Jian Ma, Xiaotong Wang, Yuewang Jia, Fangyan Tan, Xin Yuan, Jianlin Du
Damage to the heart can start the repair process and cause cardiac remodeling. B cells play an important role in this process. B cells are recruited to the injured place and activate cardiac remodeling through secreting antibodies and cytokines. Different types of B cells showed specific functions in the heart. Among all types of B cells, heart-associated B cells play a vital role in the heart by secreting TGFβ1. B cells participate in the activation of fibroblasts and promote cardiac fibrosis. Four subtypes of B cells in the heart revealed the relationship between the B cells' heterogeneity and cardiac remodeling...
May 18, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Yue Zhang, Jiachao Wang, Yaqi Fang, Wenzhang Liang, Lingyan Lei, Junhai Wang, Xue Gao, Cuiqing Ma, Miao Li, Huifang Guo, Lin Wei
OBJECTIVES: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease, of which the pathogens is remains obscure. Viral infection, particularly Epstein Barr viru (EBV) infection, has been considered a common pathogenic factor. This study suggests that c-Maf may be an important target in T cell differentiation during SLE progression, providing a potentially new perspective on the role of viral infection in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. METHODS: Cytokines of EBV-infected SLE patients were measured by ELISA and assessed in conjunction with their clinical data...
May 14, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Zhenjiang Sun, Peng Ke, Ying Shen, Kunpeng Ma, Benfang Wang, Dandan Lin, Yiqiang Wang
Macrophages are critical in mediating immune and inflammatory responses, while monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation is one of the main macrophage resources that involves various matrix proteins. Matrix remodeling associated 7 (MXRA7) was recently discovered to affect a variety of physiological and pathological processes related to matrix biology. In the present study, we investigated the role of MXRA7 in monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation in vitro. We found that knockdown of MXRA7 inhibited the proliferation of THP-1 human monocytic cells...
May 11, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Chaonan Zhu, Zhiquan Chen, Shuai Wang, Junmei Cao, Yuan Cheng, Maogen Zheng
Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is a highly heterogeneous disease that threaten human life with serious incidence and high mortality. High heterogeneity of tumor microenvironment (TME) was reported in multiple studies. However, the factor of controlling the tumor migration progression between eary and late-stage LUAD is still not fully understood. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of LUAD obtained from the GEO database. The identification of cell clusters revealed significant expansion of epithelial cells in late-stage patients...
May 1, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Ian MacFawn, Joshua Farris, Phillip Pifer, Naira V Margaryan, Halima Akhter, Lei Wang, Sebastian Dziadowicz, James Denvir, Gangqing Hu, Steven M Frisch
Type-I and -III interferons play a central role in immune rejection of pathogens and tumors, thus promoting immunogenicity and suppressing tumor recurrence. Double strand RNA is an important ligand that stimulates tumor immunity via interferon responses. Differentiation of embryonic stem cells to pluripotent epithelial cells activates the interferon response during development, raising the question of whether epithelial vs. mesenchymal gene signatures in cancer potentially regulate the interferon pathway as well...
April 30, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Yan Chen, Tingjun Tao, Zhaoxin Liang, Xiangnong Chen, Ya'nan Xu, Tangtang Zhang, Dunrong Zhou
OBJECTIVE: Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) plays a very important role in various diseases. However, the precise involvement of DHA in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), relation to the equilibrium between M1 and M2 cells, remains uncertain. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the role of DHA in SLE and its effect on the M1/M2 cells balance. METHODS: SLE mice model was established by pristane induction. Flow cytometry was employed to measure the abundance of M1 and M2 cells within the peripheral blood of individuals diagnosed with SLE...
April 25, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Bei Wu, Dianyu Li, Huisheng Bai, Rongqian Mo, Hongshan Li, Jingying Xie, Xiangbo Zhang, Yanmei Yang, Huixia Li, Adi Idris, Xiangrong Li, Ruofei Feng
Mammalian reovirus (MRV) is a non-enveloped, gene segmented double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) virus. It is an important zoonotic pathogen that infects many mammals and vertebrates that act as natural hosts and causes respiratory and digestive tract diseases. Studies have reported that RIG-I and MDA5 in the innate immune cytoplasmic RNA-sensing RIG-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway can recognize dsRNA from MRV and promote antiviral type I interferon (IFN) responses. However, the mechanism by which many MRV-encoded proteins evade the host innate immune response remains unclear...
April 24, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Wenbo Li, Pengxing Bai, Wei Li
BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell injury and dysfunction lead to cholesterol and lipid accumulation and atherosclerotic plaque formation in the arterial wall during atherosclerosis (AS) progression, Ubiquitin-like containing PHD and RING finger domain 1 (UHRF1), a DNA methylation regulator, was strongly upregulated in atherosclerotic plaque lesions in mice. This study aimed to investigate the precise biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of UHRF1 on endothelial dysfunction during AS development...
April 23, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Shiyun Zhang, Jiajia Shan, Yiyang Jie, Xian Zhang, Minyi Zhu, Jingwen Shen, Kefan Mao, Wenhao Chen, Yong Wang, Yanting Wen
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by trauma or infection, which can lead to multiple organ dysfunction. In severe cases, sepsis can also progress to septic shock and even death. Effective treatments for sepsis are still under development. This study aimed to determine if targeting the PI3K/Akt signaling with CAL-101, a PI3K p110δ inhibitor, could alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis and contribute to immune tolerance. Our findings indicated that CAL-101 treatment improved survival rates and alleviated the progression of LPS-induced sepsis...
April 22, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Alessia Ricci, Susi Zara, Fabrizio Carta, Valentina Di Valerio, Silvia Sancilio, Amelia Cataldi, Silvia Selleri, Claudiu T Supuran, Simone Carradori, Marialucia Gallorini
Macrophage polarization towards the M1 phenotype under bacterial product-related exposure (LPS) requires a rapid change in gene expression patterns and cytokine production along with a metabolic rewiring. Metabolic pathways and redox reactions are such tightly connected, giving rise to an area of research referred to as immunometabolism. A role in this context has been paid to the master redox-sensitive regulator Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and to the 5'-ectonucleotidase CD73, a marker related to macrophage metabolism rearrangement under pro-inflammatory conditions...
April 20, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Ziyu Zhao, Xingxing Zheng, Hui Wang, Jiao Guo, Ruixia Liu, Guang Yang, Miao Huo
The pathogenesis of neuropathic pain (NP) is complex, and there are various pathological processes. Previous studies have suggested that lncRNA PCAT19 is abnormally expressed in NP conduction and affects the occurrence and development of pain. The aim of this study is to analyze the role and mechanism of PCAT19 in NP induced by chronic compressive nerve injury (CCI) in mice. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were applied to establish the CCI model. sh-PCAT19 was intrathecally injected once a day for 5 consecutive days from the second day after surgery...
April 20, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Muhammad Nadeem Abbas, Isma Gul, Zahra Khosravi, Jemirade Ifejola Amarchi, Xiang Ye, Lang Yu, Wu Siyuan, Hongjuan Cui
Peroxiredoxins are antioxidant proteins that detoxify peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, and organic hydroperoxides, impacting various physiological processes such as immune responses, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis, and so on. In the present study, we identified and characterized peroxiredoxin 1 from Antheraea pernyi (thereafter designated as ApPrx-1) that encodes a predicted 195 amino acid residue protein with a 21.8 kDa molecular weight. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the mRNA level of ApPrx-1 was highest in the hemocyte, fat body, and midgut...
April 18, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Mingkang Zhang, Jinru Yang, Yufan Yuan, Yan Zhou, Yazhi Wang, Ruirui Cui, Yimai Maliu, Fen Xu, Xin'an Wu
Liver diseases caused by viral infections, alcoholism, drugs, or chemical poisons are a significant health problem: Liver diseases are a leading contributor to mortality, with approximately 2 million deaths per year worldwide. Liver fibrosis, as a common liver disease characterized by excessive collagen deposition, is associated with high morbidity and mortality, and there is no effective treatment. Numerous studies have shown that the accumulation of mast cells (MCs) in the liver is closely associated with liver injury caused by a variety of factors...
April 15, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Kristina Langnaese, Nikhil Tiwari, Klaus-Dieter Fischer, Ulrich Thomas, Mark Korthals
Neuroplastin, a paralog of CD147/Basigin, is known as a neuronal cell adhesion molecule and as an auxiliary subunit of plasma membrane calcium ATPases in both neurons and adaptive immune cells. Recently, an interesting study by Ren et al. (2022) provided evidence for an important role of neuroplastin in macrophages during bacterial infection. Here, we critically discuss one aspect of this study, the assignment of this role to Np65 as one of two prominent splice variants of neuroplastin.
April 13, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Dandan Li, Yanfen Ma, Yinsha Miao, Sasa Liu, Yu Bi, Yanhong Ji, Qifei Wu, Can Zhou, Yunfeng Ma
Peritoneal B cells can be divided into B1 cells (CD11b+ CD19+ ) and B2 cells (CD11b- CD19+ ) based on CD11b expression. B1 cells play a crucial role in the innate immune response by producing natural antibodies and cytokines. B2 cells share similar traits with B1 cells, influenced by the peritoneal environment. However, the response of both B1 and B2 cells to the same stimuli in the peritoneum remains uncertain. We isolated peritoneal B1 and B2 cells from mice and assessed differences in Interleukin-10(IL-10) secretion, apoptosis, and surface molecule expression following exposure to LPS and Interleukin-21(IL-21)...
April 13, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Gautham S Ramakrishnan, William L Berry, Angela Pacherille, William G Kerr, John D Chisholm, Chiara Pedicone, Mary Beth Humphrey
Microglia play a pivotal role in the pathology of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), with the Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) central to their neuroprotective functions. The R47H variant of TREM2 has emerged as a significant genetic risk factor for AD, leading to a loss-of-function phenotype in mouse AD models. This study elucidates the roles of TREM2 in human microglia-like HMC3 cells and the regulation of these functions by SH2-containing inositol-5'-phosphatase 1 (SHIP1). Using stable cell lines expressing wild-type TREM2, the R47H variant, and TREM2-deficient lines, we found that functional TREM2 is essential for the phagocytosis of Aβ, lysosomal capacity, and mitochondrial activity...
April 12, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Qiujie Gan, Heng Chi, Chengcheng Liang, Letao Zhang, Roy Ambli Dalmo, Xiuzhen Sheng, Xiaoqian Tang, Jing Xing, Wenbin Zhan
Neutrophils represent an important asset of innate immunity. Neutrophils express myeloperoxidase (MPO) which is a heme-containing peroxidase involved in microbial killing. In this study, by using real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, the flounder MPO (PoMPO) was observed to be highly expressed in the head kidney, followed by spleen, gill, and intestine during ontogeny - during developmental stages from larvae to adults. Furthermore, PoMPO positive cells were present in major immune organs of flounder at all developmental stages, and the number of neutrophils was generally higher as the fish grew to a juvenile stage...
April 10, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Lingjun Zhang, Kathryn Armour, Jin Y Chen, Agathi Mylona, Maojing Yang, Gregers R Andersen, Jaroslaw P Maciejewki, Preeti Bakrania, Feng Lin
The assembly of tissue-damaging membrane attack complexes (MACs; C5b-9) is a major mechanism by which excessive complement activation causes diseases. We previously developed a mouse anti-human C6 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 1C9 that selectively inhibits the assembly of MACs in human and non-human primates. In this project, we found that 1C9 also cross-reacted with rat and guinea pig C6, and determined its binding domains on C6 using different truncated C6 proteins. We then humanized the anti-C6 mAb by molecular modeling and complementarity-determining region grafting...
April 9, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Zhi Lin, Rong Bao, Yang Niu, Xiaomei Kong
Asthma is viewed as an airway disease and an inflammatory condition. This study aims to reveal the role of Kruppel-like factor 5 (KLF5)-mediated pyroptosis of airway epithelial cells in airway inflammation in asthma. The asthmatic mouse model was established. The mice were infected with the lentivirus containing sh-KLF5, antagomiR-182-5p, and pc-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Airway hyperresponsiveness was measured, and the cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were sorted and counted. The expression levels of interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13/IL-6/IL-18/IL-1β/NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3)/N-gasdermin D (GSDMD-N)/cleaved caspase-1 were detected...
April 8, 2024: Molecular Immunology
Lauren Evans, Patricia Barral
CD1 molecules are well known for their role in binding and presenting lipid antigens to mediate the activation of CD1-restricted T cells. However, much less appreciated is the fact that CD1 molecules can have additional "unconventional" roles which impact the activation and functions of CD1-expressing cells, ultimately controlling tissue homeostasis as well as the progression of inflammatory and infectious diseases. Some of these roles are mediated by so-called reverse signalling, by which crosslinking of CD1 molecules at the cell surface initiates intracellular signalling...
April 4, 2024: Molecular Immunology
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