David Gurney, Margaret Press, CeCe Moore, Carol I Rolnick, Andrew Hochreiter, Bonnie L Bossert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2023: Forensic Science International
Ilaria Tarozzi, Lorenzo Franceschetti, Gianfranco Simonini, Silvia Raddi, Davide Machado, Valentina Bugelli
Diving is a popular activity, largely practiced worldwide. Diving fatalities are not rare events, with drowning being the most common cause of death, followed by cardiac-related natural causes, immersion pulmonary edema and arterial gas embolism. In such cases, positive signs of drowning are not specific, depending also on the time of submersion of corpses. Moreover, drowning can be the terminal event. Over the years, measures to perform appropriate post-mortem examination in cases of diving fatalities were suggested, including the execution of post-mortem CT-scan, the use of a decompression chamber and the adoption of specific autoptic techniques...
March 15, 2023: Forensic Science International
Marek Bogusz, Iwona Bogusz, Joanna Żelazna-Wieczorek
Diatoms (Bacillariophyta) are unicellular photosynthetic organisms commonly occurring in aquatic habitats on Earth. Their autecology makes them almost perfect indicators of environmental conditions and so have high potential for use in forensics. Both eurytopic and stenotopic species are important in site identification: eurytopic forms due to their abundance, and stenotopic forms due to their narrow range of tolerance to environmental conditions. Their presence can hence provide a clear insight into an ecosystem and its microhabitats...
March 13, 2023: Forensic Science International
Qiong Lan, Meiming Cai, Fanzhang Lei, Chunmei Shen, Bofeng Zhu
The insertion/deletion (InDel) polymorphism has promising applications in forensic DNA analysis. However, the insufficient forensic efficiencies of the present InDel-based systems restrict their applications in parentage testing, due to the lower genetic polymorphism of the biallelic InDel locus and the limited number of InDel loci in a multiplex amplification system. Here, we introduced an in-house developed system which contained 41 polymorphic Multi-InDel markers (equivalent to 82 InDels in total), to serve as an efficient and reliable tool for different forensic applications in the Manchu and Mongolian groups...
March 13, 2023: Forensic Science International
Amnuay Kleebayoon, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 12, 2023: Forensic Science International
Luise Thümmel, Lena Lutz, Janine Geissenberger, Stefan Pittner, Jonathan Heimer, Jens Amendt
The pattern of insect succession and the species composition on cadavers can be influenced by several parameters, one of which is concealment. It has been previously shown for cadavers inside containers (e.g. suitcases or vehicles) or various indoor situations, that concealment can lead to a delayed arrival, altered species composition and decreased number of taxa present at the cadaver. As no data is yet available for the specific environment of tents on these processes, we placed five pig cadavers inside closed two-person tents during the summer of 2021 in a mixed forest in Germany...
March 11, 2023: Forensic Science International
Tanya Ram, Sigal Starinsky-Elbaz, Orna Avlas, Yossi Issan
The Israel DNA database has recently started to conduct familial searches (FS). We adopted the CODIS pedigree strategy for FS, which is used in the Unidentified Human Remains (UHR) database and implemented it into the criminal forensic database. This strategy is based on Kinship analysis performed in pedigrees containing DNA profiles from the crime scene designated "unknown," that are then searched against the entire suspects database. A list of candidates is produced and ranked by Joint Pedigree Likelihood Ratio (JPLR)...
March 7, 2023: Forensic Science International
Ilenia Bianchi, Francesco Pradella, Giulia Vitale, Stefano De Luca, Fiorella Pia Castello, Martina Focardi, Vilma Pinchi
Few information on virus contagion at the beginning of the covid-19 pandemic led to severe restrictions in the dental and forensic activity in Italy, the introduction of procedural guidelines and implementation of preventive measures. A specific survey on Italian forensic odontologists (FOds) activity was conducted to investigate the COVD-19 pandemic impact on daily practices, the preventive measures adopted to manage the risks of contagion procedures performed on living and dead people and the possible peculiar cases that required the intervention of a medical examiner...
March 7, 2023: Forensic Science International
Duoqi Xu, Jiaojiao Ji, Ping Xiang, Hui Yan, Wenfang Zhang, Min Shen
In recent years, an increasing number of new synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have appeared in the drug trade market. A UPLC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously identify five synthetic cannabinoids in 1 cm segment hair samples. The method was fully validated and confirmed to have good selectivity, accuracy, and precision, as well as satisfactory linearity within the calibrated range. The limit of quantification (LOD) was 0.5 pg/mg, and the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 1 pg/mg, with intraday and interday accuracies (bias) ranging from - 9...
February 28, 2023: Forensic Science International
YuanTing Low, Eadaoin Tyrrell, Eoin Gillespie, Cormac Quigley
This review describes recent advances and current trends in fire debris analysis from 2014 to 2021. Onsite analytical techniques used for fire scene investigation, identifying samples of interest for later analysis as well as onsite confirmatory techniques are examined. Laboratory techniques are reviewed both from a perspective of instrumentation and data analysis. Advances in analytical techniques include GC x GC-TOFMS, DART-MS, HS-GC-IMS. New and emerging methods of data analysis including those using machine learning are assessed...
February 28, 2023: Forensic Science International
S Blau, J Roberts, E Cunha, T Delabarde, A Z Mundorff, H H de Boer
Disaster victim identification (DVI) refers to the identification of multiple deceased persons following an event that has a catastrophic effect on human lives and living conditions. Identification methods in DVI are typically described as either being primary, which include nuclear genetic markers (DNA), dental radiograph comparisons, and fingerprint comparisons, or secondary, which are all other identifiers and are ordinarily considered insufficient as a sole means of identification. The aim of this paper is to review the concept and definition of so-called 'secondary identifiers" and draw on personal experiences to provide practical recommendations for improved consideration and use...
February 28, 2023: Forensic Science International
D A Finaughty, J Pead, M J Spies, V E Gibbon
Determining the post-mortem interval (PMI) is often a critical goal in forensic casework. Consequently, the discipline of forensic taphonomy has involved considerable research efforts towards achieving this goal, with substantial strides made in the past 40 years. Importantly, quantification of decompositional data (and the models derived from them) and standardisation in experimental protocols are being increasingly recognised as key components of this drive. However, despite the discipline's best efforts, significant challenges remain...
February 27, 2023: Forensic Science International
Lauren Atwood, Russell Lain, Jessica Kotzander, Penny McCardle, Brett Mason, Jennifer Raymond, Alison Sears
What happens if a human body is fed to pigs? Although a popular notion in the entertainment industry, no scientific published literature exists that documents this porcine feeding behaviour, nor, more importantly, what elements of the cadaver may survive such a process. A study conducted in 2020, born out of a casework enquiry, aimed to investigate the following two questions; Would pigs feed on a human body? And, if so, what could be recovered post feeding event? Kangaroo carcasses, porcine carcasses (as human analogues) and 90 human teeth were prepared, and fed, to two domestic pigs, in a variety of feed scenarios...
February 27, 2023: Forensic Science International
Shi Qiu, Yimin Kang, Yue Wang, Jinlei Liu, Hongkun Yang, Jie Gu, Huiru Bai, Koutaro Hasegawa, Amin Wurita
A method for identification and quantification of 2-methoxyqualone, an newly emerging quinazolinone derivative recreational drug, in human scalp hair was established using gas chromatography (GC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). In this report, authentic cases are presented, in which the suspects were seized by police security bureau; the police in China requested our laboratory to identify and quantify the involved drug(s) of abuse in the hair samples of the suspects. After washing and cryo-grinding the authentic hair samples, the target compound was extracted with methanol, and the solvent layer was evaporated to dryness...
February 27, 2023: Forensic Science International
Jennifer L Schumann, Reena Sarkar, Marko Grbic, Olaf H Drummer, Dimitri Gerostamoulos, Linda Iles, Richard Bassed
One-punch assaults also known as 'coward punches', are characterised by a single severe blow to the head causing the victim to lose consciousness, resulting in a secondary impact between the head and surrounding environment. Such impacts may result in brain injury leading to fatality or permanent neurological impairment. In a previous publication, there were 90 one punch deaths around Australia between 2000 and 2012, mostly involving young men drinking alcohol at a licensed venue at the weekend. This prompted a surge of public education and awareness campaigns around Australia, in addition to regulatory and legislative changes aimed at curbing social violence...
February 27, 2023: Forensic Science International
Celina Seiko Takenaka, Cintia Navarro Alves de Souza, Claudia Momo
Veterinary forensics is becoming increasingly important in the acquisition of evidence in cases of animal cruelty, unlawful killing, violation of wildlife law and medical malpractice. However, although forensic veterinary necropsy is one of the main techniques for gathering information about actions that have resulted in the unlawful killing of an animal, forensic necropsy of exhumed remains is rarely performed. We hypothesized that necropsy of exhumed animals can provide valuable information for the elucidation of cause of death...
February 27, 2023: Forensic Science International
Aleksa Leković, Slobodan Nikolić, Danica Djukić, Vladimir Živković
INTRODUCTION: The Burn Index (BI) is a significant clinical prognostic parameter for patients with burns. It simultaneously considers major mortality risk factors: age and burns extensivity. Despite the inability to distinguish between ante- and post-mortem burns, their characteristics on autopsy might indicate if a significant thermal injury occurred before the onset of death. We investigated whether autopsy BI, burn extensivity, and severity could tell whether burns were the concurrent cause of fire-related death (FRD), even if the body remained in a fire...
February 27, 2023: Forensic Science International
Luyao Xu, Xiaohui Tan, Xuebing Chen, Sihao Du, Xia Yue, Dongfang Qiao
BACKGROUND: Death from nontraumatic pulmonary fat embolism associated with minor soft tissue contusion, surgery, cancer chemotherapy, hematologic disorders and so on has been reported. Patients often present with atypical manifestations and rapid deterioration, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. However, there are no reported cases of death from pulmonary fat embolism after acupuncture therapy. This case emphasizes that the stress induced by acupuncture therapy, a mild soft tissue injury, plays an important role in pulmonary fat embolism...
February 27, 2023: Forensic Science International
Carl Johan Wingren
INTRODUCTION: During the judicial process of addressing violent crime, a forensic practitioner may need to assess whether an inflicted injury should be considered life-threatening. This could be important for the classification of the crime. To some extent, these assessments are arbitrary since the natural course of an injury might not be completely known. To guide the assessment, a quantitative and transparent method based on rates of mortality and acute interventions is suggested, using spleen injuries as an example...
February 26, 2023: Forensic Science International
Mia Jane Abbott, Jodie Dunnett, John Wheeler, Alison Davidson
Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are extremely prevalent within the prison system and cause problems for prisoners, law enforcement and health services. SC are often soaked into paper then posted into prisons therefore one of the aims of this research is to collaborate with Rapiscan Systems Ltd. and local prisons in England to measure the effectiveness of trace detection methods for the indication of SC in prison post using the Itemiser 3E®. To ensure compounds did not go undetected, samples with Ion Trap Mobility Spectrometry™ peaks indicative of synthetic cannabinoids on the Itemiser 3E® were analysed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to identify chemical characteristics which allowed comparison to reference spectra...
February 24, 2023: Forensic Science International
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