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European Journal of Cell Biology

Stefanie M K Gärtner, Tim Hundertmark, Hendrik Nolte, Ina Theofel, Zeynep Eren-Ghiani, Carolin Tetzner, Timothy B Duchow, Christina Rathke, Marcus Krüger, Renate Renkawitz-Pohl
Spermiogenesis in Drosophila melanogaster is a highly conserved process and essential for male fertility. In this haploid phase of spermatogenesis, motile sperm are assembled from round cells, and flagella and needle-shaped nuclei with highly compacted genomes are formed. As transcription takes place mainly in spermatocytes and transcripts relevant for post-meiotic sperm development are translationally repressed for days, we comparatively analysed the proteome of larval testes (only germ cell stages before meiotic divisions), testes of 1-2-day-old pupae (germ cell stages before meiotic divisions, meiotic and early spermatid stages) and adult flies (germ cell stages before meiotic divisions, meiotic and early spermatid stages, late spermatids and sperm)...
January 17, 2019: European Journal of Cell Biology
Vijay Kumar
Sepsis is a devastating health condition originating due to the dysregulated immune response in response to the severe systemic infection. The innate immune system serves as the first line of defense against invading pathogens, and the failure to clear the infection leads to the development of sepsis via generation of a proinflammatory immune response. Natural Killer (NK) cells are highly recognized potent innate immune cells that play a very important role in the generation of an antiviral and antitumor immune response...
December 18, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Wen-Da Wu, Kai-Wei Yu, Ning Zhong, Yu Xiao, Zhen-Yu She
Mitotic kinesin is crucial for spindle assembly and chromosome segregation in cell division. KIF20A/MKlp2, a member of kinesin-6 subfamily, plays important roles in the central spindle organization at anaphase and cytokinesis. In this review, we briefly introduce the discovery and classification of kinesin-6 motors in model organisms, and summarize the biochemical features and mechanics of KIF20A proteins. We emphasize the complicated interactions of KIF20A with partner proteins, including MKlp1, Plk1 and Rab6...
December 16, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Anshuman Singh, C B Yadav, N Tabassum, A K Bajpeyee, V Verma
Stem cell niche is a specialized and dynamic microenvironment around the stem cells which plays a critical role in maintaining the stemness properties of stem cells. Over the years, advancement in the research activity has revealed the various important aspects of stem cell niche including cell-cell interaction, cell-extracellular matrix interaction, a large number of soluble signaling factors and various biochemical and biophysical cues (such as oxygen tension, flow, and shear and pore size). Stem cells have the potential to be a powerful tool in regenerative medicine due to their self-renewal property and immense differentiation potential...
December 12, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Anna Barbara Di Stefano, Daniela Massihnia, Federica Grisafi, Marta Castiglia, Francesca Toia, Luigi Montesano, Antonio Russo, Francesco Moschella, Adriana Cordova
Angiogenesis is a crucial process for the maintenance of normal tissue physiology and it is involved in tissue remodeling and regeneration. This process is essential for adipose tissue maintenance. The adipose tissue is composed by different cell types including stromal vascular cells as well as adipose stem cells (ASCs). In particular, ASCs are multipotent somatic stem cells that are able to differentiate and secrete several growth factors; they are recently emerging as a new cell reservoir for novel therapies and strategies in many diseases...
November 30, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Shao Wei, Dongbing Yang, Jifan Yang, Xiaosheng Zhang, Jinlong Zhang, Juncai Fu, Guangbin Zhou, Haijun Liu, Zhengxing Lian, Hongbing Han
The Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a crucial role in innate inflammatory responses, as it recognizes gram-negative bacteria (or their products) and contributes greatly to host defense against invading pathogens. Though TLR4 overexpressing transgenic sheep, resistant to certain diseases related with gram-negative bacteria, had been bred in our previous research, the effects of overexpression of TLR4 on innate immune response remained unclear. In this study, TLR4 overexpressing ovine macrophages were obtained from peripheral blood, and it was found that the overexpression of TLR4 initially promoted the production of proinflammatory cytokines TNFα and IL-6 by activating TLR4-mediated IRAK4-dependent NF-κB and MAPK (JNK and ERK1/2) signaling following LPS stimulation...
November 29, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Shuchun Li, Yuan Qiao, Qian Di, Xiuning Le, Lei Zhang, Xiaosong Zhang, Changyong Zhang, Jie Cheng, Shudong Zong, Samuel S Koide, Shiying Miao, Lingfang Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 26, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Michael V Tavolieri, Cristian A Droppelmann, Danae Campos-Melo, Kathryn Volkening, Michael J Strong
Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (RGNEF) is a 190 kDa protein implicated in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and cancer. Under normal physiological conditions, RGNEF is predominantly cytoplasmic with moderate levels of nuclear localization. We have identified a 23-amino acid region containing a bipartite nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) domain of RGNEF, which when deleted or mutated abolishes the nuclear localization of this protein. Fusion proteins containing only the PH domain demonstrated that this region by itself is able to translocate a 160 kDa protein to the nucleus...
November 19, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Bei Chang, Kathy K H Svoboda, Xiaohua Liu
Cell polarity identifies the asymmetry of a cell. Various types of cells, including odontoblasts and epithelial cells, polarize to fulfil their destined functions. Odontoblast polarization is a prerequisite and fundamental step for tooth development and tubular dentin formation. Current knowledge of odontoblast polarization, however, is very limited, which greatly impedes the development of novel approaches for regenerative endodontics. Compared to odontoblasts, epithelial cell polarization has been extensively studied over the last several decades...
November 17, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Anne Olazabal-Herrero, Maria Sendino, Ignacio Arganda-Carreras, Jose Antonio Rodríguez
The human deubiquitinases USP12 and USP46 are very closely related paralogs with critical functions as tumor suppressors. The catalytic activity of these enzymes is regulated by two cofactors: UAF1 and WDR20. USP12 and USP46 show nearly 90% amino acid sequence identity and share some cellular activities, but have also evolved non-overlapping functions. We hypothesized that, correlating with their functional divergence, the subcellular localization of USP12 and USP46 might be differentially regulated by their cofactors...
November 3, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Justine Maurin, Anne Morel, Cedric Hassen-Khodja, Virginie Vives, Pierre Jurdic, Irma Machuca-Gayet, Anne Blangy
Osteoclasts are the main cells responsible for the resorption of mineralized extracellular matrices. They are the major targets for anti-resorptive therapies to manage osteoporosis, a major public health problem. Osteoclasts are giant multinucleated cells that can organize their a unique adhesion structure based on a belt of podosomes, which is the keystone of the bone resorption apparatus. We combined differential transcriptomics and siRNA screening approaches to get a broader view of cytoskeletal regulators that participate in the control of osteoclast cytoskeleton and identify novel regulators of bone resorption by osteoclasts...
October 31, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Evelyn S Hanemaaijer, Mahmod Panahi, Nol Swaddiwudhipong, Saara Tikka, Bengt Winblad, Matti Viitanen, Antonio Piras, Homira Behbahani
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familial progressive degenerative disorder and is caused by mutations in NOTCH3 gene. Previous study reported that mutant NOTCH3 is more prone to form aggregates than wild-type NOTCH3 and the mutant aggregates are resistant to degradation. We hypothesized that aggregation or accumulation of NOTCH3 could be due to impaired lysosomal-autophagy machinery in VSMC. Here, we investigated the possible cause of accumulation/aggregation of NOTCH3 in CADASIL using cerebral VSMCs derived from control and CADASIL patients carrying NOTCH3R133C mutation...
October 22, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Giorgia di Bello, Gianluigi Vendemiale, Francesco Bellanti
Hepatic diseases are widespread in the world and organ transplantation is currently the only treatment for liver failure. New cell-based approaches have been considered, since stem cells may represent a possible source to treat liver diseases. Acute and chronic liver diseases are characterized by high production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, with consequent oxidative modifications of cellular macromolecules and alteration of signaling pathways, metabolism and cell cycle. Although considered harmful molecules, reactive species are involved in cell growth and differentiation processes, modulating the activity of transcription factors, which take part in stemness/proliferation...
September 25, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Dan Georgess, Pirjo Spuul, Christophe Le Clainche, Damien Le Nihouannen, Isabelle Fremaux, Thierry Dakhli, Daniela Melanie Delannoy López, Denis Deffieux, Pierre Jurdic, Stéphane Quideau, Elisabeth Génot
Actin subunits assemble into actin filaments whose dynamics and three-dimensional architectures are further regulated by a variety of cellular factors to establish the functional actin cytoskeleton. The C-glucosidic ellagitannin vescalagin and its simpler analogue vescalin, affect both the dynamics and the ultrastructure of the actin cytoskeleton by directly binding to F-actin. Herein, we show that in vitro, the two compounds induce the formation of distinct F-actin networks characterized by different superstructures and dynamics...
September 24, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Qiuhong Xiong, Sarah Fischer, Malte Karow, Rolf Müller, Susanne Meßling, Ludwig Eichinger
Autophagy and the ubiquitin proteasome system are the two major cellular processes for protein and organelle recycling and clearance in eukaryotic cells. Evidence is accumulating that these two pathways are interrelated through adaptor proteins. Here, we found that PSMD1 and PSMD2, both components of the 19S regulatory particle of the proteasome, directly interact with Dictyostelium discoideum autophagy 16 (ATG16), a core autophagosomal protein. ATG16 is composed of an N-terminal domain, which is responsible for homo-dimerization and binding to ATG5 and a C-terminal β-propeller structure...
September 17, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Yosuke Matsuno, Takumi Kiwamoto, Yuko Morishima, Yukio Ishii, Nobuyuki Hizawa, Cory M Hogaboam
Apoptosis is a physiological process that plays a critical maintenance role in cellular homeostasis. Previous reports have demonstrated that cells undergo apoptosis in a cell density-dependent manner, which is regulated, in part, by signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) 3. The molecular mechanisms regulating cell density-dependent apoptosis, however, has not been thoroughly investigated to date. Since Notch signaling is activated via direct cell-to-cell contact and plays a pivotal role in cell fate decisions, we examined the role of Notch signaling in cell density-dependent apoptosis of mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH 3T3 cells...
September 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Lei Hong, Xiaolong Du, Wendong Li, Youjun Mao, Lili Sun, Xiaoqiang Li
The endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is the process by which endothelial cells lose a portion of their cellular features and obtain certain characteristics of mesenchymal cells, including loss of tight junctions, increased motility, and increased secretion of extracellular matrix proteins. EndMT is involved in cardiac development and a variety of diseases processes, such as vascular or tissue fibrosis and tumor. However, its role in specific diseases remains under debate. This review summarizes EndMT-related diseases, existing controversies, different types of EndMT, and molecules and signaling pathways associated with the process...
September 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Ruth Brennan, Antje Haap-Hoff, Lili Gu, Virginie Gautier, Aideen Long, Martina Schröder
The human DEAD-box helicase DDX3 is a multi-functional protein involved in the regulation of gene expression and additional non-conventional roles as signalling adaptor molecule that are independent of its enzymatic RNA remodeling activity. It is a nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling protein and it has previously been suggested that dysregulation of its subcellular localization could contribute to tumourigenesis. Indeed, both tumour suppressor and oncogenic functions have been attributed to DDX3. In this study, we investigated the regulation of DDX3's nucleocytoplasmic shuttling...
August 4, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Laura Cristina Ceafalan, Ana-Maria Enciu, Tudor Emanuel Fertig, Bogdan Ovidiu Popescu, Mihaela Gherghiceanu, Mihail Eugen Hinescu, Eugen Radu
Adult tissue homeostasis and repair relies on prompt and appropriate intervention by tissue-specific adult stem cells (SCs). SCs have the ability to self-renew; upon appropriate stimulation, they proliferate and give rise to specialized cells. An array of environmental signals is important for maintenance of the SC pool and SC survival, behavior, and fate. Within this special microenvironment, commonly known as the stem cell niche (SCN), SC behavior and fate are regulated by soluble molecules and direct molecular contacts via adhesion molecules providing connections to local supporting cells and the extracellular matrix...
August 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
Hajar Owji, Navid Nezafat, Manica Negahdaripour, Ali Hajiebrahimi, Younes Ghasemi
Signal peptides (SP) are short peptides located in the N-terminal of proteins, carrying information for protein secretion. They are ubiquitous to all prokaryotes and eukaryotes. SPs have been of special interest in several scientific and industrial fields, including recombinant protein production, disease diagnosis, immunization, and laboratory techniques. Recently, the role of SPs in recombinant protein production has gained too much attention. Herein, several studies have been reviewed to elucidate the precise structure and function of SPs, particularly the optimized ones for recombinant protein production...
August 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
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