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International Journal of Biological Macromolecules

Selvam Sathiyavimal, Seerangaraj Vasantharaj, Felix LewisOscar, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi, Rathinasamy Subashkumar
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a bioactive and biocompatible material possessing osteoconductive properties used widely in the biomedical sector. In the present study, synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) using a Klebsiella pneumoniae SM24 (phosphate solubilizing bacteria) isolated from the fish bone waste. HAp synthesized using biological source showed efficient and positive enzymatic activity in the National Botanical Research Institute Phosphate medium (NBRIP). Characterization of HAp using FTIR revealed the presence of phosphate group hydroxyapatite and XRD spectra showed polycrystalline nature...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mohamed Amine Oualha, Nabil Omri, Rafeh Oualha, Mohamed Anouar Nouioui, Manef Abderrabba, Noureddine Amdouni, Fouad Laoutid
Recently, calcium hydroxide and magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles have attracted a lot of research interest in different sectors: food, packaging, health, automotive construction and food application. In the present study, we report development of bio-material calcium hydroxide nanoparticles (Ceg-Ca(OH)2 ), obtained from chicken eggshell collected from the food industries as well as magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles obtained from seawater (Seaw-Mg(OH)2 ). The flame-retardant behavior of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate copolymer (EVA) containing different blends of Ceg-Ca(OH)2 and Seaw-Mg(OH)2 nanoparticles has been evaluated using cone calorimeter...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zahra Bazrafshan, George K Stylios
In this review, an attempt was made to summarize some of the recent developments in the spinnability of purified collagen. Due to the excellent biological properties of this biopolymer, it is often chosen among other biomimetic materials for processing into fibrous assemblies. During the last two decades, the challenges associated with regenerated collagen fibers comprising inability to achieve sufficient tensile strength, reproducibility and failure to replicate the internal fibrillar structure, which are due to the lost properties from hierarchical structure consistent with collagen in native tissues, have been considered using the common spinning and the modification methods...
February 12, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Nanci Castanha, Alberto Claudio Miano, Viviane Deroldo Sabadoti, Pedro Esteves Duarte Augusto
In this work, the effect of Gamma-irradiation was evaluated on the characteristics of mung bean (Vigna radiata) grains and starches, considering doses up to 5 kGy. For this purpose, the starch structure and properties were evaluated, as well as the grains' hydration, germination and cooking. The irradiation process was able to change the characteristics of both mung bean starches and grains. The starch structure was partially changed, presenting smaller molecules and small changes in the granule morphology...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Sandeep Chowdary Bala, Neshatul Haque, Vijaykumar Pillalamarri, Ravikumar Reddi, Rajnandani Kashyap, Anil Kumar Marapaka, Anthony Addlagatta
Methionine aminopeptidases (MetAPs) are a class of enzymes evolved to cleave initiator methionine in 60-70% of the total cellular proteins in all living cells. Based on their sequence differences, they are classified into Type 1 and Type 2. Type 1 is further divided into Type 1a, 1a', 1b, 1c and 1d. Irrespective of various classifications, all MetAPs reported till date displayed hydrolytic activity against peptides that contain only methionine on the N-terminus. A cysteine at the top of the active site in all the Type 1 structures is reported to be critical for the specificity...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yangtao Fang, Xiaodan Fu, Wancui Xie, Li Li, Zhemin Liu, Changliang Zhu, Haijin Mou
In this study, chondroitinase (ChSase) AC II from Arthrobacter sp. CS01 was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), purified and characterised. To assist in protein folding and improve on high protein aggregation rates, two strategies involving chaperones and fusion tags were chosen to increase enzyme activity and improve enzymatic properties. ChSase AC II enzyme activity increased from 3.12 to 9.15 U/ml with chaperone GroEs-GroEL, and the specific activity increased from 19.8 to 25.74 U/mg with the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) tag...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Joby Jacob, Gregary Peter, Sabu Thomas, Józef T Haponiuk, Sreeraj Gopi
The agro-industrial waste obtained after the isolation of bio-constituents from ginger is available in abundance. In the present study, the effective isolation of ginger nanofibers (GNF) through acid hydrolysis was carried out to get cellulose nanofibers with 100 to 200 nm width by high pressure homogenization. Bionanocomposites were also prepared by reinforcing different ratios of (1% to 7%) GNF with chitosan (CS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) matrices by solvent cast method and the 5% GNF with CS and PVA resulted a high mechanical strength composites than others...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Guanhua Zhao, Xingyue Zhai, Min Qu, Changqing Tong, Wei Li
Sulfated polysaccharides from Crassostrea gigas (SCGP) were successfully prepared using chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine method. The structure of SCGP was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results of spectra indicated the substitution by the sulfate group primarily appeared at C-6. Further, the antioxidant activities of CGP and SCGP were contrasted, and SCGP exhibited the higher DPPH, hydroxyl and ABTS radical scavenging activities...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Gulsah Adiguzel, Ozlem Faiz, Melda Sisecioglu, Bilge Sari, Ozkan Baltaci, Sumeyya Akbulut, Berna Genc, Ahmet Adiguzel
A novel extracellular xylanase was purified and characterized from Pediococcus acidilactici GC25 (GenBank number: MF289522). The purification was 4.6-fold with a yield of 43.61% through acetone precipitation, Q-Sepharose, and CM-Sepharose ion change chromatography. The molecular weight of the enzyme was 48.15 kDa, and the optimum pH and temperature were 7.0 and 40 °C, respectively. The maximum activity was observed between 20 and 50 °C. Although it was active within a wide pH range (pH 2.0-9.0), it retained over 85% of its activity after 24 h incubation; and over 70% of its activity after 168 h incubation in neutral and alkaline pH...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Pallab Kumar Borah, Michael Rappolt, Raj Kumar Duary, Anwesha Sarkar
The present study aims to identify how structural modifications of amylopectin corn starch on esterification with folic acid (FA) affects its in vitro digestion. Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) confirmed that at low FA esterification (5-10%), the mesophase order showed the absence of any super-structural order. However, a discotic stacking of SF forming columnar hexagonal phases and columnar helical phases (with strong optical anisotropy) was observed upon increasing FA esterification (20-40%). X-ray diffraction (XRD) evidenced the development of a V and B-type molecular packing order in SF with increased FA esterification from 20 to 40%, with a consequential increase in the percentage of slow digestible starch (SDS) and resistant starch (RS)...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
R Antony, T Arun, S Theodore David Manickam
Biopolymers have become very attractive as they are degradable, biocompatible, non-toxic and renewable. Due to the intrinsic reactive amino groups, chitosan is vibrant in the midst of other biopolymers. Using the versatility of these amino groups, various structural modifications have been accomplished on chitosan through certain chemical reactions. Chemical modification of chitosan via imine functionalization (RR'CNR″; R: alkyl/aryl, R': H/alkyl/aryl and R″: chitosan ring) is significant as it recommends the resultant chitosan-based Schiff bases (CSBs) for the important applications in the fields like biology, catalysis, sensors, water treatment, etc...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Zahra Bahrami, Ali Akbari, Bagher Eftekhari-Sis
In this work, for the first time, we presented a novel design strategy to fabricate a new type of Octa-aminopropyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane hydrochloride salt (OA-POSS)-based Alg/PAAm DN gels, consisting of PAAm gel as the first chemical network and Alg/OA-POSS gel as the second chemical-physical network. Incorporation of OA-POSS nanoparticles with various feed ratio into the second network not only led to form strong coordination interactions but also in comparison to the other Alg/PAAm gels demonstrated superior mechanical properties...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Tang Hongbo, Wang Lan, Li Yanping, Dong Siqing
The modification greatly improved konjac glucomannan (KGM) characteristics and expanded its application range. For this purpose, the combination of acidolysis with oxidation was chosen to modify KGM in a heterogeneous system. In this study, we mainly discussed the effect of acidolysis and oxidation on the structure and properties of KGM. The experimental results indicated that the acidolysis and oxidation destroyed the structure of KGM particles, and reduced its crystalline degree. The size of derivatives was greater than that of KGM, and their surface became very rough...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ilhem Rjeibi, Anouar Feriani, Faiez Hentati, Najla Hfaiedh, Philippe Michaud, Guillaume Pierre
The structure, antioxidant and anti-hyperlipidemic activities of polysaccharides from Nitraria retusa fruits (named as NRFP) were investigated. The NRFP fraction, with a molecular weight of 66.5 kDa, was composed of a β-(1 → 3)-glucan, containing neutral sugars (69.1%) but also uronic acids up to 23.1% due to pectin structure. The monosaccharide composition highlighted a polymer composed of glucose (41.4%), galacturonic acid (30.5%), galactose (12.6%), arabinose (11.8%) and rhamnose (3.70%). In the antioxidant assays, NRFP exhibited effective total antioxidant capacity (IC50  = 7...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
M Kathirselvam, A Kumaravel, V P Arthanarieswaran, S S Saravanakumar
Cellulose, a major proportion of all plant resources are not utilized at its best. Hence, this investigation explores the potential of cellulose fraction in bark fibers of Thespesia populnea for real time use by evaluating its anatomical, physicochemical, mechanical, thermal and morphological properties. Anatomical studies confirm two types of phloem fiber cells based on dimensions of secondary cell wall and lumen. Significant concentration of cellulose (70.12%) helps to attain favorable outcomes in tensile strength (557...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Huilin Wang, Zheng Li, Jingyan Gao, Qingwu Liao
Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-activated microglia contribute to neuronal apoptosis via releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines, and some miRNAs have been reported to be involved in this process. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been reported to function as miRNA sponges, but it remains unknown whether and how circRNAs contribute to OGD-activated microglia-induced neuronal apoptosis. Here, we investigated the function and relationship of miR-29b and circPTK2 in OGD-activated microglia-induced neuronal apoptosis...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Georgi J Vadakkekara, Sabu Thomas, C P R Nair
Macro, micro and nano fibrillary cellulose with sodium maleate groups was synthesized by the reaction of cellulose with maleic anhydride followed by sodium exchange of protons. In the present work, we demonstrate that these carboxylic groups act as chemisorbants towards toxic heavy metal ions present in contaminated water. The effects of the operating parameters such as resident time, temperature, pH, ion concentration and ion nature on chemisorbability were estimated for a given cellulose carboxylate. The kinetic results for the chemisorption of Pb2+ ion were indicative of an intra particle diffusion model and pseudo second order reaction...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ying Chen, Long Yu, Xiaoyan Ge, Hongsheng Liu, Amjad Ali, Yanfei Wang, Ling Chen
Edible starch film reinforced by laver was developed and characterized. The relationship between processing technologies, microstructures and performances was established. When the laver was added into cold starch suspension, the laver flack (fiber) simply act as reinforcing agent to improve the mechanical properties of the starch matrix, which results in increasing modulus and tensile strength. When the laver was added into hot starch suspension and mixed under shear stress, the protein containing in laver will release out and mix with starch, which results in a starch-protein-laver fiber hybrid composites...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mingxiao Cui, Junwen Wu, Shuyue Wang, Hongmei Shu, Min Zhang, Kehai Liu, Kewu Liu
In the present study, crude polysaccharides were extracted from Gelidium pacificum Okamura, and further purified to obtain the sulfated polysaccharide with molecular weight of 28,807 Da. Its monosaccharide composition mainly consisted of xylose (7.1%), galactose (59.7%) and galacturonic acid (19.76%). And the sulfate ester content of the sulfated polysaccharide was estimated as 8.8%. Structure analysis showed that the sulfated polysaccharide comprised of 1,4-linked-α-D-Galp3S, 1,2-linked-α-D-Xylp and 1,3-linked-β-D-GalpA residues, respectively...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Elham Afjeh-Dana, Parvneh Naserzadeh, Hojatollah Nazari, Fatemeh Motaghitalab, Ronak Shabani, Naser Aminii, Bita Mehravi, Fatemeh Tajik Rostami, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Kazem Mousavizadeh, Khadijeh Ashtari
Nowadays, regenerating peripheral nerves injuries (PNIs) remain a major clinical challenges, which has gained a great attention between scientists. Here, we represent a nanocomposite based on silk fibroin reinforced gold nanorods (SF/GNRs) to evaluate the proliferation and attachment of PC12 cells. The morphological characterization of nanocomposites with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the fabricated scaffolds have porous structure with interconnected pores that is suitable for cell adhesion and growth...
February 8, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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