I Setayeshfar, M Najafi, S Asadi
The present study deals with the development of a solvent-assisted dispersive solid phase extraction method for the extraction of HMX, RDX, and TNT from aqueous samples. Benzophenone and methanol were selected as explosives sorbent and dispersive solvent respectively. Extraction parameters like pH, extraction time, amount of sorbent, volume and type of the disperser solvent and centrifuge time were optimized. Dispersion of 0.5 mL dispersive solution (4% (w/v) benzophenone in methanol) was performed by injection into the 5 mL aqueous sample (pH=7) using a 1...
April 16, 2024: Forensic Science International
Olympe Mazières, Marin Blanchard-Muller, Célia Vidal, Catherine Cyteval, Eric Baccino, Laurent Martrille
Cameriere developed a method on orthopantomograms (OPG) to assess adult age of 18 years based on the relationship between age and the third molar maturity index I3M. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Cameriere's method could be applied to computed-tomography scans (CT-scans) from a population of French juveniles and young adults and compare the results obtained from OPG of the same individuals. Our sample comprised 200 examinations that had been performed at the radiological department of a French University hospital between 2007 and 2020...
April 12, 2024: Forensic Science International
Mirjam de Bruin-Hoegée, Marcel J van der Schans, Jan P Langenberg, Arian C van Asten
Since its first employment in World War I, chlorine gas has often been used as chemical warfare agent. Unfortunately, after suspected release, it is difficult to prove the use of chlorine as a chemical weapon and unambiguous verification is still challenging. Furthermore, similar evidence can be found for exposure to chlorine gas and other, less harmful chlorinating agents. Therefore, the current study aims to use untargeted high resolution mass spectrometric analysis of chlorinated biomarkers together with machine learning techniques to be able to differentiate between exposure of plants to various chlorinating agents...
April 9, 2024: Forensic Science International
Pavel Giverts, Ksenia Sorokina, Mark Barash, Vladimir Fedorenko
Cartridge cases are commonly collected at crime scenes involving firearms. One of the stages in forensic examination is the determination of the type and model of firearms based on the class characteristics of these cartridge cases. A firearm examiner evaluates the class characteristics on the basis of their knowledge and experience, and by referring to collections of cartridge cases representing class characteristics of different firearms, special databases and reference books. However, this process is highly subjective...
April 8, 2024: Forensic Science International
Lumikki Clover Ree, Mackenzie de la Hunty, Sébastien Moret, Scott Chadwick
Iron oxide powder suspension (FePS) is a fingermark development technique that can be used on adhesive and non-porous surfaces, the efficacy of which is known to be influenced by the surfactant used in the formulation. Despite previous work optimising surfactants for use in FePS, there is limited understanding of the interactions between surfactants, powders and fingermark residue which aid the successful development of fingermarks. To better understand the effect of surfactant on development quality produced by FePS, this research assessed a wide range of surfactants of different ionic natures and evaluated their ability to develop fingermarks based on the quality of ridge detail, contrast and background development produced...
April 4, 2024: Forensic Science International
Joel Able, Rachel Armitage, Paul Deacon, Kevin J Farrugia
A number of solvents, (Solstice PF, Opteon SF33 and Amolea AS-300), are compared to the recommended carrier solvent of HFE7100 for the ninhydrin and 1,2-indandione formulations. As the supply of HFE7100 will cease by the end of 2025, suitable alternatives are required in the short-term to ensure the detection of latent fingermarks on porous surfaces is still effective. Although these solvents, with the exception of Amolea AS-300, are classified as per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); they are not classed as hazardous...
April 2, 2024: Forensic Science International
Nicole Richetelli, Jan LeMay, Kensley M Dunagan, Connie L Parks, R Austin Hicklin, William J Chapman
Tire impression evidence can be a valuable tool during a crime scene investigation-it can link vehicles to scenes or secondary locations, and reveal information about the series of events surrounding a crime. The interpretation of tire impression evidence relies on the expertise of forensic tire examiners. To date, there have not been any studies published that empirically evaluate the accuracy and reproducibility of decisions made by tire impression examiners. This paper presents the results of a study in which 17 tire impression examiners and trainees conducted 238 comparisons on 77 distinct questioned impression-known tire comparison sets (QKsets)...
March 28, 2024: Forensic Science International
Veronika Rybárová, František Novomeský, Ľubomír Straka
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2024: Forensic Science International
Hiroaki Nakanishi, Aya Takada, Katsumi Yoneyama, Masaaki Hara, Kentaro Sakai, Kazuyuki Saito
We used a nanopore sequencer to quantify DNA fragments > 10,000 bp in size and then evaluated their relationship with short-term bloodstain age. Moreover, DNA degradation was investigated after bloodstains were wetted once with water. Bloodstain samples on cotton gauze were stored at room temperature and low humidity for up to 6 months. Bloodstains stored for 1 day were wetted with nuclease-free water, allowed to dry, and stored at room temperature and low humidity for up to 1 week. The proportion of fragments > 20,000 bp in dry bloodstains tended to decrease over time, particularly for fragments > 50,000 bp in size...
March 27, 2024: Forensic Science International
Kristine Dokane
While plant species identification in forensics can be useful in cases involving poisonous, psychoactive, or endangered plant species, it can also become quite challenging, especially, when dealing with processed, decaying, colonized or infected material of plant origin. The Animal Plant and Soil Traces expert working group of the European Network of Forensic Science Institutes in their best practice manual has recommended several markers for plant species identification. Current study is a part of implementation of method in a forensic laboratory and its aim is to evaluate four of the recommended markers (ITS, matK, rbcL, and trnH-psbA) for species identification of forensically important plant species including medicinal, poisonous, psychoactive, and other plants...
March 24, 2024: Forensic Science International
Holly K Allan, Ashley E Fricker, You-Lo Hsieh
This fiber population study has assessed the prevalence of the color and type of trace fibers present on upholstered seats in a specific setting to identify the most common and rare colors and to determine their evidentiary value. Nearly 22,000 fibers were collected via tape lifts from 25 fabric covered chair seats in a lobby area on Beale Air Force Base and examined microscopically to determine their apparent colors. Overall, blue and white/colorless were the most and nearly equally common colors (32.0 % and 31...
March 21, 2024: Forensic Science International
Till Sieberth, Michael Meindl, Bernhard Sagmeister, Sabine Franckenberg, Wolfgang Ptacek
3D documentation in forensics and forensic medicine is being introduced more frequently in various institutes around the world. However, several institutes lack capacity in finances as well as staff to perform 3D documentations regularly. This technical paper aims to present a 3D documentation device that is low cost and easy to use and is a viable entry level solution for forensic medical departments. For this the small single-board computer Raspberry Pi 4 was used in conjunction with its high quality (HQ) camera module to create the 3DLamp - a flexible, low cost and easy to use documentation device...
March 21, 2024: Forensic Science International
Ilaria Tarozzi, Lorenzo Franceschetti, Gianfranco Simonini, Silvia Raddi, Davide Machado, Valentina Bugelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2024: Forensic Science International
Jian Zhang, Meng Yan, Anquan Ji, Qifan Sun, Wantao Ying
The identification of biological stains and their tissue resource is an important part of forensic research. Current methods suffer from several limitations including poor sensitivity and specificity, trace samples, and sample destruction. In this study, we profiled the proteomes of menstrual blood, peripheral blood, saliva, semen, and vaginal fluid with mass spectrometry technology. Tissue-enhanced and tissue-specific proteins of each group have been proposed as potential biomarkers. These candidate proteins were further annotated and screened through the combination with the Human Protein Atlas database...
March 21, 2024: Forensic Science International
Victoria Berezowski, Xanthé Mallett, Kleanthis Simyrdanis, Jarrad Kowlessar, Marian Bailey, Ian Moffat
Jane, Arnna, and Grant Beaumont went missing from Glenelg Beach in Adelaide, South Australia on 26 January (Australia Day) 1966. Despite multiple land and sea searches over nearly 60 years, the children have not been found. New credible eyewitness testimony led to a site of interest at the now disused New Castalloy factory in North Plympton, Adelaide. This site has a complex stratigraphy of anthropogenic fill, which made ground penetrating radar (GPR) investigations unpromising. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), while not commonly used in a forensic capacity, provided an alternative approach that allowed suitable depth penetration to resolve a feature of interest, which was subsequently excavated by the South Australia Police...
March 20, 2024: Forensic Science International
Brendan Chapman, Courtney Cameron, David Keatley, John Coumbaros, Garth Maker
Deceased human remains are often buried as a forensic countermeasure or method of disposal by homicide perpetrators. Owing to this, the excavation of clandestine grave sites is a task that forensic crime scene teams may only encounter a few times a year. Not all crime scene units have specialised teams for this task, and even those that do, may not have specific protocols for the optimal recovery of forensic traces retained within grave fill as procedures such as sieving require optimisation for the specific soil conditions of the jurisdiction...
March 19, 2024: Forensic Science International
Andrew T Olagunju, Aaron Wu, Jay Boudreau, Satyadev Nagari, John Mw Bradford, Gary A Chaimowitz
Substance misuse is a major problem among individuals involved in forensic-correctional mental health services. Urine drug screening detects substance use and deters the entry of contraband into forensic-correctional units, albeit with limitations. For example, a point-of-care urine sample may not be possible and patients can alter or substitute samples to avoid detection, highlighting the role of ancillary tools to detect contraband substances. This study describes the pattern and types of substances detected from environmental samples using a gas chromatographic analyzer (TeknoScan TSI3000) in forensic-correctional populations to model the benefits of similar tools in similar settings...
March 19, 2024: Forensic Science International
Noriaki Shima, Atsushi Nitta, Keiko Sasaki, Munehiro Katagi, Takako Sato, Hiroshi Nishioka
In order to investigate the influences of hair dyeing on the distribution shapes of drugs in hair, different hair dyeing processes ("semi-permanent coloring without bleaching" and "permanent coloring with bleaching") were performed in vitro on black hair specimens collected from two subjects (Asians) who took a single dose of zolpidem (ZP, 10 mg of ZP tartrate) or methoxyphenamine (MOP, 50 mg of MOP hydrochloride). Under the following three different dyeing conditions, (1) semi-permanent coloring, (2) permanent coloring (once), (3) permanent coloring (twice), drug distributions in single hair specimens were investigated using a 2-mm segmental analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
March 19, 2024: Forensic Science International
Asena Avci Akca, Lewis Couchman, Anca Frinculescu, Atholl Johnston
Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in the form of impregnated papers delivered to prisoners are of particular concern in prison settings, where they are commonly used by vaping. The purpose of this study was to create a qualitative method for identifying the various emerging NPS impregnated onto paper samples sent to prisoners. It helps to demonstrate that these findings can be used to predict drug prevalence and trends in prisons. Between 2018 and 2020, 1250 non-judicial paper samples seized from 12 English prisons were analysed to determine the NPSs being circulated...
March 19, 2024: Forensic Science International
Rui Zhang, Quan Zhou, Ting Yang, Zhizhu He
Pediatric vehicular hyperthermia (PVH) has aroused wide public concern recently. High temperatures in closed vehicles with full sun exposure and no ventilation in summer seriously endanger children's lives. Aiming at this practical problem, this study first took the temperature of child's core body as a standard, and divided the hyperthermia into three stages: un-compensable heating (Tc > 37ºC), heat stroke (Tc > 40ºC) and critical thermal maximum (Tc > 42ºC). On this basis, two weeks of outdoor parking experiments during 10:00-18:00, using an equivalent size dummy were conducted to explore the influence of ambient temperature and solar irradiation on cabin temperature, humidity, and child's core body temperature...
March 18, 2024: Forensic Science International
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