Aleksandra Mieczkowska, Guillaume Mabilleau
Enzymatic cross-linking of the bone collagen is important to resist to crack growth and to increased flexural strength. In the present study, we proposed a new method for assessment of enzymatic cross-link based on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy that takes into account secondary structure of type I collagen. Briefly, femurs were collected from sham or ovariectomized mice and subjected either to high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or embedded in polymethylmethacrylate, cut and analyzed by FTIR microspectroscopy...
June 6, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Jian Ma, Ye Zhang, Xiaoxiao Ding, Zhijiang Liang, Chaoxiang Yang, Zhi Deng, Hui He, Zhihong Guan, Chunhua Zeng, Yunting Lin, Xianqiong Luo
Rare genetic skeletal disorders (GSDs) remain the major problem in orthopedics and result in significant morbidity in patients, but the causes are highly diverse. Precise molecular diagnosis will benefit management and genetic counseling. This study aims to share the diagnostic experience on a three-generation Chinese family with co-occurrence of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia (SED) and X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH), and evaluate the therapeutic effects of two third-generation siblings. The proband, his younger brother, and mother presented with short stature, skeletal problems, and hypophosphatemia...
June 6, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
S J E Verdonk, S Storoni, L Zhytnik, W Zhong, G Pals, B J van Royen, M W Elting, A Maugeri, E M W Eekhoff, D Micha
Pathogenic variants in the LRP5, PLS3, or WNT1 genes can significantly affect bone mineral density, causing monogenic osteoporosis. Much remains to be discovered about the phenotype and medical care needs of these patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of medical care among Dutch individuals identified between 2014 and 2021 with a pathogenic or suspicious rare variant in LRP5, PLS3, or WNT1. In addition, the aim was to compare their medical care utilization to both the overall Dutch population and the Dutch Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) population...
June 6, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Perla C Reyes Fernandez, Christian S Wright, Mary C Farach-Carson, William R Thompson
In addition to their well-described functions in cell excitability, voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) serve a critical role in calcium (Ca2+ )-mediated secretion of pleiotropic paracrine and endocrine factors, including those produced in bone. Influx of Ca2+ through VSCCs activates intracellular signaling pathways to modulate a variety of cellular processes that include cell proliferation, differentiation, and bone adaptation in response to mechanical stimuli. Less well understood is the role of VSCCs in the control of bone and calcium homeostasis mediated through secreted factors...
June 1, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Morgan W Bolger, Tara Tekkey, David H Kohn
Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in bone and remodel their local perilacunar matrix in response to a variety of stimuli and diseases. How the perilacunar composition and mechanical properties are affected by type 1 diabetes (T1D), and the contribution of these local changes to the decline in whole-bone functional properties that occurs with diabetes remains unclear. 12-14 week old C57/BL6 male mice were administered a series of low-dose streptozotocin injections and sacrificed at baseline (BL), 3 (D3) and 7 weeks (D7) following confirmation of diabetes, along with age-matched controls (C3, C7)...
June 1, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Ching-Lien Fang, Bin Liu, Mei Wan
Senescence is a complex cell state characterized by stable cell cycle arrest and a unique secretory pattern known as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP factors, which are heterogeneous and tissue specific, normally include chemokines, cytokines, growth factors, adhesion molecules, and lipid components that can lead to multiple age-associated disorders by eliciting local and systemic consequences. The skeleton is a highly dynamic organ that changes constantly in shape and composition...
May 31, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Srividhya Iyer, Douglas J Adams
Differentiation and optimal function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts are contingent on synthesis and maintenance of a healthy proteome. Impaired and/or altered secretory capacity of these skeletal cells is a primary driver of most skeletal diseases. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) orchestrates the folding and maturation of membrane as well as secreted proteins at high rates within a calcium rich and oxidative organellar niche. Three ER membrane proteins monitor fidelity of protein processing in the ER and initiate an intricate signaling cascade known as the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) to remediate accumulation of misfolded proteins in its lumen, a condition referred to as ER stress...
May 27, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Sonali J Karnik, Murad K Nazzal, Melissa A Kacena, Angela Bruzzaniti
The bone marrow microenvironment contains a diverse array of cell types under extensive regulatory control and provides for a novel and complex mechanism for bone regulation. Megakaryocytes (MKs) are one such cell type that potentially acts as a master regulator of the bone marrow microenvironment due to its effects on hematopoiesis, osteoblastogenesis, and osteoclastogenesis. While several of these processes are induced/inhibited through MK secreted factors, others are primarily regulated by direct cell-cell contact...
May 27, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Jane Skinner, Lee Shepstone, Mary Hickson, Ailsa A Welch
Alcohol intake is a major modifiable risk factor for many diseases. Alcohol can also damage skeletal muscle health during ageing which in turn increases risk of sarcopenia, frailty and falls but this relationship is understudied. The aim of this study was to model the relationship between a full range of alcohol consumption and components of sarcopenic risk, skeletal muscle mass and function, in middle-aged and younger older-aged men and women. A cross-sectional analyses was undertaken of 196,561 white participants from the UK Biobank with longitudinal analysis also in 12,298 of these participants, with outcome measures for the latter repeated after around four years...
May 25, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Nipith Charoenngam, Phuuwadith Wattanachayakul, Aunchalee Jaroenlapnopparat, Patompong Ungprasert, Jirat Chenbhanich
To assess BMD in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) using systematic review and meta-analysis technique. Potentially eligible studies were identified from Medline and EMBASE databases from inception to February 2023 using search strategy that comprised terms for "Bone mineral density" and Neurofibromatosis type 1″. Eligible study must include adult or pediatric patients with NF1. The study must report mean Z-score with variance of total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck or total hip BMD of the studied patients...
May 23, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Anika Shimonty, Lynda F Bonewald, Joshua R Huot
Maintenance of skeletal health is tightly regulated by osteocytes, osteoblasts, and osteoclasts via coordinated secretion of bone-derived factors, termed osteokines. Disruption of this coordinated process due to aging and metabolic disease promotes loss of bone mass and increased risk of fracture. Indeed, growing evidence demonstrates that metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes, liver disease and cancer are accompanied by bone loss and altered osteokine levels. With the persistent prevalence of cancer and the growing epidemic of metabolic disorders, investigations into the role of inter-tissue communication during disease progression are on the rise...
May 17, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Lilian I Plotkin, Natasha Sanz, Lucas R Brun
Bone is a highly dynamic tissue, and the constant actions of bone-forming and bone-resorbing cells are responsible for attaining peak bone mass, maintaining bone mass in the adults, and the subsequent bone loss with aging and menopause, as well as skeletal complications of diseases and drug side-effects. It is now accepted that the generation and activity of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts is modulated by osteocytes, osteoblast-derived cells embedded in the bone matrix. The interaction among bone cells occurs through direct contact and via secreted molecules...
May 12, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Yukiko Kitase, Matthew Prideaux
As the most numerous and long-lived of all bone cells, osteocytes have essential functions in regulating skeletal health. Through the lacunar-canalicular system, secreted proteins from osteocytes can reach cells throughout the bone. Furthermore, the intimate connectivity between the lacunar-canalicular system and the bone vasculature allows for the transport of osteocyte-secreted factors into the circulation to reach the entire body. Local and endocrine osteocyte signaling regulates physiological processes such as bone remodeling, bone mechanoadaptation, and mineral homeostasis...
May 6, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Felix N Schmidt, Constantin Schmidt, Julian Delsmann, Michael Amling, Florian Barvencik
Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is an inborn disease that causes a rare form of osteomalacia, a mineralization disorder affecting mineralized tissues. Identification of patients at high risk for fractures or other skeletal manifestations (such as insufficiency fractures or excessive bone marrow edema) by bone densitometry and laboratory tests remains clinically challenging. Therefore, we examined two cohorts of patients with variants in the ALPL gene grouped by bone manifestations. These groups were compared by means of bone microarchitecture using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) and simulated mechanical performance utilizing finite element analysis (FEA)...
May 6, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Crystal Korff, Emily Atkinson, Michele Adaway, Angela Klunk, Ronald C Wek, Deepak Vashishth, Joseph M Wallace, Emily K Anderson-Baucum, Carmella Evans-Molina, Alexander G Robling, Joseph P Bidwell
The skeleton is a secretory organ, and the goal of some osteoporosis therapies is to maximize bone matrix output. Nmp4 encodes a novel transcription factor that regulates bone cell secretion as part of its functional repertoire. Loss of Nmp4 enhances bone response to osteoanabolic therapy, in part, by increasing the production and delivery of bone matrix. Nmp4 shares traits with scaling factors, which are transcription factors that influence the expression of hundreds of genes to govern proteome allocation for establishing secretory cell infrastructure and capacity...
May 6, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Ayako Tominaga, Keiji Wada, Ken Okazaki, Hideharu Nishi, Yasushi Terayama, Shuji Shimamoto, Yasuteru Kodama, Yoshiharu Kato
Romosozumab can increase bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with osteoporosis, but some patients do not respond to it. This study aimed to identify risk factors for being a nonresponder to romosozumab treatment. This retrospective observational study included 92 patients. Romosozumab (210 mg) was subcutaneously administered to the participants every 4 weeks over 12 months. We excluded patients who previously underwent treatment for osteoporosis to assess the impact of romosozumab alone. We evaluated the proportion of patients who did not respond to romosozumab treatment to the lumbar spine and hip with increased BMD...
May 3, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Kazuki Kawakami, Masaki Ohya, Mitsuru Yashiro, Tomohiro Sonou, Shuto Yamamoto, Yuri Nakashima, Takuro Yano, Yusuke Tanaka, Koichi Ishida, Seiichi Kobashi, Takashi Shigematsu, Shin-Ichi Araki
Patients with chronic kidney disease develop vascular calcification, owing to impaired calcium and phosphate metabolism. The prevention of vascular calcification is important to improve the prognosis of such patients. In this study, we investigated whether treatment with FYB-931, a novel bisphosphonate compound, prevents vascular calcification in rat aortic rings cultured in high-phosphate medium for 9 days, assessed by measurement of the calcium content and the degree of calcium deposition, visualized using von Kossa staining...
April 26, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Fang Lv, Xiaoling Cai, Chu Lin, Wenjia Yang, Suiyuan Hu, Linong Ji
Osteoporosis and hyperlipidemia are closely correlated and statins might be associated with a decreased risk of fracture. We aimed to investigate the association between proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors (PCSK9i) therapy and the risk of fracture. The PubMed, Cochrane library, and EMBASE databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to October 22, 2022. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that addressed to fracture events of participants using alirocumab, evolocumab, bococizumab or inclisiran, with a follow-up of ≥ 24 weeks were included...
April 26, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Rivka Ihejirika-Lomedico, Karan Patel, Daniel B Buchalter, David J Kirby, Devan Mehta, John F Dankert, Emma Muiños-López, Yael Ihejirika, Philipp Leucht
Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-psychoactive component of the Cannabis sativa plant, is marketed as a potential therapeutic agent and has been studied for its roles in reducing inflammation and managing neuropathic pain. Some studies have reported that CB1 and CB2 receptor activation can attenuate and reverse bone loss in experimental animal models. Despite this, little is known about the impact of CBD on fracture healing. We investigated the effects of CBD in vitro using human osteoprogenitor cells and in vivo via murine femur fracture and osteoporosis models...
April 24, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
Masatomo Ogata, Hirofumi Sumi, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Naoto Tominaga
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2023: Calcified Tissue International
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