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Molecular Immunology

Vincent Visconti, Magali Eychenne, Isabelle Darboux
Polydnaviruses (PDVs) are obligatory symbionts found in thousands of endoparasitoid species and essential for successful parasitism. The two genera of PDVs, ichnovirus (IV) and bracovirus (BV), use different sets of virulence factors to ensure successful parasitization of the host. Previous studies have shown that PDVs target apoptosis, one of the innate antiviral responses in many host organisms. However, IV and BV have been shown to have opposite effects on this process. BV induces apoptosis in host cells, whereas some IV proteins have been shown to have anti-apoptotic activity...
February 20, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Fei Luan, Maoxing Li, Keqing Han, Qiang Ma, Jian Wang, Yan Qiu, Linhong Yu, Xirui He, Daoheng Liu, Haizhen Lv
High altitude cerebral edema (HACE), whose development process is associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory response, is a life-threatening condition caused by rapid ascent speed to high altitudes. Phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGCs) are primary active constituents isolated from Phlomis younghusbandii Mukerjee that reportedly exhibit potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGCs) from P. younghusbandii in acute hypobaric hypoxia (AHH) - stimulated HACE rats and its underlying mechanisms...
February 20, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Zuli Wang, Shuang Liu, Yongguang Tao
RNA polymerase II (Pol II) binds to promoter-proximal regions of inducible target genes that are controlled and not transcribed by several negative elongation factors, which is known as Pol II stalling. The occurrence of stalling is due to particular modification signatures and structural conformations of chromatin that affect Pol II elongation. The existence and physiological importance of Pol II stalling implies that there is a dynamic balance in chromatin regulation prior to endogenous or exogenous stimulation...
February 19, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Zhichao Hao, Fang Fu, Liyan Cao, Longjun Guo, Jianbo Liu, Mei Xue, Li Feng
p53 is a tumor suppressor gene that can be activated in many contexts, such as DNA damage or stressful conditions. p53 has also been shown to be important for responses to certain viral infections. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a major enteric pathogen of the coronavirus family that causes extensive mortality among piglets. The involvement of p53 during PEDV infection has not previously been investigated. In this study, we detected p53 upregulation in response to PEDV infection. Treatment with a p53 specific activator or p53 overexpression markedly decreased viral replication, and we showed that there was more viral progeny produced in p53 knock-out cells than in p53 wild-type cells...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Mohammad Reza Asadi Karam, Mehri Habibi, Saeid Bouzari
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are recognized as one of the most common infectious diseases in the world that can be divided to different types. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains are the most prevalent causative agent of UTIs that applied different virulence factors such as fimbriae, capsule, iron scavenger receptors, flagella, toxins, and lipopolysaccharide for their pathogenicity in the urinary tract. Despite the high pathogenicity of UPEC strains, host utilizes different immune systems such as innate and adaptive immunity for eradication of them from the urinary tract...
February 18, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Xiaowen Bi, Miao Xu, Jinfei Li, Ting Huang, Baolin Jiang, Lei Shen, Lan Luo, Shixiang Liu, Zhimin Yin
Heat-shock protein 27 (Hsp27) is a member of the small heat shock protein family that has been reported to protect cells against pro-inflammatory stresses. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a proinflammatory cytokine associated with death from sepsis and other inflammatory diseases. After being acetylated by CREB-binding protein (CBP), the transcriptional adaptor and acetyltransferase, HMGB1 translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Hsp27 on HMGB1 translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in THP-1 cells...
February 16, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Jonathan Visentin, Damien Le Leu, Arend Mulder, Frédéric Jambon, Laure Badier, Jar-How Lee, Gwendaline Guidicelli, Charlène Bouthemy, Mamy Ralazamahaleo, Frans Claas, Carmelo Di Primo, Jean-Luc Taupin
BACKGROUND: Although the Luminex single antigen flow beads (SAFB) and the flow cytometry crossmatch (FCXM) are the most sensitive assays used for anti-HLA antibodies characterization in transplant recipients, their semi-quantitative fluorescence read-out is not closely linked to graft outcome. METHODS: Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was implemented to determine truly quantitative parameters of five human monoclonal anti-class I HLA antibodies (mAbs): first the active concentration and then the binding constants...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Cecilia Analia Panek, Andrea Cecilia Bruballa, Gonzalo Ezequiel Pineda, Carlos De Brasi, Romina Jimena Fernández-Brando, María Pilar Mejías, María Victoria Ramos, Marina Sandra Palermo
Membrane expression of fractalkine (CX3 CL1)-receptor (CX3 CR1) is relevant in monocytes (Mo) because CX3 CR1-CX3 CL1 interactions might participate on both, homeostatic and pathologic conditions. We have previously demonstrated that CX3 CR1 levels are decreased during culture and when Mo are differentiated into dendritic cells, but enhanced when differentiated into macrophages. Regarding soluble factors, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) accelerated the loss of CX3 CR1, while interleukin (IL)-10 and Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) prevented it...
February 15, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Jie Hou, Xinrui Wang, Manli Zhang, Min Wang, Pujun Gao, Yanfang Jiang
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) initiates a robust host immune response and subsequently results in chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. This study monitored the circulating monocyte subsets and measured the plasma levels of IL-10 and IL-12 in response to H. pylori infection in 35 H. pylori-associated gastritis patients and 14 healthy controls. We found that the numbers of CD14+ CD163- CD64+ M1-like monocytes as well as CD14+ CD163+ CD206+ , CD14+ CD163+ CD209+ , and CD14+ CD163+ IL-10+ M2-like monocytes were significantly increased in H...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Nathaniel Parsons, Balasubramaniam Annamalai, Elisabeth Obert, Gloriane Schnabolk, Stephen Tomlinson, Bärbel Rohrer
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of blindness in the US. Polymorphisms in complement components are associated with increased AMD risk, and it has been hypothesized that an overactive complement system is partially responsible for AMD pathology. Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) has two phases, injury/angiogenesis and repair/fibrosis. Complement activation has been shown to be involved in the angiogenesis phase of murine CNV, but has not been investigated during repair. Anaphylatoxin (C3a and C5a) signaling in particular has been shown to be involved in both tissue injury and repair in other models...
February 11, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Jian Deng, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Pei-Hui Wang
Immune sensing of exogenous molecules from microbes (e.g., pathogen-associated molecular patterns) and nonmicrobial molecules (e.g., asbestos, alum, and silica), as well as endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (e.g., ATP, uric acid crystals, and amyloid A) activates innate immunity by inducing immune-related genes, including proinflammatory cytokines, which further facilitate the development of adaptive immunity. The roles of transcriptional responses downstream of immune sensing have been widely characterized in informing adaptive immunity; however, few studies focus on the effect of post-translational responses on the modulation of adaptive immune responses...
February 7, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Pengfei Li, Andrew J Goodwin, James A Cook, Perry V Halushka, Xian K Zhang, Hongkuan Fan
Our previous data demonstrated that Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (Fli-1), an ETS transcription factor, governs pericyte loss and vascular dysfunction in cecal ligation and puncture-induced murine sepsis by regulating essential pyroptosis markers including caspase-1. However, whether Fli-1 regulates caspase-1 expression levels in vitro and how Fli-1 regulates caspase-1 remain unknown. Our present work further demonstrated that overexpressed Fli-1 significantly increased caspase-1 and IL-18 expression levels in cultured mouse lung pericytes...
February 7, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Jie Zhang, Di Qin, Yong-Jun Yang, Gui-Qiu Hu, Xiao-Xia Qin, Chong-Tao Du, Wei Chen
The maintenance of intestinal tissue homeostasis is vital for the resistance against inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Necroptosis is identified as an alternative mode of regulated cell death, which plays a pivotal role in tissue homeostasis. Thus, the roles of RIP3-mediated necroptosis in intestinal inflammation have been extensively studied. However, the biological implications of the mixed lineage kinase-like protein (MLKL), a molecule downstream of RIP3 in gut remain unclear. In this study, the role of MLKL in DSS-induced colitis was examined, and the contribution of gut microbiota was also determined...
February 6, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Jinxue Zhang, Ran Zhuang, Xuexin Zhang, Wei Hu, Kun Cheng, Dongxu Jiang, Shen Shen, Yun Zhang, Yong Ding, Yuan Zhang
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of CD226 on the differentiation, activation, and polyploidization of megakaryocytes (MKs) and explore the potential mechanism. Dami (megakaryocyte line) cell maturation was induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. CD226 was silenced by infection with a CD226-specific shRNA lentiviral vector. The mRNA level of CD226 was detected by qRT-PCR. The expressions of Dami cells surface CD226, MK specific markers CD41 and CD62P, and DNA ploidy in Dami cells and CD226 knockdown (KD) cells were evaluated by flow cytometry...
February 6, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Siddhartha Sharma, Louis Gioia, Brian Abe, Marie Holt, Anne Costanzo, Lisa Kain, Andrew Su, Luc Teyton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 4, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Ting Tang, Hehe Sun, Yongbao Li, Peiru Chen, Fengsong Liu
Rhodanese homology domains (RHODs) are the structural modules of ubiquitous tertiary that occur in three major evolutionary phyla. Despite the versatile and important physiological functions of RHODs containing proteins, little is known about their invertebrate counterparts. A novel HSP67B2-like single-domain rhodanese homologue, MdRDH1 from Musca domestica, whose expression can be induced by bacterial infection or oxidative stress. Silencing MdRDH1 through RNAi causes important accumulations of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and increases mortality in the larvae treated with bacterial invasion...
February 1, 2019: Molecular Immunology
N Thema, S I Tshilwane, A Pretorius, L Son, R M Smith, H C Steyn, J Liebenberg, M van Kleef
Several studies have shown that cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) require CD4 + Th1 epitopes to generate strong immune responses to intracellular pathogens. However, not much is known about Ehrlichia ruminantium epitopes, particularly those that can be considered potential candidates for inclusion in a multi-epitope vaccine. In order to identify CD4+ Th1 epitopes that induce IFNγ, a number of proteins previously identified as immunogenic were first screened to determine if they induce cellular immunity in tick infected immune sheep PBMC...
January 31, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Toshiki Yajima, Kouki Hoshino, Ryo Muranushi, Akira Mogi, Ryoichi Onozato, Ei Yamaki, Takayuki Kosaka, Shigebumi Tanaka, Ken Shirabe, Yasunobu Yoshikai, Hiroyuki Kuwano
Antigen (Ag)-specific activated CD8+ T cells are critical for tumor elimination but become exhausted, and thus, dysfunctional during immune response against the tumor due to chronic antigen stimulation. The signaling of immune checkpoint receptors is known to be a critical component in this exhaustion; however, the fate of these exhausted CD8+ T cells remains unclear. Therefore, to elucidate this, we followed the fate of Ag-specific CD8+ T cells by directly visualizing them using MHC class I tetramers coupled with ovoalubumin257-264 in C57BL/6 mice inoculated with EG...
January 30, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Alexander Vargas-Hernández, Lisa R Forbes
NK cells are important early effectors in the innate immune response to a variety of viral infections and for elimination of tumor cells. The JAK/STAT signaling cascade is critical for NK cell development, maturation, survival, and proliferation, therefore, it is important to understand the role of this pathway in NK cell biology. Many cytokines can activate multiple JAK/STAT protein family members, creating a severe phenotype when mutations impair their function or expression. Here we discuss the impact of defective JAK/STAT signaling pathways on NK cell development, activation and cytotoxicity...
January 28, 2019: Molecular Immunology
Tereza Grymová, Lucie Grodecká, Přemysl Souček, Tomáš Freiberger
Mutations in the C1 inhibitor (C1INH) encoding gene, SERPING1, are associated with hereditary angioedema (HAE) which manifests as recurrent submucosal and subcutaneous edema episodes. The major C1INH function is the complement system inhibition, preventing its spontaneous activation. The presented study is focused on SERPING1 exon 3, an alternative and extraordinarily long exon (499 bp). Endogenous expression analysis performed in the HepG2, human liver, and human peripheral blood cells revealed several exon 3 splicing variants alongside exon inclusion: a highly prevalent exon skipping variant and less frequent +38 and -15 variants with alternative 3' splice sites (ss) located 38 and 15 nucleotides downstream and upstream from the authentic 3' ss, respectively...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Immunology
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