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Immunology Letters | Page 2

Atri Ghods, Abbas Ghaderi, Mahmoud Shariat, Abdol-Rasoul Talei, Fereshteh Mehdipour
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a key cytokine in inflammation and a driving force for leukocyte migration and recruitment. However, it may exert contrasting effects on the immune responses depend on its differential binding to its receptors (TNFR1 or TNFR2). The expression of TNF receptors by lymphocytes in the tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) has not been thoroughly investigated. Herein, the expression of TNFRs on lymphocytes in the breast TDLNs was assessed. 40 axillary LN samples were obtained from breast cancer patients...
March 22, 2019: Immunology Letters
Jingyao Lian, Jianling Liu, Ying Yue, Feng Li, Xinfeng Chen, Zhen Zhang, Yu Ping, Guohui Qin, Lifeng Li, Kai Zhang, SaiSai Liu, Lei Zhang, Shenglong Qiao, Na Liu, Yujia Zheng, Jian Wu, Qiang Zeng, Yi Zhang
T cell immunity is dependent on T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of large numbers of antigenic peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. To explore whether the TCR β-chain repertoire changes with different ages and genders in healthy Chinese individuals, we analyzed the TCR β-chain repertoire in 154 healthy Chinese individuals by High-throughput sequencing (HTS) with age (age range: 6-70) and each age group contains about 20 individuals (male and female)...
March 21, 2019: Immunology Letters
Afshin Derakhshani, Fatemeh Vahidian, Mohammad Alihasanzadeh, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Parisa Lotfi Nezhad, Behzad Baradaran
Mast cells (MCs), a type of innate immune cells, are derived from myeloid stem cells, sometimes known as mastocytes or labrocytes, and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. The mentioned cells are able to release various mediators such as cytokines, leukotrienes, and a large number of proteases into the environment. Many studies and experiments have established the infiltration of MCs into the tumor site. However, the findings are highly controversial to determine whether these immune cells contribute to the growth and development of the tumor or cause anti-tumor immune responses...
March 21, 2019: Immunology Letters
Shir Nevo, Noam Kadouri, Jakub Abramson
Tuft cells are epithelial chemosensory cells with unique morphological and molecular characteristics, the most noticeable of which is a tuft of long and thick microvilli on their apical side, as well as expression of a very distinct set of genes, including genes encoding various members of the taste transduction machinery and pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenases. Initially discovered in rat trachea, tuft cells were gradually identified in various mucosal tissues, and later also in non-mucosal tissues, most recent of which is the thymus...
March 20, 2019: Immunology Letters
Eliecer Coto, Julián R Reguero, Pablo Avanzas, Isaac Pascual, María Martín, Sergio Hevia, César Morís, Beatriz Díaz-Molina, José L Rodríguez-Lambert, Belén Alonso, Elías Cuesta-LLavona, Carmen Díaz-Corte, Juan Gómez
The nuclear-factor kappa-beta (NF-KB) is a driver of inflammation, and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Early-onset CAD is defined as a coronary ischaemic episode at an age ≤55 years, and in our population was strongly associated with male sex and smoking. Our aim was to determine whether common variants in three NF-KB genes were associated with early-onset CAD. We studied 609 patients with early-onset CAD and 423 healthy controls, all male...
March 19, 2019: Immunology Letters
Yaqi Li, Jing Liu, Long Gao, Yuan Liu, Fang Meng, Xiaoan Li, F Xiao-Feng Qin
The ability of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) to reactivate the killing function of the immune system to tumor cells has led to long lasting immune response presenting highly promising clinical advances. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors related resistance due to the specialized tumor microenvironment has also drawn a widely attention. To overcome resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy, understanding the relationship of this type of therapy and tumor microenvironment is necessary and critical...
March 15, 2019: Immunology Letters
Chizu Nonomura, Masaki Otsuka, Ryota Kondou, Akira Iizuka, Haruo Miyata, Tadashi Ashizawa, Naoki Sakura, Shusuke Yoshikawa, Yoshio Kiyohara, Keiichi Ohshima, Kenichi Urakami, Takeshi Nagashima, Sumiko Ohnami, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Koichi Mitsuya, Nakamasa Hayashi, Yoko Nakasu, Tohru Mochizuki, Ken Yamaguchi, Yasuto Akiyama
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have enabled rapid and efficient evaluation of the mutational landscape of cancers. As a result, many cancer-specific neoantigens, which can generate antitumor cytotoxic T-cells inside tumors, have been identified. Previously, we reported a metastatic melanoma case with high tumor mutation burden, who obtained complete remission after anti-PD-1 therapy and surgical resection. The rib metastatic lesion, which was used for whole-exome sequencing and gene expression profiling in the HOPE project, showed upregulated expression of PD-L1 mRNA and a high single-nucleotide variants number of 2,712...
March 14, 2019: Immunology Letters
Rupali Sharma, Madeleine May Kearns, Fatou Sarr, Nafissa Ismail
Exposure to a bacterial endotoxin during puberty induces long-term changes to reproductive and non-reproductive behaviours. While the underlying mechanisms remain unknown, we have recently shown that there are age and sex differences in acute immune and stress responses following immune challenge. Given that it is unclear whether viral infections result in similar age and sex differences, the objective of this study was to examine the acute immune and stress responses following exposure to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a viral mimetic, in CD1 mice and to investigate the role of gonadal hormones in these responses...
March 14, 2019: Immunology Letters
Fatemeh Vahidian, Pascal H G Duijf, Elham Safarzadeh, Afshin Derakhshani, Amir Baghbanzadeh, Behzad Baradaran
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subgroup of tumor cells that are characterized by their tumor initiating capacity, low proliferation rate, self-renewal capacity, pluripotency and chemoresistance. The immune system, including innate and adaptive immune cells, plays pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic roles in cancer biology. Immunosurveillance often initially successfully eradicates tumor cells. However, following a phenomenon referred to as immunoediting, cancer cells may ultimately evade immune destruction, thus enabling tumor progression...
March 9, 2019: Immunology Letters
Camila Ribeiro, Nuno L Alves, Pedro Ferreirinha
Within the thymus, cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs, respectively) provide unique microenvironments for the development of T cells that are responsive to diverse foreign antigens while self-tolerant. Essential for tolerance induction, mTECs play a critical role in negative selection and T regulatory cell differentiation. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the functional diversity within mTECs and discuss how these novel subsets contribute to tolerance induction and are integrated in the complex blueprint of mTEC differentiation...
March 7, 2019: Immunology Letters
Ke Zhang, Yan-Ling Sun, Shuang-Nan Zhou, Ruo-Nan Xu, Zhen-Wen Liu, Fu-Sheng Wang, Ming Shi
Circulating T follicular helper (cTFH) cells have been demonstrated to be involved in B-cell-mediated alloreactive responses in kidney and liver transplantation; however, whether these cells are involved in acute liver allograft rejection after liver transplantation, and which subsets are involved, remains to be clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the profiles of cTFH cells in acute liver allograft rejection, including the C-X-C motif receptor 3 (CXCR3)+ chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6)- subset, the CXCR3-CCR6- subset, and the CXCR3-CCR6+ subset...
March 5, 2019: Immunology Letters
Thelma L Skare, Aline Neppel, Mariana C C Machoski, Carlos A Maestri, Iara Messias-Reason, Renato Nisihara
BACKGROUND: Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have been found in several types of cancer although the meaning of its presence is not completely known. AIM: To study the prevalence of ANA in patients with cervical intraepithelial lesion and invasive cervical cancer. METHODS: A total of 205 women who underwent screening for cervical cancer or treatment at the Erasto Gaertner Cancer Hospital in Curitiba - Brazil, were enrolled in the study. Based on their latest cervical colposcopy-guided biopsy results, they were divided into four groups: CIN-I: 19...
March 5, 2019: Immunology Letters
Claire Lamaison, Karin Tarte
Stromal cells have been considered for a long time essentially as a structural component organizing tissue architecture, including those of secondary lymphoid organs. More recently, highly specialized stromal cell subsets were shown to differentially organize immune cell recruitment, survival, and differentiation within lymph nodes. In particular, mature B cells interact with different lymphoid stromal cell networks through bidirectional interactions involving cell-cell contact and soluble factors. Follicular lymphoma (FL) is the paradigm of a B-cell malignancy dependent on a lymphoid-like microenvironment supporting tumor cell growth, drug resistance, and clonal evolution...
March 4, 2019: Immunology Letters
Maryam Dadmanesh, Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar, Khodayar Ghorban
Inflammasomes are a set of innate receptors which are the responsible molecules for activation of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and induction of inflammation. Due to the key roles of the inflammasomes in the induction of inflammation, it has been hypothesized that the molecules may be the main parts of immune responses against viral infections and the tissue damage. Because some cases of viral hepatitis infections, including hepatitis B and C, are diagnosed as chronic and may be associated with various complications such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), several studies focused on the roles played by the inflammation on the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis...
March 1, 2019: Immunology Letters
Jolanta Artym, Maja Kocięba, Ewa Zaczyńska, Iwona Kochanowska, Michał Zimecki, Wojciech Kałas, Leon Strządała, Ewa Zioło, Małgorzata Jeleń, Beata Morak-Młodawska, Krystian Pluta
Azaphenothiazines are predominantly immunosuppressive compounds. We evaluated the efficacy of an azaphenothiazine derivative, 6-chloroethylureidoethyldiquino[3,2-b;2',3'-e][1,4]thiazine (DQT) in prolongation of survival of skin allografts between BALB/c and C57Bl/6 mice. The mice were treated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 100 μg of DQT on alternate days, on days 1-13 of the experiment (7 doses). The effect of DQT on a two-way mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) in the human model, as well as its effect on production of TNF α and IL-10 in a whole blood cell culture, stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), were evaluated...
February 27, 2019: Immunology Letters
Dinesh K Tripathi, Kanchan Srivastava, Komal Lata Nagpal, Praveen K Shukla, Kishore K Srivastava
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious disease and its early and precise diagnosis is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality of patients. Since the routine diagnostic tests (like Monteux, AFB smear microscopy, chest X-Ray) do not give infallible results, additional tests are always recommended. Therefore to address the concerns about non-specificity of the present battery of diagnostic tests, we have attempted to analyze some unique secretory antigens which could be able to identify the stage specific infection of MTB...
May 2019: Immunology Letters
Ondrej Cerny, David W Holden
Salmonella enterica serovars infect a broad range of mammalian hosts, including humans, causing both gastrointestinal and systemic diseases. Effective immune responses to Salmonella infections depend largely on CD4+ T cell activation by dendritic cells (DCs). Bacteria are internalised by intestinal DCs and respond by translocating effectors of the Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) type III secretion system (T3SS) into host cells. In this review, we discuss processes that are hijacked by SPI-2 T3SS effectors and how this affects DC biology and the activation of T cell responses...
February 13, 2019: Immunology Letters
Mirela Kuka, Marco De Giovanni, Matteo Iannacone
Type I interferons (IFNs) released upon viral infections play different and opposing roles in disease outcome. This pleiotropic effect is mainly influenced by the cellular sources, timing and target cells for these molecules. The effect of type I IFN signaling on the activation and differentiation of antiviral CD4+ T cells remains ill defined, with studies reporting either a beneficial or a detrimental role, depending on the context of infection. This review will highlight several recent studies that have investigated the role of type I IFNs in the priming and polarization of CD4+ T cells and discuss areas of uncertainty that require further investigation...
February 13, 2019: Immunology Letters
V H Haritha, P Seena, Binchu V Shaji, T U Nithin, V N Hazeena, Y Anie
Resolution of inflammation needs effective and timely removal of dead cells and other toxic products of neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. In this study, we evaluated the role of monocytes in the clearance of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) and apoptotic neutrophils in the inflammation site. For this, monocytes were observed microscopically after exposing them with NETs and/or apoptotic bodies. A subset of monocytes exposed to NETs ejected extracellular traps and this was shown to be mediated by proteins like elastase and citrullinated histones present in NET supernatant...
February 6, 2019: Immunology Letters
Giuseppe Sciumè, Cinzia Fionda, Helena Stabile, Angela Gismondi, Angela Santoni
The immune system employs an array of effector cells to ensure tissue homeostasis and protection against pathogens. Lymphocytes belonging to both the adaptive and innate branches share several functions, comprising the ability to directly kill stressed or transformed cells, and to provide helper responses through specific production of cytokines. These properties are regulated by distinct sets of soluble molecules, receptors, and intracellular factors, which altogether tune the functional output of effector lymphocytes and their final activation state...
January 31, 2019: Immunology Letters
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