Anna K Hing, Tongtan Chantarat, Shekinah Fashaw-Walters, Shanda L Hunt, Rachel R Hardeman
Progress toward racial health equity cannot be made if we cannot measure its fundamental driver - structural racism. As in other epidemiological studies, the first step is to measure the exposure. But how to measure structural racism is an ongoing debate. To characterize the approaches epidemiologists and other health researchers use to quantitatively measure structural racism, highlight methodological innovations, and identify gaps in the literature, we conducted a scoping review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature published during 2019-2021 to accompany the work of Groos et al...
February 26, 2024: Epidemiologic Reviews
Elizabeth G Spitzer, Kelly A Stearns-Yoder, Adam S Hoffberg, Hannah M Bailey, Christopher J Miller, Joseph A Simonetti
For lethal means safety counseling interventions (LMSC) to reduce population-level suicide rates, interventions must be deployed across many settings and populations. We conducted a systematic search in six databases to review the current state of LMSC interventions across study designs, settings, messengers, populations, and injury prevention levels (e.g., universal). Eligibility criteria were: any individual or group receiving a LMSC intervention involving a human-to-human component aiming to influence adult behaviors related to lethal suicide methods, and outcome assessment of storage behaviors and/or suicidal self-directed violence (SDV)...
February 7, 2024: Epidemiologic Reviews
Monica E Swilley-Martinez, Serita A Coles, Vanessa E Miller, Ishrat Z Alam, Kate Vinita Fitch, Theresa H Cruz, Bernadette Hohl, Regan Murray, Shabbar I Ranapurwala
Race is a social construct, commonly used in epidemiologic research to adjust for confounding. However, adjustment of race may mask racial disparities thereby perpetuating structural racism. We conducted a systematic review of articles published in Epidemiology and American Journal of Epidemiology between 2020 and 2021 to 1) understand how race, ethnicity, and similar social constructs were operationalized, utilized, and reported and 2) characterize good and poor practices of utilization and reporting of race data based on the extent to which they reveal or mask systemic racism...
October 3, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
Yusuf Ransome, Alberto D Valido, Dorothy L Espelage, Graceson L Clements, Crystal Harrell, Caroline Eckel, Natalie Price, Rachel Nassau, Kate Nyhan, Tamara L Taggart
Racial discrimination is a well-known risk factor of racial disparities in health. While progress has been made in identifying multiple levels through which racism and racial discrimination influences health, less is known about social factors that may buffer racism's associations with health. We conducted a systematic review of the literature with a specific focus on social connectedness, racism, and health; retrieving studies conducted in the United States published between January 1, 2012 and July 30, 2022, in peer-reviewed journals...
July 21, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
Dena Javadi, Audrey R Murchland, Tamara Rushovich, Emily Wright, Anna Shchetinina, Anna C Siefkas, Kieran P Todd, Julian Gitelman, Enjoli Hall, Jhordan O Wynne, Nishan Zewge-Abubaker, Nancy Krieger
Critical analysis of the determinants of current and changing racialized health inequities, including the central role of racism, is an urgent priority for epidemiology, for both original research studies and epidemiologic review articles. Motivating our systematic overview review of Epidemiologic Reviews articles is the critical role of epidemiologic reviews in shaping discourse, research priorities, and policy relevant to the social patterning of population health. Our approach was first to document the number of articles published in Epidemiologic Reviews (1979-2021; n = 685) that either: (1) focused their review on racism and health, racial discrimination and health, or racialized health inequities (n = 27; 4%); (2) mentioned racialized groups but did not focus on racism or racialized health inequities (n = 399; 59%); or (3) included no mention of racialized groups or racialized health inequities (n = 250; 37%)...
June 29, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
Gilbert C Gee, Jessie Chien, Mienah Z Sharif, Corina Penaia, Emma Tran
The conventional use of racial categories in health research naturalizes "race" in problematic ways that ignore how racial categories function in service of a white-dominated racial hierarchy. In many respects, racial labels are based on geographic designations. For instance, "Asians" are from Asia. Yet, this is not always a tenable proposition. For example, Afghanistan resides in South Asia, and shares a border with China and Pakistan. Yet, people from Afghanistan are not considered Asian, but Middle Eastern, by the US Census...
June 13, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
Precious Esie, Lisa M Bates
While the literature on Black-white differences in major depressive disorder (MDD) and related self-reported symptoms is robust, less robust is the literature on how these outcomes are patterned within the US Black population and why differences exist. Given increased ethnic diversity of Black Americans due to rises in immigration, continued aggregation has the potential to mask differences between Black ethnic-immigrant groups and Black Americans with more distant ancestral ties to Africa (African Americans)...
June 9, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
Jaya Aysola, H Moses Murdock, Elle Lett, Corey Williams, Roy Wade, Eve J Higginbotham
To mitigate the structural and institutional biases that contribute to inequities in health, we need a diverse cadre of individuals to feel included and advance within our field in order to bring a multicultural set of perspectives to the studies we conduct, the science we generate, the health and academic systems we design, and the medical and scientific knowledge we impart. There has been increasing focus on diversity, inclusion, and equity in recent years; however, often these terms are presented without adequate precision and therefore the inability to effectively operationalize inclusion and achieve diversity within organizations...
May 31, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
Jessica Y Islam, Nina S Parikh, Hope Lappen, Vandana Venkat, Priyanka Nalkar, Farzana Kapadia
Asians are likely to experience a high burden of chronic conditions, including but not limited to, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer, due to differences in biologic, genetic, and environmental factors across Asian ethnic groups. A diagnosis of any chronic condition can contribute to increased mental health burdens, including depression, psychological distress, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few studies have examined these co-morbidities across distinct Asian ethnic groups, an important limitation given the differences in social, cultural, and behavioral drivers of mental health burdens within and across Asian ethnicities...
May 6, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
Marina Mautner Wizentier, Briana Joy K Stephenson, Melody S Goodman
There is limited literature on the measures and metrics used to examine racism in the health inequities literature. Health inequities research is continuously evolving with the number of publications increasing over time. However, there is limited knowledge on the best measures and methods to examine the impact of different levels of racism (institutionalized, personally mediated, and internalized) on health inequities. Advanced statistical methods have the potential to be used in new ways to examine the relationship between racism and health inequities...
May 5, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
Matthew K Chin, Lan N Đoàn, Rienna G Russo, Timothy Roberts, Sonia Persaud, Emily Huang, Lauren Fu, Kiran Y Kui, Simona C Kwon, Stella S Yi
Improving race/ethnicity data quality is imperative to ensuring underserved populations are represented in datasets used to identify health disparities and inform healthcare policy. We performed a scoping review of methods that retrospectively improve race/ethnicity classification in secondary datasets. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, searches were conducted in MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science Core Collection in July 2022. A total of 2,441 abstracts were dually screened, 453 full-text articles were reviewed, and 120 articles were included...
April 12, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
Danielle R Gartner, Ceco Maples, Madeline Nash, Heather Howard-Bobiwash
Indigenous people are often misracialized or misclassified as other racial or ethnic identities in population health research. This misclassification leads to underestimation of Indigenous-specific mortality and health metrics, and subsequently, inadequate resource allocation. In recognition of this problem, investigators around the world have devised analytic methods to address racial misclassification of Indigenous people. We carried out a scoping review based on searches in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Native Health Database for empirical studies published after 2000 that include Indigenous-specific estimates of health or mortality and that take analytic steps to rectify racial misclassification of Indigenous people...
April 6, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
Issa J Dahabreh, Anthony Matthews, Jon A Steingrimsson, Daniel O Scharfstein, Elizabeth A Stuart
Comparisons between randomized trial analyses and observational analyses that attempt to address similar research questions have generated many controversies in epidemiology and the social sciences. There has been little consensus on when such comparisons are reasonable, what their implications are for the validity of observational analyses, or whether trial and observational analyses can be integrated to address effectiveness questions. Here, we consider methods for using observational analyses to complement trial analyses when assessing treatment effectiveness...
February 8, 2023: Epidemiologic Reviews
David D Celentano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2022: Epidemiologic Reviews
Paris B Adkins-Jackson, Nancy J Burke, Patricia Rodriguez Espinosa, Juliana M Ison, Susan D Goold, Lisa G Rosas, Chyke A Doubeni, Arleen F Brown
The COVID-19 pandemic revealed weaknesses in the public health infrastructure of the United States, including persistent barriers to engaging marginalized communities toward inclusion in clinical research, including trials. Inclusive participation in clinical trials is crucial for promoting vaccine confidence, public trust, and addressing disparate health outcomes. A long-standing body of literature describes the value of community-based participatory research in increasing marginalized community participation in research...
December 21, 2022: Epidemiologic Reviews
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2022: Epidemiologic Reviews
Eleanor M Pullenayegum, Daniel O Scharfstein
Randomized trials are often designed to collect outcomes at fixed points in time after randomization. In practice, the number and timing of outcome assessments can vary among participants. (i.e., irregular). In fact, the timing of assessments may be associated with the outcome of interest (i.e., informative). For example, in a trial evaluating the effectiveness of treatments for major depressive disorder, not only did the timings of outcome assessments vary among participants, but symptom scores were associated with assessment frequency...
October 19, 2022: Epidemiologic Reviews
Alexa Goldberg, Ludmila N Bakhireva, Kimberly Page, Adam M Henrie
Increasing interest has been given to the risks and benefits of terminating large clinical trials before reaching pre-specified targets, as such decision can greatly impact the implementation of findings. Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program (VA CSP) is a research infrastructure dedicated to conducting high-quality clinical research. A scoping review was performed to characterize barriers preventing the attainment of pre-specified recruitment, statistical power, or sample size targets in VA CSP trials...
October 4, 2022: Epidemiologic Reviews
Andrea L Wirtz, Carmen H Logie, Lawrence Mbuagbaw
Clinical trials are considered the gold standard for establishing efficacy of health interventions, determining which interventions are brought to scale in health care and public health programs. Digital clinical trials, broadly defined as trials that have partial to full integration of technology across implementation, interventions, and/or data collection, are valued for increased efficiencies as well as testing of digitally-delivered interventions. While recent reviews describe the advantages, disadvantages and recommendations for improving scientific rigor in the conduct of digital clinical trials, little to none have investigated how digital clinical trials address the digital divide, whether they are equitably accessible, and if trial outcomes are potentially beneficial only to those with optimal and consistent access to technology...
September 16, 2022: Epidemiologic Reviews
Ali Jalali, Rulla M Tamimi, Sterling M McPherson, Sean M Murphy
Prospective economic evaluations conducted alongside clinical trials have become an increasingly popular approach in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of a public health initiative or treatment intervention. These types of economic studies provide improved internal validity and accuracy of cost and effectiveness estimates of health interventions and have the advantage of jointly observing health and economics outcomes of trial participants compared to simulation or decision-analytic models. However, missing data due to incomplete response or patient attrition, and sampling uncertainty are common concerns in econometric analysis of clinical trials...
September 14, 2022: Epidemiologic Reviews
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