant Euphorbia fischeriana. The planar and relative structures of 1-3 were established via high-resolution electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration of 1 was further established via X-ray crystallography experiment. Compounds 1-3 showed selective inhibitory potency against certain human tumor cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 8...
April 17, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30972559/green-synthesis-and-biological-activities-of-silver-nanoparticles-prepared-by-carpesium-cernuum-extract
#2
Eun-Young Ahn, Hang Jin, Youmie Park
The extract of Carpesium cernuum whole plant was successfully used as a green factory for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in a one-step, one-pot process. The extract efficiently reduced silver ions to spherical silver nanoparticles. The size was measured as 13.0 ± 0.2 nm from high resolution transmission electron microscopic images. The reaction yield was determined to be 99.6% using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. The silver nanoparticles were highly stable for 28 days at ambient temperature without forming agglomeration or aggregation of nanoparticles...
April 10, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30955159/natural-compound-inducers-of-immunogenic-cell-death
#3
REVIEW
Marc Diederich
Accumulating evidence shows that the anti-cancer potential of the immune response that can be activated by modulation of the immunogenicity of dying cancer cells. This regulated cell death process is called immunogenic cell death (ICD) and constitutes a new innovating anti-cancer strategy with immune-modulatory potential thanks to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Some conventional clinically-used chemotherapeutic drugs, as well as preclinically-investigated compounds of natural origins such as anthracyclines, microtubule-destabilizing agents, cardiac glycosides or hypericin derivatives, possess such an immune-stimulatory function by triggering ICD...
April 6, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30941641/t-helper-17-th17-cells-and-interleukin-17-il-17-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Seon Hee Chang
Th17 cells are a specialized subset of CD4+ T cells that are essential in driving inflammation during autoimmune disease and infection through a signature cytokine IL-17. Th17 cells have been found in various human cancers. The function of these cells in cancers is highly context-dependent; both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressing activity have been reported. IL-17 and IL-22, Th17-derived cytokines, influence the tumor microenvironment by directly promoting transformed cell properties and neighboring stromal cell activity...
April 2, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30937843/transendothelial-migration-tem-of-in-vitro-generated-dendritic-cell-vaccine-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#5
REVIEW
Muhammad Umer Ashraf, Yideul Jeong, Seung-Eon Roh, Yong-Soo Bae
Many efforts have been made to improve the efficacy of dendritic cell (DC) vaccines in DC-based cancer immunotherapy. One of these efforts is to deliver a DC vaccine more efficiently to the regional lymph nodes (rLNs) to induce stronger anti-tumor immunity. Together with chemotaxis, transendothelial migration (TEM) is believed to be a critical and indispensable step for DC vaccine migration to the rLNs after administration. However, the mechanism underlying the in vitro-generated DC TEM in DC-based cancer immunotherapy has been largely unknown...
April 1, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30937842/autophagy-at-synapses-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Wongyoung Lee, Sung Hyun Kim
Autophagy is an essential process for maintaining cellular homeostasis, a critical process in all cell types. Because neurons are post-mitotic cells, maintaining cellular and functional homeostasis is more important in neurons than in other types of cells. Synapses are fundamental units needed for neural communication, and synapses with consistent protein quality are essential for neural functionality. Dysregulation of autophagy in neurons has been shown to be related to neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease...
April 1, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30919268/plasma-membrane-redox-enzymes-new-therapeutic-targets-for-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Dong-Hoon Hyun
Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by oxidative stress appears at early stages of aging and age-related diseases. Plasma membrane redox enzymes act in a compensatory manner to decrease oxidative stress and supply reductive capacity to ensure cell survival. Plasma membrane redox enzymes transfer electrons from NAD(P)H to oxidized ubiquinone and α-tocopherol, resulting in inhibition of further oxidative damage. Plasma membrane redox enzymes and their partners are affected by aging, leading to progression of neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis...
March 27, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30915681/the-fungus-colletotrichum-as-a-source-for-bioactive-secondary-metabolites
#8
REVIEW
Jung Wha Kim, Sang Hee Shim
Colletotrichum sp. is a widely distributed fungal genus, which is mainly known to cause anthracnose on cereals, legumes, fruit trees, and vegetables. Even though many of the Colletotrichum sp. are plant pathogens, a variety of secondary metabolites with diverse bioactivities have been reported to be produced by this fungus. At least 109 secondary metabolites from the fungus Colletotrichum have been reported to date. They mostly include nitrogen-containing metabolites, sterols, terpenes, pyrones, phenolics, and fatty acids...
March 26, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30900149/role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-cerebrovascular-alteration-during-aging
#9
REVIEW
Juyeon Mun, Hye-Min Kang, Junyang Jung, Chan Park
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a gasotransmitter molecule, has attracted attention as an endogenous signaling molecule because of its various pathological and physiological effects, including pathologies related to aging. In this review, we aimed to discuss the morphological changes in each vessel following aging, and to evaluate the possible role of H2 S in the cerebrovascular alteration, such as arterial stiffness, microvessel loss, and blood-brain barrier disruption, with advancing age. Additionally, the review outlines the therapeutic efficacy of the H2 S-releasing compounds on the cerebrovasculature...
March 21, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30895524/natural-killer-cells-as-a-promising-therapeutic-target-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Nayoung Kim, Hyeon Ho Lee, Hyo-Jung Lee, Woo Seon Choi, Jinju Lee, Hun Sik Kim
Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphoid cells that provide early protection against cancer development via their selectivity to kill abnormal cells undergoing cellular transformation without the need for prior stimulation. Given the correlation between NK cell dysfunction and cancer prognosis, restoration of endogenous NK cells in the tumor microenvironment or adoptive transfer of NK cells with improved function holds great promise in cancer treatment. Furthermore, MHC-unrestricted tumor lysis by NK cells complements the MHC-restricted killing of tumor cells by cytotoxic T cells, thus positioning NK cells as an alternative or complementary therapeutic target for cancers that are refractory to T cell-based therapy...
March 20, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30879173/induction-of-p53-mediated-senescence-is-essential-for-the-eventual-anticancer-therapeutic-effect-of-rh1
#11
Joohee Jung, Do Young Song, Jung Jin Hwang, Heon Joo Park, Jung Shin Lee, Si Yeol Song, Seong-Yun Jeong, Eun Kyung Choi
RH1 (2, 5-diaziridinyl-3-(hydroxymethy)-6-methyl-1, 4-benzoquinone) is a bioreductive anticancer drug. The mechanism underlying its therapeutic properties has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine whether RH1 exerts its anticancer effect via p53-mediated apoptosis and senescence in vitro and in vivo. RH1 displayed dose-dependent biphasic effects in vitro, i.e., it induced apoptosis at higher dose and senescence at lower dose accompanied by marked activation of p53. Thus, RH1 primarily induced cell death by apoptosis...
March 16, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877558/cell-signaling-and-biological-pathway-in-cardiovascular-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Cheong-Whan Chae, Yoo-Wook Kwon
Currently, coronary artery disease accounts for a large proportion of deaths occurring worldwide. Damage to the heart muscle over a short period of time leads to myocardial infarction (MI). The biological mechanisms of atherosclerosis, one of the causes of MI, have been well studied. Resistin, a type of adipokine, is closely associated with intravascular level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and augmentation of the expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. Therefore, resistin, which is highly associated with inflammation, can progress into coronary artery disease...
March 15, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877557/preface-for-the-special-issue-on-recent-advances-and-future-perspectives-of-new-drug-development-and-therapeutics-on-cardiovascular-diseases
#13
EDITORIAL
You Mie Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30859410/roles-of-nkt-cells-in-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
REVIEW
Eun-Ah Bae, Hyungseok Seo, Il-Kyu Kim, Insu Jeon, Chang-Yuil Kang
Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as an effective therapeutic strategy to treat cancer. Among diverse immune populations, invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells have shown potent antitumor activity by linking innate and adaptive immune systems. Upon activation by lipid antigens on CD1d molecules, iNKT cells rapidly produce various cytokines and trigger antitumor immunity directly or indirectly by activating other antitumor immune cells. Administration of a representative iNKT cell ligand alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) or α-GalCer-pulsed APCs effectively stimulates iNKT cells and thereby induces antitumor effects...
March 11, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30852731/differential-effect-of-lps-and-paclitaxel-on-microglial-functional-phenotypes-and-circulating-cytokines-the-possible-role-of-cx3cr1-and-il-4-10-in-blocking-persistent-inflammation
#15
Joong-Won Ha, Min-Jung You, Hyun-Sun Park, Jong Wan Kim, Min-Soo Kwon
Neuroinflammation plays a role in cancer chemotherapy-induced chronic pain. Thus far, most studies have focused on neuroinflammation suppression. However, there are limited reports of which factor is involved in the transition from acute inflammation to chronic inflammation, resulting in neuroinflammation and chronic pain. Here, we compared the inflammatory reaction and pain response induced by LPS and paclitaxel. LPS (0.5 mg/kg) or paclitaxel (2 mg/kg/day for 5 days) was administered intraperitoneally to mice, and mechanical allodynia was examined by von Frey test...
March 9, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30843144/immunological-and-clinical-implications-of-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-human-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Hyung-Don Kim, Su-Hyung Park
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) such as anti-PD-1 and anti-CTLA-4 therapy are now FDA-approved treatment options for different cancer types. However, the therapeutic efficacy of ICIs varies substantially among cancer types and patients, and only a limited proportion of cancer patients benefit clinically from ICIs. To improve the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatments involving ICI, the mechanisms of response to ICIs and the heterogeneous pattern of immune checkpoint receptor expression need to be better understood...
March 6, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30838509/palmitoylation-mediated-synaptic-regulation-of-ampa-receptor-trafficking-and-function
#17
REVIEW
Heesung Sohn, Mikyoung Park
The α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) is a major glutamate-gated ion channel in the brain and is important for synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and learning. Palmitoylation, a post-translational modification, is a critical process regulating AMPAR trafficking, synaptic function and plasticity, and learning and memory in health and diseases. In this review, we discuss current knowledge on the palmitoylation-dependent regulation of AMPAR trafficking and functions...
March 5, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30835074/hypothalamic-inflammation-and-obesity-a-mechanistic-review
#18
REVIEW
Jichang Seong, Jung Yun Kang, Ji Su Sun, Ki Woo Kim
Obesity is one of the worldwide prevalent disease caused by the imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure. Over a 100 years of research demonstrate that hypothalamus is the critical brain region regulating energy homeostasis, and evidences suggest the participation of non-neuronal populations such as astrocytes and microglia in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Recently, fat-rich diet induced hypothalamic inflammation has been found to deregulate the energy homeostasis, leading to the insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and obesity...
March 5, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30830661/evolution-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-t-cell-therapy-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Young-Ho Lee, Chan Hyuk Kim
Engineering T cells with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) that reprograms their antigen selectivity and signaling has recently emerged as one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for treating cancers. For example, two CD19-specific CAR T cell (CAR-T) therapies have shown remarkable responses in patients with relapsed/refractory B-cell cancers, and were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2017. This initial clinical success has spurred an explosion of interests in this novel therapy from both academia and industry, and results from basic and clinical research have enabled the rapid evolution of the CAR-T field...
March 4, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30830660/significant-roles-of-neuroinflammation-in-parkinson-s-disease-therapeutic-targets-for-pd-prevention
#20
REVIEW
Yujeong Lee, Seulah Lee, Seung-Cheol Chang, Jaewon Lee
Glial cells outnumber neurons in the brain and play important roles in the neuroinflammation that accompanies brain damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In Parkinson's disease (PD), dopaminergic neuronal loss is accompanied by inflammatory changes in microglia, astrocytes, innate immune cells, and infiltrating peripheral immune cells. Neuroinflammation is probably a fundamental immune response to protect neurons from harm and compensate for neuronal damage, but at the same time, its neurotoxic effects exacerbate neuron damage...
March 4, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
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