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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

Ellie L Milnes, Pauline Delnatte, Murray Woodbury, Adam Hering, Sam Lee, Dale A Smith, Nicole M Nemeth, Yu Gu, Ronette Gehring, Ron Johnson
This study was designed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of imidocarb, a carbanilide derivative, in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). The pharmacokinetic properties of a single intramuscular (IM) dose of imidocarb were determined in 10 deer. A single IM injection of 3.0 mg/kg imidocarb dipropionate was administered, and blood samples were collected prior to, and up to 48 hr after imidocarb administration. Plasma imidocarb concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Caitlin Riggs, Lakshmi Narayanan, Charlee Mulligan, Robert Wills, Andrew Mackin, Claire Fellman, John Thomason, Todd Archer
Cyclosporine is a powerful T-cell inhibitor used in the treatment of immune-mediated and inflammatory diseases in the dog. There is limited information on how to best monitor patients on cyclosporine therapy. Currently, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic assays are available. Pharmacokinetic assays that measure the concentration of cyclosporine in the blood are used to assess if an appropriate drug concentration has been achieved; however, target blood drug concentrations have not been shown to reliably correlate with suppression of T-cell function in the dog...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Orhan Corum, Duygu Durna Corum, Orkun Atik, Feray Altan, Ayse Er, Kamil Uney
The pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of levamisole were determined in red-eared slider turtles after single intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) administration. Nine turtles received levamisole (10 mg/kg) by each route in a three-way crossover design with a washout period of 30 days. Blood samples were collected at time 0 (pretreatment), and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48 hr after drug administration. Plasma levamisole concentrations were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography assay...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Briana D Hamamoto-Hardman, Eugene P Steffey, Daniel Weiner, Daniel S McKemie, Philip Kass, Heather K Knych
The objective of the current study was to describe and characterize the pharmacokinetics and selected pharmacodynamic effects of morphine and its two major metabolites in horses following several doses of morphine. A total of ten horses were administered a single intravenous dose of morphine: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.5 mg/kg, or saline control. Blood samples were collected up to 72 hr, analyzed for morphine, and metabolites by LC/MS/MS, and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined. Step count, heart rate and rhythm, gastrointestinal borborygmi, fecal output, packed cell volume, and total protein were also assessed...
March 27, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Weixuan Lan, Xia Xiao, Yongjia Jiang, Lijie Jiang, Xu Zhao, Zhaoyang Yu, Biwen Zhu, Congcong Li, Lin Bian, Zhiqiang Wang
Pasteurella multocida is the causative agent of fowl cholera, and florfenicol (FF) has potent antibacterial activity against P. multocida and is widely used in the poultry industry. In this study, we established a P. multocida infection model in ducks and studied the pharmacokinetics of FF in serum and lung tissues after oral administration of 30 mg/kg bodyweight. The maximum concentrations reached (Cmax) were lower in infected ducks (13.88 ± 2.70 μg/ml) vs. healthy control animals (17.86 ± 1.57 μg/ml)...
March 25, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Simon Comerma-Steffensen, Arnaldo Risso, Elias Ascanio-Evanoff, Hector Zerpa
Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development of ungulate's laminitis. Although extensively studied in equines, the endothelial function is not fully examined in bovine digital veins (BDVs). BDVs were studied under isometric conditions to describe the acetylcholine (ACh) endothelium-dependent relaxation. Concentration-response curves were constructed to phenylephrine, ACh, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Relaxation responses were evaluated using either phenylephrine or depolarizing high-potassium Krebs solution (DKS) as precontraction agents...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Michael Benedict Subhahar, Jaipaul Singh, Peter Henry Albert, Ahmed Mahmoud Kadry
Celecoxib, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is frequently used to treat arthritis in humans with minimal gastrointestinal side effect compared to traditional NSAIDs. The primary aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of celecoxib-a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor in horses. Six horses were administered a single oral dose of celecoxib at 2 mg/kg (body weight). After oral dosing, the drug reached a maximum concentration (mean ± SD) in blood of 1,088 ± 324 ng/ml in 4...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Emily J Reppert, Michael D Kleinhenz, Shawnee R Montgomery, Heather N Bornheim, Geraldine Magnin, Pritam K Sidhu, Yuntao Zhang, Hyun Joo, Johann F Coetzee
The aim of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) synthesis inhibiting effects of intravenous (IV) and transdermal (TD) flunixin meglumine in eight adult female Boer goats. A dose of 2.2 mg/kg was administered intravenously (IV) and 3.3 mg/kg administered TD using a cross-over design. Plasma flunixin concentrations were measured by LC-MS/MS. Prostaglandin E2 concentrations were determined using a commercially available ELISA. Pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis was performed using noncompartmental methods...
February 25, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jincheng Xiong, Qianqian Zhu, Yaxin Zhao, Shuaike Yang, Jiyue Cao, Yinsheng Qiu
The purpose of this study was to compare the pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of tilmicosin enteric granules and premix after oral administration at a dose of 40 mg/kg in pigs. Three kinds of different respiratory pathogens were selected for determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) to tilmicosin. Eight healthy pigs were assigned to a two-period, randomized crossover design. A modified rapid, sensitive HPLC method was used for determining the concentrations of tilmicosin in plasma...
February 22, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Zhixin Lei, Qianying Liu, Haseeb Khaliq, Jiyue Cao, Qigai He
Florfenicol, a structural analog of thiamphenicol, has broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic cutoff, and the optimal scheme of florfenicol against Escherichia coli (E. coli) with PK-PD integrated model in the target infectious tissue. 220 E. coli strains were selected to detect the susceptibility to florfenicol, and a virulent strain P190, whose minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was similar to the MIC50 (8 μg/ml), was analyzed for PD study in LB and ileum fluid...
February 22, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jianzhong Wang, Jiao Xue, Lu Zhang, Suxia Zhang, Jing Li, Xingyuan Cao
This study describes the pharmacokinetics of vitacoxib in healthy rabbits following administration of 10 mg/kg intravenous (i.v.) and 10 mg/kg oral. Twelve New Zealand white rabbits were randomly allocated to two equally sized treatment groups. Blood samples were collected at predetermined times from 0 to 36 hr after treatment. Plasma drug concentrations were determined using UPLC-MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic analysis was completed using noncompartmental methods via WinNonlin™ 6.4 software. The mean concentration area under curve (AUClast ) for vitacoxib was determined to be 11...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jianzhong Wang, Xiaohui Gong, Jiao Xue, Suxia Zhang, Jing Li, Xingyuan Cao
The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics and dose-scaling model of vitacoxib in either fed or fasted cats following either oral or intravenous administration. The concentration of the drug was quantified by UPLC-MS/MS on plasma samples. Relevant parameters were described using noncompartmental analysis (WinNonlin 6.4 software). Vitacoxib is relatively slowly absorbed and eliminated after oral administration (2 mg/kg body weight), with a Tmax of approximately 4.7 hr. The feeding state of the cat was a statistically significant covariate for both area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC) and mean absorption time (MATfed )...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Telma Mary Nakata, Hideki Kaji, Naoya Matsuura, Miki Shimizu, Ryou Tanaka
This study aimed to assess the effects of incremental doses of dobutamine on diastolic function in healthy and rapid ventricular apical pacing (RVAP)-induced cardiac dysfunction anesthetized dogs. Inotropic and lusitropic effects of dobutamine (2, 4, 8, and 12 μg kg-1  min-1 ) were assessed through left ventricle (LV) pressure-volume relation and Doppler echocardiography in six female dogs before and after 8 weeks of RVAP. Peak rate of LV pressure fall (-dP/dtmin ) improved with doses >4 μg kg-1  min-1 in healthy (4,490 ± 970 vs...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Orhan Corum, Duygu Durna Corum, Ayse Er, Kamil Uney
The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cefquinome (CFQ) following single and repeated subcutaneous (SC) administrations in sheep. Six clinically healthy, 1.5 ± 0.2 years sheep were used for the study. In pharmacokinetic study, the crossover design in three periods was performed. The withdrawal interval between the study periods was 15 days. In first period, CFQ (Cobactan, 2.5%) was administered by an intravenous (IV) bolus (3 sheep) and SC (3 sheep) injections at 2.5 mg/kg dose...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jesús Mendoza, Lilia Gutierrez, José Á Gutiérrez, Felipe A Bustos, Hector Sumano
The pharmacokinetics, PK/PD ratios, and Monte Carlo modeling of enrofloxacin HCl-2H2 O (Enro-C) and its reference preparation (Enro-R) were determined in cows. Fifty-four Jersey cows were randomly assigned to six groups receiving a single IM dose of 10, 15, or 20 mg/kg of Enro-C (Enro-C10 , Enro-C15 , Enro-C20 ) or Enro-R. Serial serum samples were collected and enrofloxacin concentrations quantified. A composite set of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of Leptospira spp. was utilized to calculate PK/PD ratios: maximum serum concentration/MIC (Cmax /MIC90 ) and area under the serum vs...
February 3, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Anna C Peace, Santosh Kumar, Robert Wills, Andrew Mackin, Crystal M Hoh, Todd Archer
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of exogenous melatonin administration on activated whole blood expression of the T-cell cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon gamma (INF-γ) in dogs. ANIMALS: Ten healthy dogs. PROCEDURES: Heparinized whole blood was collected from 10 dogs for analysis of cytokine expression before administration of melatonin (baseline). Each dog was then administered melatonin at a dosage of approximately 1 mg/kg, PO, q 12 hr for 14 days...
January 24, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Patchaya Thassakorn, Papras Patchanee, Wanpitak Pongkan, Nipon Chattipakorn, Chavalit Boonyapakorn
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common acquired cardiac disorder found in dogs. The disease process can lead to heart failure (HF) and has been found to be associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. Statins exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in human HF patients. However, the beneficial effects of statins in MMVD dogs are still unclear. Thirty MMVD dogs were enrolled in the study and were divided into two groups: MMVD without HF dogs (n = 15) and MMVD with HF dogs (n = 15)...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Paula M Bennell, Ted Whittem, Elizabeth Tudor
Alfaxalone, a synthetic neuroactive steroid, has been attributed with properties including sedation, anaesthesia and analgesia. The clinical relevance of any analgesic properties of alfaxalone has not been demonstrated. This study was a prospective, blinded, randomized, negative control clinical trial in 65 healthy dogs presented for ovariohysterectomy. Anaesthesia was induced and maintained, for Group 1 (TIVA) dogs (n = 30) with intravenous alfaxalone alone and for Group 2 dogs (n = 35) with thiopental followed by isoflurane in 100% oxygen inhalation...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Jarrod T Younkin, Elizabeth M Santschi, Butch Kukanich, Brian V Lubbers, Matthew Warner
Penicillin is administered intravenously (IV) or intramuscularly (IM) to horses for the prevention and treatment of infections, and both routes have disadvantages. To minimize these shortcomings, a 24-hr hybrid administration protocol (HPP) was developed. Our objective was to determine penicillin plasma concentrations in horses administered via HPP. Venous blood was collected from seven healthy horses administered IV potassium penicillin G at 0 and 6 hr and IM procaine penicillin G at 12 hr. Blood was collected at 2-hr intervals from 0 to 20 hr and at 24 hr...
March 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Ryan S Bailey, Julie D Sheldon, Matthew C Allender, Mark G Papich, Sathya K Chinnadurai
This study documents the pharmacokinetics of oral tramadol in Muscovy ducks. Six ducks received a single 30 mg/kg dose of tramadol, orally by stomach tube, with blood collection prior to and up to 24 hr after tramadol administration. Plasma tramadol, and metabolites O-desmethyltramadol (M1), and N,O-didesmethyltramadol (M5) concentrations were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence (FL) detection. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a one-compartment model with first-order input...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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