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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Page 2

Federica Di Cesare, Daniela Gioeni, Giuliano Ravasio, Alberto Pellegrini, Lorena Lucatello, Vittoria Bisutti, Roberto Villa, Petra Cagnardi
This study aimed to define the pharmacokinetic profiles of dexmedetomidine and methadone administered simultaneously in dogs by either an oral transmucosal route or intramuscular route and to determine the bioavailability of the oral transmucosal administration relative to the intramuscular one of both drugs, so as the applicability of this administration route in dogs. Twelve client-owned dogs, scheduled for diagnostic procedures, were treated with a combination of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride (10 μg/kg) and methadone hydrochloride (0...
June 14, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Mary C Cramer, Monique D Pairis-Garcia, Andrew S Bowman, Steven J Moeller, Yuntao Zhang, Pritam K Sidhu, Geraldine Magnin, Johann F Coetzee
The objective of this study was to describe the pharmacokinetics (PK) of flunixin in 12 nonlactating sows following transdermal (TD) flunixin (3.33 mg/kg) and intravenous (IV; 2.20 mg/kg) flunixin meglumine (FM) administration using a crossover design with a 10-day washout period. Blood samples were collected postadministration from sows receiving IV FM (3, 6, 10, 20, 40 min and 1, 3, 6, 12, 16, 24, 36, and 48 hr) and from sows receiving TD flunixin (10, 20, 40 min and 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hr)...
June 13, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Sol M Rivera-Velez, Liam E Broughton-Neiswanger, Martin A Suarez, Jennifer E Slovak, Julianne K Hwang, Jinna Navas, Amy W S Leung, Pablo E Piñeyro, Nicolas F Villarino
Repeated administration of meloxicam can cause kidney damage in cats by mechanisms that remain unclear. Metabolomics and lipidomics are powerful, noninvasive approaches used to investigate tissue response to drug exposure. Thus, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of meloxicam on the feline kidney using untargeted metabolomics and lipidomics approaches. Female young-adult purpose-breed cats were allocated into the control (n = 4) and meloxicam (n = 4) groups. Cats in the control and meloxicam groups were treated daily with saline and meloxicam at 0...
June 12, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Emily H Berryhill, Heather Knych, Judy M Edman, K Gary Magdesian
The neurokinin-1 (NK) receptor antagonist, maropitant citrate, mitigates nausea and vomiting in dogs and cats. Nausea is poorly understood and likely under-recognized in horses. Use of NK-1 receptor antagonists in horses has not been reported. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of maropitant in seven adult horses after single intravenous (IV; 1 mg/kg) and intragastric (IG; 2 mg/kg) doses. A randomized, crossover design was performed. Serial blood samples were collected after dosing; maropitant concentrations were measured using LC-MS/MS...
June 12, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Orhan Corum, Feray Altan, Ramazan Yildiz, Merve Ider, Mahmut Ok, Kamil Uney
The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of enrofloxacin (ENR) and danofloxacin (DNX) following intravenous (IV) and intramuscular (IM) administrations in premature calves. The study was performed on twenty-four calves that were determined to be premature by anamnesis and general clinical examination. Premature calves were randomly divided into four groups (six premature calves/group) according to a parallel pharmacokinetic (PK) design as follows: ENR-IV (10 mg/kg, IV), ENR-IM (10 mg/kg, IM), DNX-IV (8 mg/kg, IV), and DNX-IM (8 mg/kg, IM)...
June 12, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Zeynep Ozdemir, Hatice Eser Faki, Kamil Uney, Bunyamin Tras
The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic interaction between ivermectin (0.4 mg/kg) and praziquantel (10 mg/kg) administered either alone or co-administered to dogs after oral treatment. Twelve healthy cross-bred dogs (weighing 18-21 kg, aged 1-3 years) were allocated randomly into two groups of six dogs (four females, two males) each. In first group, the tablet forms of praziquantel and ivermectin were administered using a crossover design with a 15-day washout period, respectively...
June 11, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Benjamin Kimble, Larry Vogelnest, Soraya Gharibi, Aaron M Izes, Merran Govendir
Amoxicillin was administered as a single subcutaneous injection at 12.5 mg/kg to four koalas and changes in amoxicillin plasma concentrations over 24 hr were quantified. Amoxicillin had a relatively low average ± SD maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of 1.72 ± 0.47 µg/ml; at an average ± SD time to reach Cmax (Tmax ) of 2.25 ± 1.26 hr, and an elimination half-life of 4.38 ± 2.40 hr. The pharmacokinetic profile indicated relatively poor subcutaneous absorption. A metabolite was also identified, likely associated with glucuronic acid conjugation...
June 10, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Joe S Smith, Jonathan P Mochel, David J Borts, Ronald W Griffith
Tulathromycin is a macrolide antibiotic commonly used for the treatment of respiratory disease in food animal species including goats. Recent research in pigs has suggested that the presence of disease could alter the pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in animals with respiratory disease. The objectives of this study were (a) compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of tulathromycin in healthy goats as well as goats with an induced respiratory disease; and (b) to compare the tissue residue concentrations of tulathromycin marker in both groups...
June 10, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Trishna Patel, K Gary Magdesian, Krista E Estell, Judy M Edman, Heather K Knych
Chloramphenicol is commonly used in horses; however, there are no studies evaluating the pharmacokinetics of veterinary canine-approved tablets. Studies using different formulations and earlier analytical techniques led to concerns over low bioavailability in horses. Safety concerns about human health have led many veterinarians to prescribe compounded formulations that are already in suspension or paste form. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of approved chloramphenicol tablets in horses, along with compounded preparations...
June 4, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Fan Yang, Fang Yang, Guoyong Wang, Wenyuan Xi, Chaoshuo Zhang, Han Wang
The pharmacokinetic properties of amoxicillin (AMX) and clavulanic acid (CLV) were studied in healthy cats following single intravenous and oral dosage of 10 mg/kg of AMX and 2.5 mg/kg of CLV. The drug concentrations in plasma were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method validated for canine plasma and further subjected to noncompartmental analysis. After intravenous injection, no significant difference (p > 0.05) was found in the volume of distribution of these two compounds...
June 4, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Prabhakaran Vinothini, Srinivasan Ramesh, Venugopalan Sooraj Nair, Srinivasan Palaninathan Preetha, Padmanabhan Sriram
The bioavailability and pharmacokinetic disposition of tiamulin in broiler chicken were investigated after administration through the crop, drinking water, and feed at 40 mg/kg body weight. Residues of tiamulin in tissues of broiler chicken were also assessed. Plasma and tissue concentrations of tiamulin were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Plasma concentration-time data were described by the non-compartmental model for all three routes, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated...
May 17, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Pallavi Bhardwaj, Pritam K Sidhu, Simrat Pal Singh Saini, Dinesh M B, Satyavan Rampal
The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of marbofloxacin (MBF) were determined in six healthy female goats of age 1.00-1.25 years after repeated administration of MBF. The MBF was administered intramuscularly (IM) at 2 mg kg-1  day-1 for 5 days. Plasma concentrations of MBF were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and PK parameters were obtained using noncompartmental analysis. The MBF concentrations peaked at 1 hr, and peak concentration (Cmax ) was 1.760 µg/ml on day 1 and 1...
May 17, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Tim Morris, Stuart W Paine, Paul Zahra, Eric Li, Sally Colgan, Steven Karamatic
Medication control in greyhound racing requires information from administration studies that measure drug levels in the urine as well as plasma, with time points that extend into the terminal phase of excretion. To characterize the plasma and the urinary pharmacokinetics of flunixin and enable regulatory advice for greyhound racing in respect of both medication and residue control limits, flunixin meglumine was administered intravenously on one occasion to six different greyhounds at the label dose of 1 mg/kg and the levels of flunixin were measured in plasma for up to 96 hr and in urine for up to 120 hr...
May 14, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Miao Li, Christine Mainquist-Whigham, Locke A Karriker, Larry W Wulf, Dongping Zeng, Ronette Gehring, Jim E Riviere, Johann F Coetzee, Zhoumeng Lin
Penicillin G is widely used in food-producing animals at extralabel doses and is one of the most frequently identified violative drug residues in animal-derived food products. In this study, the plasma pharmacokinetics and tissue residue depletion of penicillin G in heavy sows after repeated intramuscular administrations at label (6.5 mg/kg) and 5 × label (32.5 mg/kg) doses were determined. Plasma, urine, and environmental samples were tested as potential antemortem markers for penicillin G residues. The collected new data and other available data from the literature were used to develop a population physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for penicillin G in heavy sows...
April 23, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ellie L Milnes, Pauline Delnatte, Murray Woodbury, Adam Hering, Sam Lee, Dale A Smith, Nicole M Nemeth, Yu Gu, Ronette Gehring, Ron Johnson
This study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of imidocarb, a carbanilide derivative, in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The pharmacokinetic properties of a single intramuscular (IM) dose of imidocarb were determined in 10 deer. A single IM injection of 3.0 mg/kg imidocarb dipropionate was administered, and blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 48 hr after imidocarb administration. Plasma imidocarb concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Caitlin Riggs, Lakshmi Narayanan, Charlee Mulligan, Robert Wills, Andrew Mackin, Claire Fellman, John Thomason, Todd Archer
Cyclosporine is a powerful T-cell inhibitor used in the treatment of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases in the dog. There is limited information on how to best monitor patients on cyclosporine therapy. Currently, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assays are available. Pharmacokinetic assays that measure the concentration of cyclosporine in the blood are used to assess if an appropriate drug concentration has been achieved; however, target blood drug concentrations have not been shown to reliably correlate with suppression of T-cell function in the dog...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Orhan Corum, Duygu Durna Corum, Orkun Atik, Feray Altan, Ayse Er, Kamil Uney
The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of levamisole were determined in red-eared slider turtles after single intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) administration. Nine turtles received levamisole (10 mg/kg) by each route in a three-way crossover design with a washout period of 30 days. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (pretreatment), and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 hr after drug administration. Plasma levamisole concentrations were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography assay...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Briana D Hamamoto-Hardman, Eugene P Steffey, Daniel Weiner, Daniel S McKemie, Philip Kass, Heather K Knych
The objective of the current study was to describe and characterize the pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamic effects of morphine and its two major metabolites in horses following several doses of morphine. A total of ten horses were administered a single intravenous dose of morphine: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.5 mg/kg, or saline control. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hr, analyzed for morphine, and metabolites by LC/MS/MS, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Step count, heart rate and rhythm, gastrointestinal borborygmi, fecal output, packed cell volume, and total protein were also assessed...
March 27, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Weixuan Lan, Xia Xiao, Yongjia Jiang, Lijie Jiang, Xu Zhao, Zhaoyang Yu, Biwen Zhu, Congcong Li, Lin Bian, Zhiqiang Wang
Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of fowl cholera, and florfenicol (FF) has potent antibacterial activity against P. multocida and is widely used in the poultry industry. In this study, we established a P. multocida infection model in ducks and studied the pharmacokinetics of FF in serum and lung tissues after oral administration of 30 mg/kg bodyweight. The maximum concentrations reached (Cmax) were lower in infected ducks (13.88 ± 2.70 μg/ml) vs. healthy control animals (17.86 ± 1.57 μg/ml)...
March 25, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Simon Comerma-Steffensen, Arnaldo Risso, Elias Ascanio-Evanoff, Hector Zerpa
Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development of ungulate's laminitis. Although extensively studied in equines, the endothelial function is not fully examined in bovine digital veins (BDVs). BDVs were studied under isometric conditions to describe the acetylcholine (ACh) endothelium-dependent relaxation. Concentration-response curves were constructed to phenylephrine, ACh, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Relaxation responses were evaluated using either phenylephrine or depolarizing high-potassium Krebs solution (DKS) as precontraction agents...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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