Debasish Kumar Dey, Danielle Krause, Rajani Rai, Swati Choudhary, Lauren E Dockery, Vishal Chandra
The tumor microenvironment is surrounded by blood vessels and consists of malignant, nonmalignant, and immune cells, as well as signalling molecules, which primarily affect the therapeutic response and curative effects of drugs in clinical studies. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells participate in tumor progression, impact anticancer therapy and eventually lead to the development of immune tolerance. Immunotherapy is evolving as a promising therapeutic intervention to stimulate and activate the immune system to suppress cancer cell growth...
September 8, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Maxime Thouaye, Ipek Yalcin
Neuropathic pain, caused by a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system, affects between 3 and 17% of the general population. The treatment of neuropathic pain is challenging due to its heterogeneous etiologies, lack of objective diagnostic tools and resistance to classical analgesic drugs. First-line treatments recommended by the Special Interest Group on Neuropathic Pain (NeuPSIG) and European Federation of Neurological Societies (EFNS) include gabapentinoids, tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) and selective serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)...
November 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Maya Ezzo, Boris Hinz
The ability of cells to sense and respond to changes in mechanical environment is vital in conditions of organ injury when the architecture of normal tissues is disturbed or lost. Among the various cellular players that respond to injury, fibroblasts take center stage in re-establishing tissue integrity by secreting and organizing extracellular matrix into stabilizing scar tissue. Activation, activity, survival, and death of scar-forming fibroblasts are tightly controlled by mechanical environment and proper mechanotransduction ensures that fibroblast activities cease after completion of the tissue repair process...
October 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Qiyue Wang, Xiaofei Xin, Qihao Dai, Mengjuan Sun, Jinhua Chen, Ebrahim Mostafavi, Yan Shen, Xueming Li
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a major pediatric malignant brain tumor that arises in the cerebellum. MB tumors exhibit highly heterogeneous driven by diverse genetic alterations and could be divided into four major subgroups based on their different biological drivers and molecular features (Wnt, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), group 3, and group 4 MB). Even though the therapeutic strategies for each MB subtype integrate their pathogenesis and were developed to focus on their specific target sites, the unexpected drug non-selective cytotoxicity, low drug accumulation in the brain, and complexed MB tumor microenvironment still be huge obstacles to achieving satisfied MB therapeutic efficiency...
October 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Gabriella Juhasz, Kinga Gecse, Daniel Baksa
After 35 years since the introduction of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD), we are living in the era of the second great revolution in migraine therapies. First, discoveries of triptans provided a breakthrough in acute migraine treatment utilizing bench-to-bedside research results on the role of serotonin in migraine. Next, the discovery of the role of neuropeptides, more specifically calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine attack led to the development of anti-CGRP therapies that are effective both in acute and preventive treatment, and are also able to reduce migraine-related burden...
October 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sameer Ullah Khan, Kaneez Fatima, Fayaz Malik, Halime Kalkavan, Abubakar Wani
Metastatic progression combined with non-responsiveness towards systemic therapy often shapes the course of disease for cancer patients and commonly determines its lethal outcome. The complex molecular events that promote metastasis are a combination of both, the acquired pro-metastatic properties of cancer cells and a metastasis-permissive or -supportive tumor micro-environment (TME). Yet, dissemination is a challenging process for cancer cells that requires a series of events to enable cancer cell survival and growth...
September 1, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Emily Cash, Amanda T Goodwin, Amanda L Tatler
Pulmonary fibrosis is a debilitating and life-limiting lung condition in which the damage- response mechanisms of mixed-population cells within the lungs go awry. The tissue microenvironment is drastically remodelled by aberrantly activated fibroblasts which deposit ECM components into the surrounding lung tissue, detrimentally affecting lung function and capacity for gas exchange. Growing evidence suggests a role for adenosine signalling in the pathology of tissue fibrosis in a variety of organs, including the lung, but the molecular pathways through which this occurs remain largely unknown...
September 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zuowen He, Xin Xu, Qu Zhao, Hu Ding, Dao Wen Wang
Vasospastic angina (VSA) is characterized by episodes of rest angina that are responsive to short-acting nitrates and are attributable to coronary artery vasospasm. The condition is underdiagnosed as the provocation test is rarely performed. VSA, the most important component of non-obstructive coronary artery disease, can present with angina, be asymptomatic, or can even present with fatal arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Although most patients with VSA respond well to vasodilating medications, prognosis does not improve as expected in most patients, suggesting the existence elusive prognostic factors and pathogenesis that warrant further exploration...
September 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Ralph Kettritz, Johannes Loffing
Membrane voltage controls the function of excitable cells and is mainly a consequence of the ratio between the extra- and intracellular potassium concentration. Potassium homeostasis is safeguarded by balancing the extra-/intracellular distribution and systemic elimination of potassium to the dietary potassium intake. These processes adjust the plasma potassium concentration between 3.5 and 4.5 mmol/L. Several genetic and acquired diseases but also pharmacological interventions cause dyskalemias that are associated with increased morbidity and mortality...
September 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Sandra Hummelgaard, Joachim Pold Vilstrup, Camilla Gustafsen, Simon Glerup, Kathrin Weyer
Lowering blood cholesterol levels efficiently reduces the risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), including coronary artery disease (CAD), which is the main cause of death worldwide. CAD is caused by plaque formation, comprising cholesterol deposits in the coronary arteries. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin/type 9 (PCSK9) was discovered in the early 2000s and later identified as a key regulator of cholesterol metabolism. PCSK9 induces lysosomal degradation of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor in the liver, which is responsible for clearing LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) from the circulation...
September 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zi-Xian Liao, Shan-Hui Hsu, Shiue-Cheng Tang, Ivan Kempson, Pan-Chyr Yang, S Ja Tseng
In 2015, oncolytic virotherapy was approved for clinical use, and in 2017, recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) delivery was also approved. However, systemic administration remains challenging due to the limited number of viruses that successfully reach the target site. Although the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) permits the use of higher doses of AAV to achieve greater rates of transduction, most AAV still accumulates in the liver, potentially leading to toxicity there and elsewhere. Targeting the tumor microenvironment is a promising strategy for cancer treatment due to the critical role of the tumor microenvironment in controlling tumor progression and influencing the response to therapies...
August 30, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Saumya Rastogi, Shashank Shekher Mishra, Mandeep Kumar Arora, Gaurav Kaithwas, Sugato Banerjee, Velayutham Ravichandiran, Subhadeep Roy, Lakhveer Singh
Lactate acidosis is often observed in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of solid tumors. This is because glucose breaks down quickly via glycolysis, causing lactate acidity. Lactate is harmful to healthy cells, but is a major oncometabolite for solid cancer cells that do not receive sufficient oxygen. As an oncometabolite, it helps tumor cells perform different functions, which helps solid hypoxic tumor cells spread to other parts of the body. Studies have shown that the acidic TME contains VEGF, Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), cathepsins, and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), all of which help spread in direct and indirect ways...
August 23, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Julie Blatt, Jennifer E Brondon, Elizabeth L Nieman, Kynlon Phillips, Arti Pandya
Vascular anomalies (VA) are developmental anomalies of veins, arteries, lymphatics or capillaries thought to be caused by mutations in genes that drive angiogenesis. Treatments targeting these genes are limited. We review the literature for conventional medications and products from traditional medicine cultures that have been found to have antiangiogenic activity. Fewer than 50 drugs with credible human activity in VA were identified and include β blockers, monoclonal antibodies, microtubule inhibitors, multi-kinase inhibitors, PIK3CA- and RAS-MAPK pathway inhibitors, and thalidomides...
August 23, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Charlotte Bérard, Charles Truillet, Benoit Larrat, Frédéric Dhermain, Marie-Anne Estève, Florian Correard, Anthony Novell
The therapeutic management of gliomas remains particularly challenging. Brain tumors present multiple obstacles that make therapeutic innovation complex, mainly due to the presence of blood-tumor and blood-brain barriers (BTB and BBB, respectively) which prevent penetration of anticancer agents into the brain parenchyma. Focused ultrasound-mediated BBB disruption (FUS-BBBD) provides a physical method for non-invasive, local, and reversible BBB disruption. The safety of this technique has been demonstrated in small and large animal models...
August 22, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Harish Sharma, Shazia Afzal, Jürgen Leick, Nikos Werner, Sagar N Doshi, M Adnan Nadir
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is increasingly being performed to treat symptomatic patients with aortic stenosis and annual procedure volume has overtaken surgical aortic valve replacement in the United States. However, current international guidelines were written prior to the publication of several important recent studies. Furthermore, European and American guidelines differ in their recommendations of antithrombotic therapy following TAVR. Consequently, there is a need to examine the literature to provide clinicians guidance on the optimum antithrombotic strategy, particularly as different patient populations exist...
August 10, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Manoj Kumar Gupta, He Peng, Yang Li, Cheng-Jian Xu
Epigenetics functions as a bridge between host genetic & environmental factors, aiding in human health and diseases. Many immune-related diseases, including infectious and allergic diseases, have been linked to epigenetic mechanisms, particularly DNA methylation. In this review, we summarized an updated overview of DNA methylation and its importance in personalized medicine, and demonstrated that DNA methylation has excellent potential for disease prevention, diagnosis, and treatment in a personalized manner...
August 9, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Emanuel Raschi, Manuela Casula, Arrigo F G Cicero, Alberto Corsini, Claudio Borghi, Alberico Catapano
The pharmacological treatment of dyslipidemia, a major modifiable risk factor for developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), remains a debated and controversial issue, not only in terms of the most appropriate therapeutic range for lipid levels, but also with regard to the optimal strategy and sequence approach (stepwise vs upstream therapy). Current treatment guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia focus on the intensity of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction, stratified according to risk for developing ASCVD...
August 9, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Mirela-Diana Ilie, Dario De Alcubierre, Anna Lucia Carretti, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Gérald Raverot
The tumor microenvironment (TME), the complex environment in which tumors develop, has been increasingly targeted for cancer treatment in recent years. Aggressive pituitary tumors and pituitary carcinomas have been so far targeted with immune-checkpoint inhibitors (28 cases, including a large cohort), and anti-angiogenic drugs (34 cases), specifically bevacizumab (30 cases), sunitinib (three cases), and apatinib (one case). Here, we reviewed all these cases, reporting tumor response, potential predictors of response, as well as adverse events...
August 8, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yo Oishi, Yuki C Saito, Takeshi Sakurai
Benzodiazepine, a classical medication utilized in the treatment of insomnia, operates by augmenting the activity of the GABAA receptor. This underscores the significance of GABAergic neurotransmission in both the initiation and maintenance of sleep. Nevertheless, an increasing body of evidence substantiates the notion that GABA-mediated neurotransmission also assumes a vital role in promoting wakefulness in specific neuronal circuits. Despite the longstanding belief in the pivotal function of GABA in regulating the sleep-wake cycle, there exists a dearth of comprehensive documentation regarding the specific regions within the central nervous system where GABAergic neurons are crucial for these functions...
August 2, 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Zahir Hussain, Qian Qi, Junjie Zhu, Karl E Anderson, Xiaochao Ma
Protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) is an intermediate in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Abnormal accumulation of PPIX due to certain pathological conditions such as erythropoietic protoporphyria and X-linked protoporphyria causes painful phototoxic reactions of the skin, which can significantly impact daily life. Endothelial cells in the skin have been proposed as the primary target for PPIX-induced phototoxicity through light-triggered generation of reactive oxygen species. Current approaches for the management of PPIX-induced phototoxicity include opaque clothing, sunscreens, phototherapy, blood therapy, antioxidants, bone marrow transplantation, and drugs that increase skin pigmentation...
August 2023: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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