Armelle Grevot, Julie Boisclair, Magali Guffroy, Peter Hall, Gabriele Pohlmeyer-Esch, Matt Jacobsen, Ute Bach, Anna Lena Frisk, Noel Dybdal, Xavier Palazzi
In the last decade, numerous initiatives have emerged worldwide to reduce the use of animals in drug development, including more recently the introduction of Virtual Control Groups (VCGs) concept for nonclinical toxicity studies. Although replacement of concurrent controls (CCs) by virtual controls (VCs) represents an exciting opportunity, there are associated challenges that will be discussed in this paper with a more specific focus on anatomic pathology. Coordinated efforts will be needed from toxicologists, clinical and anatomic pathologists, and regulators to support approaches that will facilitate a staggered implementation of VCGs in nonclinical toxicity studies...
January 31, 2024: Toxicologic Pathology
Arun R Pandiri, Scott S Auerbach, Jim L Stevens, Eric A G Blomme
Toxicogenomic technologies query the genome, transcriptome, proteome, and the epigenome in a variety of toxicological conditions. Due to practical considerations related to the dynamic range of the assays, sensitivity, cost, and technological limitations, transcriptomic approaches are predominantly used in toxicogenomics. Toxicogenomics is being used to understand the mechanisms of toxicity and carcinogenicity, evaluate the translational relevance of toxicological responses from in vivo and in vitro models, and identify predictive biomarkers of disease and exposure...
January 30, 2024: Toxicologic Pathology
Brad Bolon
Existing nervous system sampling and processing "best practices" for nonclinical general toxicity studies (GTS) were designed to assess test articles with unknown, no known, or well-known neurotoxic potential. Similar practices are applicable to juvenile animal studies (JAS). In GTS and JAS, the recommended baseline sampling for all species includes brain (7 sections), spinal cord (cervical and lumbar divisions [cross and longitudinal sections for each]), and 1 nerve (sciatic or tibial [cross and longitudinal sections]) in hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections...
January 30, 2024: Toxicologic Pathology
Mei-Lan Chu, Xing-Yue M Ge, Jeffrey Eastham, Trung Nguyen, Reina N Fuji, Ruth Sullivan, Daniel Ruderman
Digital pathology workflows in toxicologic pathology rely on whole slide images (WSIs) from histopathology slides. Inconsistent color reproduction by WSI scanners of different models and from different manufacturers can result in different color representations and inter-scanner color variation in the WSIs. Although pathologists can accommodate a range of color variation during their evaluation of WSIs, color variability can degrade the performance of computational applications in digital pathology. In particular, color variability can compromise the generalization of artificial intelligence applications to large volumes of data from diverse sources...
January 30, 2024: Toxicologic Pathology
Amit Kumar, Marie Bockenstedt, Victoria Laast, Alok Sharma
Data collected from approximately 1800 male and 1800 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats used in 104-week carcinogenicity studies were archived in a historical control database at Labcorp Early Development, Inc, and the neoplastic microscopic observation data from these rats were retrospectively evaluated. Historical control data can provide useful information on the range and incidence of spontaneously occurring background neoplasms in the species and strain of the test animal used in different types of toxicity studies, including studies of differing lengths, delivery of test article, and test animal...
January 28, 2024: Toxicologic Pathology
Allison C Boone, Shakirat A Adetunji, Rebecca Kohnken, Kenji Koyama
This case study session of the hepatobiliary system was held during the 42nd Annual Society of Toxicologic Pathology Symposium in Summerlin, Nevada. The case studies highlighed potential hepatic and biliary toxicity liabilities. This article comprises several of the case studies that were presented during the session which included copper-associated hepatitis in a dog, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome in non-human primates, hepatic cytoplasmic alteration in mice and rats, and Kupffer cell hyperplasia/granulomatous inflammation in rats...
January 28, 2024: Toxicologic Pathology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2024: Toxicologic Pathology
Richard T Miller
Risk assessment of hepatobiliary toxicities represents one of the greatest challenges and, more often than not, one of the most rewarding activities in which toxicologic pathologists can partake, and often times lead. This is in part because each liver toxicity picture is a bit different, informed by a broad range and diversity of relevant data, and also in part because the heavily relied upon animal models are imperfect regarding predictivity of hepatic effects in humans. Following identification and characterization of a hepatotoxicity hazard, typically in nonclinical toxicology studies, a holistic and integrated assessment of liver-relevant endpoints is conducted that typically incorporates ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) information (ideally, including extensive transporter data, exposure margins, and possibly concentration of parent/metabolite at region of injury), target expression/function, in silico prediction data, in vitro hepatocyte data, liver/circulating biomarkers, and importantly, species specificity of any of these data...
January 20, 2024: Toxicologic Pathology
Giulia Tosi, Jennifer Rachael Barnes
This brief communication describes a rare spontaneous background lesion in the lower urinary tract of two male laboratory beagles. Proliferative lesions comprising a constellation of histological features consistent with polypoid cystitis were observed in the bladder of two adolescent dogs from a routine preclinical toxicology study. Both animals were clinically asymptomatic and had only minor alterations in urinalysis parameters. While chronic polypoid cystitis is well-recognized in adult pet dogs, this is the first reported case in purpose-bred laboratory beagles...
January 9, 2024: Toxicologic Pathology
Lisa D Berman-Booty, Stephanie K Klein, Curt Mazur, Joseph Schroeder, Sven Korte, Florian T Ludwig, Annette Romeike, Brad Bolon, Jessica L Grieves
Direct delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system (CNS) greatly expands opportunities to treat neurological diseases but is technically challenging. This opinion outlines principal technical aspects of direct CNS delivery via intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intrathecal (IT) injection to common nonclinical test species (rodents, dogs, and nonhuman primates) and describes procedure-related clinical and histopathological effects that confound interpretation of test article-related effects. Direct dosing is by ICV injection in mice due to their small body size, while other species are dosed IT in the lumbar cistern...
January 5, 2024: Toxicologic Pathology
Chitra Saran, Kim L R Brouwer
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains a major concern in drug development from a patient safety perspective because it is the leading cause of acute liver failure. One mechanism of DILI is altered bile acid homeostasis and involves several hepatic bile acid transporters. Functional impairment of some hepatic bile acid transporters by drugs, disease, or genetic mutations may lead to toxic accumulation of bile acids within hepatocytes and increase DILI susceptibility. This review focuses on the role of hepatic bile acid transporters in DILI...
November 20, 2023: Toxicologic Pathology
Sundeep Chandra, Brian R Long, Carlos Fonck, Andrew C Melton, Jeremy Arens, Jill Woloszynek, Charles A O'Neill
Replication-incompetent adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors are nonpathogenic viral particles used to deliver therapeutic genes to treat multiple monogenic disorders. AAVs can elicit immune responses; thus, one challenge in AAV-based gene therapy is the presence of neutralizing antibodies against vector capsids that may prevent transduction of target cells or elicit adverse findings. We present safety findings from two 12-week studies in nonhuman primates (NHPs) with pre-existing or treatment-emergent antibodies...
November 3, 2023: Toxicologic Pathology
Glen K Miller, Sabu Kuruvilla, Binod Jacob, Lisa LaFranco-Scheuch, Vasudevan Bakthavatchalu, Jason Flor, Kristin Flor, Julie Ziegler, Christine Reichard, Phil Manfre, Suzanne Firner, Tara McNutt, Diane Quay, Sairam Bellum, Greg Doto, Paul J Ciaccio, Kara Pearson, Jack Valentine, Pete Fuller, Matt Fell, Takayuki Tsuchiya, Toni Williamson, Gordon Wollenberg
Toxicology studies in nonhuman primates were conducted to evaluate selective, brain penetrant inhibitors of LRRK2. GNE 7915 was limited to 7-day administration in cynomolgus monkeys at 65 mg/kg/day or limited to 14 days in rhesus at 22.5 mg/kg b.i.d. due to physical signs. Compound 25 demonstrated acceptable tolerability at 50 and 225 mg/kg b.i.d. for 7 days in rhesus monkeys. MK-1468 was tolerated during 7-day administration at 100, 200 or 800 mg/kg/day or for 30-day administration at 30, 100, or 500 mg/kg b...
November 2, 2023: Toxicologic Pathology
Thomas Steger-Hartmann, Matthew Clark
The availability of large amounts of high-quality control data from tightly controlled regulated animal safety data has created the idea to re-use these data beyond its classical applications of quality control, identification of treatment-related effects and assessing effect-size relevance for building virtual control groups (VCGs). While the ethical and cost-saving aspects of such a concept are immediately evident, the potential challenges need to be carefully considered to avoid any effect which could lower the sensitivity of an animal study to detect adverse events, safety thresholds, target organs, or biomarkers...
October 31, 2023: Toxicologic Pathology
Misaki Inoue, Shinya Miyazaki, Natsumi Kobayashi, Akihisa Kangawa, Tomoaki Murakami
The minipig has been used as a non-rodent species in nonclinical toxicology studies, but little is known about amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis in this species. Among domestic pigs, reports of AA amyloidosis have been limited to animals with mutations in the N-terminal residue of serum AA (SAA), which is thought to be a primary etiological factor. In this study, we histologically examined 26 microminipigs aged 0.6 to 10 years and observed amyloid deposition in one 0.6-year-old and six 5-year-old or older microminipigs...
October 24, 2023: Toxicologic Pathology
Laurence O Whiteley
This article reviews the presentation given at the 2023 annual meeting of the Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) on liver toxicity observed with adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) gene therapy. After decades as a therapeutic modality largely confined to the academic research environment, gene therapy has emerged in recent years as a rapidly expanding therapeutic approach in the biopharmaceutical industry with AAV as the most commonly used viral vector for gene delivery. This interest in the field of gene therapy by industry has been enhanced by the recent success of approved therapies for curing genetic diseases such as ZOLGENSMA for spinal muscular atrophy and LUXTURNA for Leber congenital amaurosis...
September 29, 2023: Toxicologic Pathology
Adeyemi O Adedeji, Tony Pourmohamad, Niraj Tripathi, Shelly Zhong, Kenna R Degner, Fiona Zhong, Dewakar Sangaraju, Kevin Williams, Noel Dybdal
During toxicology studies, fasting animals prior to clinical pathology blood collection is believed to reduce variability in some clinical chemistry analytes. However, fasting adds stress to animals that are already stressed from the administration of potentially toxic doses of the test article. The purpose of this study was to assess the impacts of different fasting durations on cynomolgus monkeys' welfare during toxicology studies. To this end, we assessed the cynomolgus monkeys traditional and ancillary clinical pathology endpoints at different fasting times...
September 13, 2023: Toxicologic Pathology
Alex A Gutsol, Taben M Hale, Jean-Francois Thibodeau, Chet E Holterman, Rania Nasrallah, Jose W N Correa, Rhian M Touyz, Chris R J Kennedy, Dylan Burger, Richard L H├ębert, Kevin D Burns
Assessment of hypertensive tubulopathy for more than fifty animal models of hypertension in experimental pathology employs criteria that do not correspond to lesional descriptors for tubular lesions in clinical pathology. We provide a critical appraisal of experimental hypertension with the same approach used to estimate hypertensive renal tubulopathy in humans. Four models with different pathogenesis of hypertension were analyzed-chronic angiotensin (Ang) II-infused and renin-overexpressing (TTRhRen) mice, spontaneously hypertensive (SHR), and Goldblatt two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) rats...
August 26, 2023: Toxicologic Pathology
Brad Bolon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 14, 2023: Toxicologic Pathology
Tracey L Papenfuss, Lauren Himmel, C Frieke Kuper, Sunish Mohanan, Johannes Harleman, Susan A Elmore
The evaluation of changes in the immune system serves to determine the efficacy and potential immunotoxicologic effects of new products under development. Toxicologic pathologists play critical roles in identifying immune system changes that drive the immunosafety determination. Standard pathology evaluations of therapies and chemicals remain similar; however, biopharmaceutical therapies have moved from simply affecting the immune system to being specifically developed to modify the immune system, which can impact interpretation...
August 14, 2023: Toxicologic Pathology
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