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Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders

Michal Hrdlicka, Martin Kudr, Pavel Krsek, Michal Tichy, Martin Kyncl, Josef Zamecnik, Marketa Mohaplova, Iva Dudova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Angela John Thurman, Cesar Hoyos Alvarez
In the present study, language performance on standardized assessments (e.g., overall verbal performance, receptive and expressive vocabulary) and spontaneous language produced in play was compared between preschool-aged boys with autism spectrum disorder (n ASD, n = 25) and boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS, n = 16). At the group-level, we observed weaknesses in the language skills of boys with n ASD relative to those with FXS (e.g., when considering raw score performance, standard score performance relative to nonverbal cognitive skills, frequency of talk in play), after controlling for nonverbal IQ and ASD symptom severity...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Laura Graham Holmes, Donald S Strassberg, Michael B Himle
Families are critical for supporting healthy sexuality and relationship development for youth with autism. The objective of this study was to describe family sexuality communication for adolescent girls with autism. Participants were 141 parents of autistic daughters who completed an online survey about sexuality development. Most parents relied on discussion alone rather than visual supports or skills-based teaching techniques. Intellectual functioning, child age, race/ethnicity, and whether youth expressed sexual interest in others affected family sexuality communication...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Stuart K Shapira, Lin H Tian, Arthur S Aylsworth, Ellen R Elias, Julie E Hoover-Fong, Naomi J L Meeks, Margaret C Souders, Anne C-H Tsai, Elaine H Zackai, Aimee A Alexander, Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, Laura A Schieve
The presence of multiple dysmorphic features in some children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) might identify distinct ASD phenotypes and serve as potential markers for understanding causes and prognoses. To evaluate dysmorphology in ASD, children aged 3-6 years with ASD and non-ASD population controls (POP) from the Study to Explore Early Development were evaluated using a novel, systematic dysmorphology review approach. Separate analyses were conducted for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic children...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Farhad Montazeri, Annelies de Bildt, Vera Dekker, George M Anderson
Depression-, anxiety-, OCD- and autism-related behaviors were assessed in 118 high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and in 2016 controls. The ASD group had a higher rate of clinical depression and markedly higher "insomnia" and "restlessness" scores. Network analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis in the ASD group revealed that depression and anxiety items clustered together, but separately from autism-related items. Compared to controls, "insomnia" and "restlessness" items in the ASD network of depression items were much more central (higher closeness, and betweenness centrality)...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
David López Pérez, Daniel P Kennedy, Przemysław Tomalski, Sven Bölte, Brian D'Onofrio, Terje Falck-Ytter
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is commonly conceived as the extreme end of a continuum. Research suggests that autistic individuals outperform typically developing controls in visual search. Thus, enhanced visual search may represent an adaptive trait associated with ASD. Here, using a large general population sample (N = 608, aged 9-14 years), we tested if higher levels of autistic traits are associated with enhanced visual search. Visual search was evaluated using both manual responses and eye movements, and autistic traits were measured using the Social Responsiveness Scale...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Sarah Vaughan, Francis McGlone, Helen Poole, David J Moore
Sensory abnormalities in autism has been noted clinically, with pain insensitivity as a specified diagnostic criterion. However, there is limited research using psychophysically robust techniques. Thirteen adults with ASD and 13 matched controls completed an established quantitative sensory testing (QST) battery, supplemented with measures of pain tolerance and central modulation. The ASD group showed higher thresholds for light touch detection and mechanical pain. Notably, the ASD group had a greater range of extreme scores (the number of z-scores outside of the 95% CI > 2), dynamic mechanical allodynia and paradoxical heat sensation; phenomena not typically seen in neurotypical individuals...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Mashal Salman Aljehany, Kyle D Bennett
Students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID) may experience challenges when learning tasks that are complex and require numerous steps. This difficulty can lead to employment issues for this population of learners. Therefore, researchers have explored methods to teach employment-related tasks to students with ASD and ID. Two such procedures are video prompting (VP) and least-to-most prompting. These procedures are frequently combined as an intervention package to boost student responding...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Jessica Dreaver, Craig Thompson, Sonya Girdler, Margareta Adolfsson, Melissa H Black, Marita Falkmer
Employment outcomes for individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are poor and there is limited understanding on how best to support individuals with ASD in the workplace. Stakeholders involved in the employment of adults with ASD, including employers and employment service providers have unique insights into the factors influencing employment for this population. Organisational and individual factors facilitating successful employment for adults with ASD across Australia and Sweden were explored, including the supports and strategies underpinning employment success from an employers' perspective...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Vicki Bitsika, Wayne A Arnold, Christopher F Sharpley
To investigate possible correlates of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD) in young males with ASD, a test of the mediation effects of sensory features (SF) upon the association between ASD symptoms and GAD was conducted with 150 males aged 6 to 18 years. GAD data were obtained from parents of the boys and from the boys themselves; SF and ASD data were obtained from parents. Symptoms of ASD were found to influence elevated levels of parent-rated GAD indirectly through greater levels of sensory avoiding, and auditory-specific sensory behaviours correlated with parent-rated anxiety more strongly than other sensory modalities...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Morag Maskey, Jacqui Rodgers, Victoria Grahame, Magdalena Glod, Emma Honey, Julia Kinnear, Marie Labus, Jenny Milne, Dimitrios Minos, Helen McConachie, Jeremy R Parr
We examined the feasibility and acceptability of using an immersive virtual reality environment (VRE) alongside cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) for young people with autism experiencing specific phobia. Thirty-two participants were randomised to treatment or control. Treatment involved one session introducing CBT techniques and four VRE sessions, delivered by local clinical therapists. Change in target behaviour was independently rated. Two weeks after treatment, four treatment participants (25%) and no control participants were responders; at 6 months after treatment, six (38%) treatment and no control participants were responders...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Michael K Yeung, Tsz L Lee, Agnes S Chan
Accumulating studies have reported facial emotion recognition or facial perception impairments in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To clarify the specificity of the emotion recognition impairment, this study examined the relationships between facial emotion recognition and facial perception abilities in ASD. Twenty-two adolescents with high-functioning ASD (20 males) and 22 typically developing (TD) adolescents (16 males) aged 11-18 years undertook a facial emotion labeling task and a facial perception test...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Rae Morris, Andrea Greenblatt, Michael Saini
Gaps in research knowledge exist regarding patient-provider interactions with individuals with autism in healthcare settings. To address this, a scoping review was conducted focusing on the experiences of healthcare professionals working with individuals with autism. A systematic search and screen of the literature resulted in 27 relevant studies. Six key themes were found across these 27 studies including (1) complexity beyond usual role, (2) limited knowledge and resources, (3) training/prior experience, (4) communication and collaboration, (5) need for information and training, and (6) need for care coordination and systemic changes...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Jodi C Coon, John T Rapp
One reason for treating stereotypic behavior is that it may negatively impact how others perceive the individual displaying the behavior, thus impeding social interactions; however, few studies have directly evaluated this possibility. As a first step toward testing this position, participants (college students) in Study 1 watched 5-min video clips of a child engaging in hand/finger motor stereotypy at varying levels (0%, 17%, 37%, and 40% of the time) while sound was muted. Following each video, participants completed a questionnaire to evaluate their perception of the child...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Ty W Vernon, Anahita N Holden, Amy C Barrett, Jessica Bradshaw, Jordan A Ko, Elizabeth S McGarry, Erin J Horowitz, Daina M Tagavi, Tamsin C German
The symptoms of autism spectrum disorder are conceptualized to alter the quality of parent-children interactions, exposure to social learning exchanges, and ultimately the course of child development. There is evidence that modifying the procedures of Pivotal Response Treatment (PRT) to explicitly target social motivation enhances child engagement and parent-child synchrony in moment-by-moment exchanges. However, it is unclear if these within session improvements ultimately yield favorable developmental outcomes over time...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Susan E Levy, Leslie A Rescorla, Jesse L Chittams, Tanja J Kral, Eric J Moody, Juhi Pandey, Jennifer A Pinto-Martin, Alison T Pomykacz, AnnJosette Ramirez, Nuri Reyes, Cordelia Robinson Rosenberg, Laura Schieve, Aleda Thompson, Lisa Young, Jing Zhang, Lisa Wiggins
We analyzed CBCL/1½-5 Pervasive Developmental Problems (DSM-PDP) scores in 3- to 5-year-olds from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site case control study, with the objective to discriminate children with ASD (N = 656) from children with Developmental Delay (DD) (N = 646), children with Developmental Delay (DD) plus ASD features (DD-AF) (N = 284), and population controls (POP) (N = 827). ASD diagnosis was confirmed with the ADOS and ADI-R. With a cut-point of T ≥ 65, sensitivity was 80% for ASD, with specificity varying across groups: POP (0...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Vanessa D Hohn, Danielle M J de Veld, Kawita J S Mataw, Eus J W van Someren, Sander Begeer
Insomnia is a common source of distress in adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Two characteristics of ASD could be relevant to insomnia complaints by hampering the entrainment of a circadian sleep-wake rhythm. First, sensory hyper-reactivity could lead to bright light avoidance and thus affect photoperiodic input to the circadian system. Second, impaired social skills complicate the establishment of a social interactions and thus affect scheduled social-behavioral input to the circadian system. We investigated the association of insomnia severity with sensory reactivity and social skills in 631 adults (18-65 years) with ASD...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Alexandra M Slaughter, Sascha Hein, Judy H Hong, Sarah S Mire, Elena L Grigorenko
The objective was to delineate the prevalence of criminal behavior and school discipline in juvenile justice-involved youth (JJY) with autism. A sample of 143 JJY with autism was matched to comparison groups of JJY without a special education classification, JJY with learning disabilities, and JJY with other special educational needs (N = 572). Results showed that JJY with autism committed significantly fewer property crimes. With regard to school discipline, JJY with autism were least likely to receive policy violations, out-of-school suspensions, and in-school suspensions...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Antonio Gennaro Nicotera, Randi Jenssen Hagerman, Maria Vincenza Catania, Serafino Buono, Santo Di Nuovo, Elisa Maria Liprino, Emanuela Stracuzzi, Stefania Giusto, Giuseppina Di Vita, Sebastiano Antonino Musumeci
To date, the phenotypic significance of EEG abnormalities in patients with ASD is unclear. In a population affected by ASD we aimed to evaluate: the phenotypic characteristics; the prevalence of EEG abnormalities; the potential correlations between EEG abnormalities and behavioral and cognitive variables. Sixty-nine patients with ASD underwent cognitive or developmental testing, language assessment, and adaptive behavior skills evaluation as well as sleep/wake EEG recording. EEG abnormalities were found in 39...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
R Christopher Sheldrick, Elizabeth Frenette, Juan Diego Vera, Thomas I Mackie, Frances Martinez-Pedraza, Noah Hoch, Abbey Eisenhower, Angel Fettig, Alice S Carter
U.S. guidelines for detecting autism emphasize screening and also incorporate clinical judgment. However, most research focuses on the former. Among 1,654 children participating in a multi-stage screening protocol for autism, we used mixed methods to evaluate: (1) the effectiveness of a clinical decision rule that encouraged further assessment based not only on positive screening results, but also on parent or provider concern, and (2) the influence of shared decision-making on screening administration. Referrals based on concern alone were cost-effective in the current study, and reported concerns were stronger predictors than positive screens of time-to-complete referrals...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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