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Calcified Tissue International

Aravind Sundaramurthy, Chun Xu, Julie M Hughes, Erin Gaffney-Stomberg, Katelyn I Guerriere, Kristin L Popp, Mary L Bouxsein, Jaques Reifman, Ginu Unnikrishnan
Musculoskeletal injuries, such as stress fracture, are responsible for over 10-million lost-duty days among U.S. Army Soldiers. During Basic Combat Training (BCT), an 8- to 10-week program that transforms civilians into Soldiers, women are four times more likely than men to sustain a stress fracture. In this work, we performed high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography scans on the ultradistal tibia of 90 female recruits [age = 21.5 ± 3.3 (mean ± standard deviation) years] before the start of BCT and after 8 weeks into BCT...
April 22, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Mohammad Kharazmi, Karl Michaëlsson, Jörg Schilcher, Niclas Eriksson, Håkan Melhus, Mia Wadelius, Pär Hallberg
Atypical femoral fracture is a well-documented adverse reaction to bisphosphonates. It is strongly related to duration of bisphosphonate use, and the risk declines rapidly after drug withdrawal. The mechanism behind bisphosphonate-associated atypical femoral fracture is unclear, but a genetic predisposition has been suggested. With the aim to identify common genetic variants that could be used for preemptive genetic testing, we performed a genome-wide association study. Cases were recruited mainly through reports of adverse drug reactions sent to the Swedish Medical Products Agency on a nation-wide basis...
April 20, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Yoo Mee Kim, Sunghoon Kim, Young Jun Won, Se Hwa Kim
Demonstrating the clinical consequences of osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) is complex. This study evaluated clinical manifestations and factors associated with bone and muscle loss in Koreans with obesity. This cross-sectional observational study enrolled Koreans with obesity aged ≥ 50 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Clinical manifestations were compared among four groups: obesity (O), sarcopenic obesity (SO), osteopenic obesity (OO), and OSO. Factors associated with appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) or bone mineral density (BMD) were evaluated...
April 17, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
C Galli, M Colangelo, G Pedrazzi, S Guizzardi
Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have been proposed as a tool to ameliorate bone formation and healing. Despite their promising results, however, they have failed to enter routine clinical protocols to treat bone conditions where higher bone mass has to be achieved. This is no doubt also due to a fundamental lack of knowledge and understanding on their effects and the optimal settings for attaining the desired therapeutic effects. This review analysed the available in vitro and in vivo studies that assessed the effects of sinusoidal EMFs (SEMFs) on bone and bone cells, comparing the results and investigating possible mechanisms of action by which SEMFs interact with tissues and cells...
April 17, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Masahiro Horita, Keiichiro Nishida, Joe Hasei, Takayuki Furumatsu, Miwa Sakurai, Yuta Onodera, Kanji Fukuda, Donald M Salter, Toshifumi Ozaki
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase 12 (ADAM12) is known to be involved in chondrocyte proliferation and maturation; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, expression and localization of ADAM12 during chondrocyte differentiation were examined in the mouse growth plate by immunohistochemistry. Adam12 expression during ATDC5 chondrogenic differentiation was examined by real-time PCR and compared with the expression pattern of type X collagen. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 system was used to generate Adam12-knockout (KO) ATDC5 cells...
April 16, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Paul Wordsworth, Marian Chan
Melorheostosis is an exceptionally rare sclerosing hyperostosis that typically affects the appendicular skeleton in a limited segmental fashion. It occasionally occurs on a background of another benign generalised sclerosing bone condition, known as osteopoikilosis caused by germline mutations in LEMD3, encoding the inner nuclear membrane protein MAN1, which modulates TGFβ/bone morphogenetic protein signalling. Recent studies of melorheostosis lesional tissue indicate that most cases arise from somatic MAP2K1 mutations although a small number may arise from other genes in related pathways, such as KRAS...
April 15, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Charlotte Beaudart, Yves Rolland, Alfonso J Cruz-Jentoft, Jürgen M Bauer, Cornel Sieber, Cyrus Cooper, Nasser Al-Daghri, Islene Araujo de Carvalho, Ivan Bautmans, Roberto Bernabei, Olivier Bruyère, Matteo Cesari, Antonio Cherubini, Bess Dawson-Hughes, John A Kanis, Jean-Marc Kaufman, Francesco Landi, Stefania Maggi, Eugene McCloskey, Jean Petermans, Leocadio Rodriguez Mañas, Jean-Yves Reginster, Regina Roller-Wirnsberger, Laura A Schaap, Daniel Uebelhart, René Rizzoli, Roger A Fielding
It is well recognized that poor muscle function and poor physical performance are strong predictors of clinically relevant adverse events in older people. Given the large number of approaches to measure muscle function and physical performance, clinicians often struggle to choose a tool that is appropriate and validated for the population of older people they deal with. In this paper, an overview of different methods available and applicable in clinical settings is proposed. This paper is based on literature reviews performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) working group on frailty and sarcopenia...
April 10, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Silvia Marino, Ryan T Bishop, Giovana Carrasco, John G Logan, Boya Li, Aymen I Idris
NFκB is implicated in cancer and bone remodelling, and we have recently reported that the verified NFκB inhibitor Parthenolide (PTN) reduced osteolysis and skeletal tumour growth in models of metastatic breast cancer. Here, we took advantage of in vitro and ex vivo bone cell and organ cultures to study the effects of PTN on the ability of prostate cancer cells and their derived factors to regulate bone cell activity and osteolysis. PTN inhibited the in vitro growth of a panel of human, mouse and rat prostate cancer cells in a concentration-dependent manner with a varying degree of potency...
March 30, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Jiajia Yang, Shanshan Xu, Mengya Chen, Yaping Yuan, Xu Zhang, Yubo Ma, Meng Wu, Renfang Han, Xingxing Hu, Rui Liu, Jixiang Deng, Shiyang Guan, Xing Gao, Meijuan Pan, Shengqian Xu, Zongwen Shuai, Shanqun Jiang, Shihe Guan, Liwen Chen, Faming Pan
Various studies have investigated the serum sclerostin and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), but the results were inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to synthetically assess the associations of serum levels of sclerostin and BMP-2 with AS. Multiple electronic databases were searched to locate relevant articles published before November 2018. Pooled standard mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by the random-effect model...
March 25, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
David Scott, Jonas Johansson, Lachlan B McMillan, Peter R Ebeling, Peter Nordstrom, Anna Nordstrom
The aim of this study was to compare bone structure parameters and likelihood of falls across European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP2) sarcopenia categories. 3334 Swedish 70-year olds had appendicular lean mass (normalized to height; ALMHt), lumbar spine and total hip areal BMD (aBMD) estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Volumetric BMD (vBMD) and structure at the distal and proximal tibia and radius were estimated by peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Hand grip strength and timed up-and-go were assessed, and sarcopenia was defined according to EWGSOP2 criteria...
March 21, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Elena Nebot, Patrick Heimel, Stefan Tangl, Martin Dockner, Janina Patsch, Gerhard W Weber, Michael Pretterklieber, Maria Teschler-Nicola, Peter Pietschmann
Although Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is the second most common metabolic bone disease, there is only limited information about the microarchitecture of affected bones. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine cortical and trabecular bone properties in clinically relevant locations by microcomputed tomography (µCT). Ten femora and ten tibiae affected by Paget's disease taken from the Natural History Museum Vienna were compared to 13 femora and 10 tibiae of non-affected body donors. Digitization of the cortical and trabecular bone microarchitecture was performed with an X-ray-based µCT scanner...
March 8, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Naoko Adachi, Ippei Kanazawa, Ken-Ichiro Tanaka, Ayumu Takeno, Masakazu Notsu, Sayuri Tanaka, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Previous studies suggested that advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) are involved in the mechanism of diabetes-induced sarcopenia. In this study, we examined effects of treatments with AGEs and/or IGF-I for 24 h on myogenic differentiation and apoptosis in mouse myoblastic C2C12 cells. Real-time PCR and Western blot were performed to investigate mRNA and protein expressions, and apoptosis was examined by using a DNA fragment detection ELISA kit. AGE3 significantly decreased mRNA and protein expressions of MyoD and Myogenin, whereas IGF-I significantly increased them and attenuated the effects of AGE3...
February 26, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
J A Kanis, C Cooper, R Rizzoli, J-Y Reginster
A guidance on the assessment and treatment of postmenopausal women at risk from fractures due to osteoporosis was recently published in Osteoporosis International as a joint effort of the International Osteoporosis Foundation and European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (Kanis et al. in Osteoporos Int , 2018). This manuscript updates the previous guidelines document, published in 2013 (Kanis et al. in Osteoporos Int 24:23-57, 2013) and is written in a European perspective...
February 22, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Beatriz Oliveri, Diana González, Felisa Quiroga, Claudio Silva, Paula Rozenfeld
Gaucher disease (GD) is the most prevalent lysosomal storage disease, and bone involvement is the most disabling condition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone involvement in adult patients with GD, using an observational cross-sectional study. Patients were evaluated using X-rays, bone densitometry (BMD), trabecular bone score (TBS), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and biochemical bone markers. Thirty-two type 1GD patients were included (mean age: 40 ± 16 years). Patients had received velaglucerase for 2...
February 21, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Randi M H Tei, Oleguer Plana-Ripoll, Ole Brink, Bente L Langdahl
Patients suffering a low-energy fracture are at high risk of subsequent fractures. Investigation of all fragility fracture patients above the age of 50 years is recommended in order to prevent further fractures. The aim of this study was to investigate alternative strategies including known risk factors (age, sex, and body weight) for selecting fracture patients for osteoporosis assessment and investigate how these strategies would affect the proportion of patients with osteoporosis identified and the number of patients referred for Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) compared with the original FLS strategy...
February 19, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Stuart H Ralston, J Paul Taylor
Several rare inherited disorders have been described that show phenotypic overlap with Paget's disease of bone (PDB) and in which PDB is a component of a multisystem disorder affecting muscle and the central nervous system. These conditions are the subject of this review article. Insertion mutations within exon 1 of the TNFRSF11A gene, encoding the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (RANK), cause severe PDB-like disorders including familial expansile osteolysis, early-onset familial PDB and expansile skeletal hyperphosphatasia...
February 13, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Ruizhi Jiajue, Yan Jiang, Xuan Qi, Qiuping Wang, Wenbo Wang, Yu Pei, Xiran Wang, Wei Huang, Xin Zheng, Zhiwei Ning, Ou Wang, Mei Li, Xiaoping Xing, Wei Yu, Ling Xu, Weibo Xia
This case-control study aimed to examine the effect of high serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level, especially the effect of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) related to hypovitaminosis D, on bone metabolism and bone phenotypes. We included a total of 830 Chinese postmenopausal women aged ≥ 50 years with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level < 30 ng/ml, among whom 415 women had prevalent vertebral fractures (VFs) and others were age-matched controls. We measured serum levels of 25(OH)D, PTH and bone turnover markers (BTMs), which included C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (β-CTX), N-aminoterminal prepeptide of type I procollagen (P1NP) and osteocalcin (OC)...
February 8, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
Raphaël De Ridder, Eveline Boudin, Geert Vandeweyer, Jean-Pierre Devogelaer, Erik Fransen, Geert Mortier, Wim Van Hul
Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a common, late-onset bone disorder characterized by focal increase of bone turnover. Mutations in the SQSTM1 gene are found in up to 40% of patients and recent GWAS have led to novel associations with several loci. RIN3, the candidate gene located at the associated 14q32 locus, has recently been studied in a British cohort to elucidate its contribution to the pathogenesis. In this study, we performed a genetic screening of RIN3 in an unrelated cohort to validate these findings and to further explore genetic variation in this gene in the context of PDB...
February 6, 2019: Calcified Tissue International
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