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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Page 2

Anna C Peace, Santosh Kumar, Robert Wills, Andrew Mackin, Crystal M Hoh, Todd Archer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous melatonin administration on activated whole blood expression of the T-cell cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (INF-γ) in dogs. ANIMALS: Ten healthy dogs. PROCEDURES: Heparinized whole blood was collected from 10 dogs for analysis of cytokine expression before administration of melatonin (baseline). Each dog was then administered melatonin at a dosage of approximately 1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 hr for 14 days...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Patchaya Thassakorn, Papras Patchanee, Wanpitak Pongkan, Nipon Chattipakorn, Chavalit Boonyapakorn
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common acquired cardiac disorder found in dogs. The disease process can lead to heart failure (HF) and has been found to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Statins exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in human HF patients. However, the beneficial effects of statins in MMVD dogs are still unclear. Thirty MMVD dogs were enrolled in the study and were divided into two groups: MMVD without HF dogs (n = 15) and MMVD with HF dogs (n = 15)...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Paula M Bennell, Ted Whittem, Elizabeth Tudor
Alfaxalone, a synthetic neuroactive steroid, has been attributed with properties including sedation, anaesthesia and analgesia. The clinical relevance of any analgesic properties of alfaxalone has not been demonstrated. This study was a prospective, blinded, randomized, negative control clinical trial in 65 healthy dogs presented for ovariohysterectomy. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained, for Group 1 (TIVA) dogs (n = 30) with intravenous alfaxalone alone and for Group 2 dogs (n = 35) with thiopental followed by isoflurane in 100% oxygen inhalation...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ryan S Bailey, Julie D Sheldon, Matthew C Allender, Mark G Papich, Sathya K Chinnadurai
This study documents the pharmacokinetics of oral tramadol in Muscovy ducks. Six ducks received a single 30 mg/kg dose of tramadol, orally by stomach tube, with blood collection prior to and up to 24 hr after tramadol administration. Plasma tramadol, and metabolites O-desmethyltramadol (M1), and N,O-didesmethyltramadol (M5) concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence (FL) detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a one-compartment model with first-order input...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Silke Pfitzer, Andrew P Woodward, Liesel Laubscher, Kristin Warren, Rebecca Vaughan-Higgins, Jacobus P Raath, Michael Laurence
To determine the bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties of the serotonin 5-HT1A receptor agonist R-8-OH-DPAT in goats, and 0.1 mg kg-1 R-8-OH-DPAT hydrobromide was administered intramuscularly (i.m.) and intravenously (i.v.) to six goats in a two-phase cross-over design experiment. Venous blood samples were collected from the jugular vein 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 60 min following treatment and analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by a one-compartment analysis...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Evelyn E MacKay, Kevin E Washburn, Ashley L Padgett, Virginia R Fajt, Chih-Ping Lo, Travis P Mays, Shannon E Washburn
Macrolides are important antimicrobials frequently used in human and veterinary medicine in the treatment of pregnant women and pregnant livestock. They may be useful for the control of infectious ovine abortion, which has economic, animal health, and human health impacts. In this study, catheters were surgically placed in the fetal vasculature and amnion of pregnant ewes at 115 (±2) days of gestation. Ewes were given a single dose of 2.5 mg/kg tulathromycin subcutaneously, and drug concentrations were determined in fetal plasma, maternal plasma, and amniotic fluid at 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72, 144, and 288 hr after drug administration...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Marion Leiberich, Ralph Krebber, Michael Hewetson, Johan Marais, Vinny Naidoo
South Africa currently loses over 1000 white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) each year to poaching incidents, and numbers of severely injured victims found alive have increased dramatically. However, little is known about the antimicrobial treatment of wounds in rhinoceros. This study explores the applicability of enrofloxacin for rhinoceros through the use of pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modelling. The pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin were evaluated in five white rhinoceros after intravenous (i...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tamara L Grubb, Danielle Kurkowski, Deborah C Sellon, Kathy K Seino, Todd Coffey, Jennifer L Davis
Buprenorphine is absorbed following sublingual administration, which would be a low-stress delivery route in foals. However, the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics are not described in foals. Six healthy foals <21 days of age participated in a blinded, randomized, 3-period, 5-sequence, 3-treatment crossover prospective study. Foals received 0.01-0.02 mg/kg buprenorphine administered SL or IV with an equivalent volume of saline administered by the opposite route. Blood was collected from the cephalic vein for pharmacokinetic analysis...
January 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Małgorzata Pomorska-Mól, Krzysztof Kwit, Ewelina Czyżewska-Dors, Zygmunt Pejsak
The effect of a standard, single dose therapy with tulathromycin was investigated on the postvaccinal humoral and cellular immune response in pigs vaccinated against swine influenza. Forty-five pigs, divided into 3 groups, were used (control not vaccinated (C, n = 15), control vaccinated (CV, n = 15), and experimentally received tulathromycin (TUL, n = 15)). For vaccination of pigs, an inactivated, commercial vaccine was used. Pigs from TUL group received single dose of tulathromycin intramuscularly, at the recommended dose (2...
December 25, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Chris Bader, David E Starling, Douglas E Jones, Matthew T Brewer
Fish are common definitive and intermediate hosts for a variety of parasitic flatworms. In unstressed wild populations, parasitic infections often go unnoticed and are perceived to represent a lesser threat to fish health. In contrast, platyhelminth parasitism of captive fish often results in decreased weight gain and increased mortality which often necessitates chemotherapeutic treatment. The presence of platyhelminth parasites in fish tissues is not only unappealing but in some cases also represents a threat to human health...
December 16, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mariana Ballent, Maria Laura Maté, Paula Dominguez, Guillermo Virkel, Melanie Albérich, Anne Lespine, Carlos Lanusse, Adrian Luis Lifschitz
The aim of the current study was to evaluate the in vivo pharmacokinetic of ivermectin (IVM) after the administration of a long-acting (LA) formulation to sheep and its impact on potential drug-drug interactions. The work included the evaluation of the comparative plasma profiles of IVM administered at a single therapeutic dose (200 μg/kg) and as LA formulation at 630 μg/kg. Additionally, IVM was measured in different gastrointestinal tissues at 15 days posttreatment with both IVM formulations. The impact of the long-lasting and enhanced IVM exposure on the disposition kinetics of abamectin (ABM) was also assessed...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Melinda Poole, Jessica M Quimby, Tianhua Hu, Daizie Labelle, William Buhles
Mirtazapine is classified as a weight gain drug in cats, and the purpose of this study was to evaluate its efficacy in cats experiencing unintended weight loss. This was a multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical study in client-owned cats ≥1 year of age, weighing ≥2 kg, with a documented loss (≥5%) in body weight. Cats were treated once daily with either 2 mg/cat mirtazapine transdermal ointment (n = 83) or placebo (n = 94) (Per Protocol population) applied to the inner surface of the pinna for 14 ± 3 days...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Zhiqiang Chang, Zhao Chen, Haiyu Gao, Qianqian Zhai, Jian Li
The pharmacokinetic profiles of florfenicol in the spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) were investigated at 15 and 20°C water temperatures, respectively. Florfenicol content in plasma samples was analyzed using an HPLC method. Drug concentration versus time data were best fitted to a three-compartment model after a single intravenous administration (15 mg/kg BW), and fitted to a two-compartment model after an oral administration (30 mg/kg BW) at 15 and 20°C. The florfenicol concentration in the blood increased slowly during the 12 hr following an oral administration at 15°C, with a peak concentration (Cmax ) of 9...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Xia Xiao, Weixuan Lan, Ying Wang, Lijie Jiang, Yongjia Jiang, Zhiqiang Wang
Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) infection causes substantial economic loss in the duck industry. Danofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone solely used in animals, shows good antibacterial activity against P. multocida. In this study, the in vitro pharmacodynamics of danofloxacin against P. multocida was studied. The serum and lung tissue pharmacokinetics of danofloxacin were studied in healthy and P. multocida infected ducks following oral administration of a single dose of 5 mg/kg body weight (b.w.). The MIC, MBC and MPC of danofloxacin against P...
December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tania E Perez Jimenez, Katrina L Mealey, Darren Schnider, Tamara L Grubb, Stephen A Greene, Michael H Court
We previously showed that (+)-tramadol is metabolized in dog liver to (+)-M1 exclusively by CYP2D15 and to (+)-M2 by multiple CYPs, but primarily CYP2B11. However, (+)-M1 and (+)-M2 are further metabolized in dogs to (+)-M5, which is the major metabolite found in dog plasma and urine. In this study, we identified canine CYPs involved in metabolizing (+)-M1 and (+)-M2 using recombinant enzymes, untreated dog liver microsomes (DLMs), inhibitor-treated DLMs, and DLMs from CYP inducer-treated dogs. A canine P-glycoprotein expressing cell line was also used to evaluate whether (+)-tramadol, (+)-M1, (+)-M2, or (+)-M5 are substrates of canine P-glycoprotein, thereby limiting their distribution into the central nervous system...
December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Orhan Corum, Duygu Durna Corum, Ayse Er, Ramazan Yildiz, Kamil Uney
The pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, and tolerability of tolfenamic acid (TA) were determined after treating sheep with TA via different routes and doses. This crossover study was carried out with a washout period of 15 days. In the study, 16 clinically healthy sheep were randomly assigned to two equal groups. In the first group (n = 8), animals received TA by intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), or oral (OR) routes at 2 mg/kg. In the second group (n = 8), TA was administered intravenously to each sheep at 2, 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg...
December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Trishna Patel, Tara Marmulak, Ronette Gehring, Maurice Pitesky, Maaike O Clapham, Lisa A Tell
Poultry meat is widely consumed throughout the world and production practices often include the administration of pharmaceutical products. When appropriate, extra-label drug use of medications is necessary, but scientifically derived drug withdrawal intervals must be observed so that poultry meat is not contaminated with drug residues which could pose health risks to consumers. Over the past decade, there has been increased advocacy for judicious use of antimicrobial drugs for treating food animals. Judicious use of medications is commonly referred to as practices that reduce antibiotic resistance, but also includes residue avoidance...
December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tim Morris, Stuart W Paine, Marjaana Viljanto, Simon Hudson, Simon Gower, Melissa Pittorino, Sally Colgan
The oral tablet formulation of butylscopolamine, which is available without prescription, is commonly used by trainers of racing greyhounds to treat functional urethral obstruction. As medication control of butylscopolamine is therefore required for such use to ensure the integrity of greyhound racing, an administration study was performed in six greyhounds to determine the pharmacokinetics of orally administered butylscopolamine. A single dose of one 10 mg butylscopolamine tablet was administered orally to simulate this use in greyhound racing...
December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jianzhong Wang, Jiao Xue, Jingyuan Kong, Jing Li, Suxia Zhang, Xingyuan Cao
The pharmacokinetic properties of vitacoxib have not been established completely; current dosage recommendations are based on clinical experiences. The primary objective of this study was to describe plasma concentrations and characterize the pharmacokinetics of vitacoxib formulation following oral administrations in horses. Also, the effect of the state of stomach contents on the absorption of vitacoxib was investigated in fed/fasted horses. Blood samples were collected prior to and at various times up to 72 hr post-administration...
December 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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