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Immunology Letters

Marlon Múnera, Andres Sanchez, Jorge Sánchez, Maria Nordmann, Mariana Perez, Dilia Aparicio
The prevalence of allergies to pets has been increasing over the past decades. Some of the most important animal-derived allergens are members of the lipocalin protein family, which are found in dander, saliva, and urine. These allergens disperse effectively and are widely present in indoor environments. Exposure to high levels of mouse urinary protein (Mus m 1, hereinafter called 'mouse allergen') has been previously linked to sensitization to mouse, and indicators of asthma severity or control in some studies...
April 9, 2019: Immunology Letters
Anouk Zaal, S Marieke van Ham, Anja Ten Brinke
The anaphylatoxin C5a is well-known for its role as chemoattractant and contributes to immune cell recruitment into inflamed tissue and local inflammation. C5a has recently been implicated in modulation of antigen presenting cell function, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, which are pivotal for T cell activation and final T cell effector function. The published data on the effect of C5a on APC function and subsequent adaptive immune responses are in part conflicting, as both pro and anti-inflammatory effects have been described...
April 5, 2019: Immunology Letters
Torralba D, Martín-Cófreces Nb, Sanchez-Madrid F
Cell-cell communication comprises a variety of molecular mechanisms that immune cells use to respond appropriately to diverse pathogenic stimuli. T lymphocytes polarize in response to different stimuli, such as cytokines, adhesion to specific ligands and cognate antigens presented in the context of MHC. Polarization takes different shapes, from migratory front-back polarization to the formation of immune synapses (IS). The formation of IS between a T cell and an antigen-presenting cell involves early events of receptor-ligand interaction leading to the reorganization of the plasma membrane and the cytoskeleton to orchestrate vesicular and endosomal traffic and directed secretion of several types of mediators, including cytokines and nanovesicles...
April 4, 2019: Immunology Letters
Jun Wang, Hui Jiang, Yang Qiu, Yicun Wang, Guojing Sun, Jianning Zhao
Delayed union and nonunion occur in a minor subject of bone fractures, presenting ongoing challenges to treatment. RANKL, which promotes the differentiation of bone-resorbing osteoclasts, is thought to negatively impact bone healing. In this study, we recruited patients with isolated closed tibial fracture, who were later categorized into normal healing and delayed healing groups based on their healing progression. The regulatory T cell (Treg) compartment was then investigated in each patient. Based on CD45RA and CD62 L expression, we distinguished circulating Treg cells into CD45RA+ CD62L+ naive (N), CD45RA- CD62L+ central memory (CM), and CD45RA- CD62L- effector memory (EM) subsets...
April 1, 2019: Immunology Letters
Sam Seydi Shirvani, Mohammad Nouri, Ebrahim Sakhinia, Zohreh Babaloo, Adel Mohammadzaeh, Shahriar Alipour, Golamreza Jadideslam, Alireza Khabbazi
Various tissues and cell types are the targets of vitamin D. However, the major targets of vitamin D in the immune system are monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs), as well as B and T cells. Vitamin D plays an important role in the immune system modulation via regulating the expression of genes that generate pro-inflammatory mediators and inhibiting the proliferation of pro-inflammatory cells, both of which have been implicated in the pathophysiology of the inflammatory diseases. Recent studies have revealed the important relations between vitamin D and Behçet's disease (BD)...
March 29, 2019: Immunology Letters
Wei Lin, Tingting Liu, Beibei Wang, Hongsheng Bi
Dendritic cells (DCs) act as a bridge between innate and adoptive immunity. They are widely distributed in various tissues and organs. Resident ocular DCs are found in the peripheral margins and juxtapapillary areas of the retina, usually in an immature state. During inflammation, DCs are activated and participate in the development of uveitis, an ocular inflammatory disease. Herein, the characteristics and status of DCs in uveitis, the possible factors affecting the status of DCs, and the clinical methods for detecting the DCs in patients are described...
March 26, 2019: Immunology Letters
Sahin Sultana, Rajen Dey, Biswadev Bishayi
uPA/tPA-mediated activation of plasminogen/plasmin pathway during S.aureus arthritis facilitates the invasion of phagocytes in the affected joint, induces production of cytokines and triggers inflammatory pathways. PAI-1, an effective inhibitor of both uPA and tPA, attenuates plasmin activity. Hence, the objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of exogenously administered PAI-1 on uPA/tPA-mediated activation of plasminogen/plasmin and its impact on the progression of arthritis. The mice were infected with live S...
March 25, 2019: Immunology Letters
Atri Ghods, Abbas Ghaderi, Mahmoud Shariat, Abdol-Rasoul Talei, Fereshteh Mehdipour
Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is a key cytokine in inflammation and a driving force for leukocyte migration and recruitment. However, it may exert contrasting effects on the immune responses depend on its differential binding to its receptors (TNFR1 or TNFR2). The expression of TNF receptors by lymphocytes in the tumor draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) has not been thoroughly investigated. Herein, the expression of TNFRs on lymphocytes in the breast TDLNs was assessed. 40 axillary LN samples were obtained from breast cancer patients...
March 22, 2019: Immunology Letters
Jingyao Lian, Jianling Liu, Ying Yue, Feng Li, Xinfeng Chen, Zhen Zhang, Yu Ping, Guohui Qin, Lifeng Li, Kai Zhang, SaiSai Liu, Lei Zhang, Shenglong Qiao, Na Liu, Yujia Zheng, Jian Wu, Qiang Zeng, Yi Zhang
T cell immunity is dependent on T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of large numbers of antigenic peptides presented in the context of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules. To explore whether the TCR β-chain repertoire changes with different ages and genders in healthy Chinese individuals, we analyzed the TCR β-chain repertoire in 154 healthy Chinese individuals by High-throughput sequencing (HTS) with age (age range: 6-70) and each age group contains about 20 individuals (male and female)...
March 21, 2019: Immunology Letters
Afshin Derakhshani, Fatemeh Vahidian, Mohammad Alihasanzadeh, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Parisa Lotfi Nezhad, Behzad Baradaran
Mast cells (MCs), a type of innate immune cells, are derived from myeloid stem cells, sometimes known as mastocytes or labrocytes, and contain many granules rich in histamine and heparin. The mentioned cells are able to release various mediators such as cytokines, leukotrienes, and a large number of proteases into the environment. Many studies and experiments have established the infiltration of MCs into the tumor site. However, the findings are highly controversial to determine whether these immune cells contribute to the growth and development of the tumor or cause anti-tumor immune responses...
March 21, 2019: Immunology Letters
Shir Nevo, Noam Kadouri, Jakub Abramson
Tuft cells are epithelial chemosensory cells with unique morphological and molecular characteristics, the most noticeable of which is a tuft of long and thick microvilli on their apical side, as well as expression of a very distinct set of genes, including genes encoding various members of the taste transduction machinery and pro-inflammatory cyclooxygenases. Initially discovered in rat trachea, tuft cells were gradually identified in various mucosal tissues, and later also in non-mucosal tissues, most recent of which is the thymus...
March 20, 2019: Immunology Letters
Eliecer Coto, Julián R Reguero, Pablo Avanzas, Isaac Pascual, María Martín, Sergio Hevia, César Morís, Beatriz Díaz-Molina, José L Rodríguez-Lambert, Belén Alonso, Elías Cuesta-LLavona, Carmen Díaz-Corte, Juan Gómez
The nuclear-factor kappa-beta (NF-KB) is a driver of inflammation, and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Early-onset CAD is defined as a coronary ischaemic episode at an age ≤55 years, and in our population was strongly associated with male sex and smoking. Our aim was to determine whether common variants in three NF-KB genes were associated with early-onset CAD. We studied 609 patients with early-onset CAD and 423 healthy controls, all male...
March 19, 2019: Immunology Letters
Dinesh K Tripathi, Kanchan Srivastava, Komal Lata Nagpal, Praveen K Shukla, Kishore K Srivastava
Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly infectious disease and its early and precise diagnosis is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality of patients. Since the routine diagnostic tests (like Monteux, AFB smear microscopy, chest X-Ray) do not give infallible results, additional tests are always recommended. Therefore to address the concerns about non-specificity of the present battery of diagnostic tests, we have attempted to analyze some unique secretory antigens which could be able to identify the stage specific infection of MTB...
March 18, 2019: Immunology Letters
Yaqi Li, Jing Liu, Long Gao, Yuan Liu, Fang Meng, Xiaoan Li, F Xiao-Feng Qin
The ability of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) to reactivate the killing function of the immune system to tumor cells has led to long lasting immune response presenting highly promising clinical advances. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors related resistance due to the specialized tumor microenvironment has also drawn a widely attention. To overcome resistance to immune checkpoint blockade therapy, understanding the relationship of this type of therapy and tumor microenvironment is necessary and critical...
March 15, 2019: Immunology Letters
Chizu Nonomura, Masaki Otsuka, Ryota Kondou, Akira Iizuka, Haruo Miyata, Tadashi Ashizawa, Naoki Sakura, Shusuke Yoshikawa, Yoshio Kiyohara, Keiichi Ohshima, Kenichi Urakami, Takeshi Nagashima, Sumiko Ohnami, Masatoshi Kusuhara, Koichi Mitsuya, Nakamasa Hayashi, Yoko Nakasu, Tohru Mochizuki, Ken Yamaguchi, Yasuto Akiyama
Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have enabled rapid and efficient evaluation of the mutational landscape of cancers. As a result, many cancer-specific neoantigens, which can generate antitumor cytotoxic T-cells inside tumors, have been identified. Previously, we reported a metastatic melanoma case with high tumor mutation burden, who obtained complete remission after anti-PD-1 therapy and surgical resection. The rib metastatic lesion, which was used for whole-exome sequencing and gene expression profiling in the HOPE project, showed upregulated expression of PD-L1 mRNA and a high single-nucleotide variants number of 2,712...
March 14, 2019: Immunology Letters
Rupali Sharma, Madeleine May Kearns, Fatou Sarr, Nafissa Ismail
Exposure to a bacterial endotoxin during puberty induces long-term changes to reproductive and non-reproductive behaviours. While the underlying mechanisms remain unknown, we have recently shown that there are age and sex differences in acute immune and stress responses following immune challenge. Given that it is unclear whether viral infections result in similar age and sex differences, the objective of this study was to examine the acute immune and stress responses following exposure to polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a viral mimetic, in CD1 mice and to investigate the role of gonadal hormones in these responses...
March 14, 2019: Immunology Letters
Fatemeh Vahidian, Pascal H G Duijf, Elham Safarzadeh, Afshin Derakhshani, Amir Baghbanzadeh, Behzad Baradaran
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subgroup of tumor cells that are characterized by their tumor initiating capacity, low proliferation rate, self-renewal capacity, pluripotency and chemoresistance. The immune system, including innate and adaptive immune cells, plays pro-tumorigenic and anti-tumorigenic roles in cancer biology. Immunosurveillance often initially successfully eradicates tumor cells. However, following a phenomenon referred to as immunoediting, cancer cells may ultimately evade immune destruction, thus enabling tumor progression...
March 9, 2019: Immunology Letters
Camila Ribeiro, Nuno L Alves, Pedro Ferreirinha
Within the thymus, cortical and medullary thymic epithelial cells (cTECs and mTECs, respectively) provide unique microenvironments for the development of T cells that are responsive to diverse foreign antigens while self-tolerant. Essential for tolerance induction, mTECs play a critical role in negative selection and T regulatory cell differentiation. In this article, we review the current knowledge on the functional diversity within mTECs and discuss how these novel subsets contribute to tolerance induction and are integrated in the complex blueprint of mTEC differentiation...
March 7, 2019: Immunology Letters
Ke Zhang, Yan-Ling Sun, Shuang-Nan Zhou, Ruo-Nan Xu, Zhen-Wen Liu, Fu-Sheng Wang, Ming Shi
Circulating T follicular helper (cTFH) cells have been demonstrated to be involved in B-cell-mediated alloreactive responses in kidney and liver transplantation; however, whether these cells are involved in acute liver allograft rejection after liver transplantation, and which subsets are involved, remains to be clarified. The present study aimed to investigate the profiles of cTFH cells in acute liver allograft rejection, including the C-X-C motif receptor 3 (CXCR3)+ chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6)- subset, the CXCR3-CCR6- subset, and the CXCR3-CCR6+ subset...
March 5, 2019: Immunology Letters
Thelma L Skare, Aline Neppel, Mariana C C Machoski, Carlos A Maestri, Iara Messias-Reason, Renato Nisihara
BACKGROUND: Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) have been found in several types of cancer although the meaning of its presence is not completely known. AIM: To study the prevalence of ANA in patients with cervical intraepithelial lesion and invasive cervical cancer. METHODS: A total of 205 women who underwent screening for cervical cancer or treatment at the Erasto Gaertner Cancer Hospital in Curitiba - Brazil, were enrolled in the study. Based on their latest cervical colposcopy-guided biopsy results, they were divided into four groups: CIN-I: 19...
March 5, 2019: Immunology Letters
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