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Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice

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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30967254/diversity-of-the-lyme-disease-spirochetes-and-its-influence-on-immune-responses-to-infection-and-vaccination
#1
REVIEW
Jerilyn R Izac, Richard T Marconi
The Lyme disease spirochetes are a highly diverse group of bacteria with unique biological properties. Their ability to cycle between ticks and mammals requires that they adapt to variable and constantly changing environmental conditions. Outer surface protein C is an essential virulence determinant that has received considerable attention in vaccine and diagnostic assay development. Knowledge of OspC diversity, its antigenic determinants, and its production patterns throughout the enzootic cycle, as well as in the laboratory setting, is essential for understanding immune responses induced by infection or vaccination...
April 6, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30967253/feline-panleukopenia-a-re-emergent-disease
#2
REVIEW
Vanessa R Barrs
Feline panleukopenia (FPL) is caused by a Carnivore protoparvovirus infection. Feline parvovirus (FPV) causes most cases. When Canine parvovirus 2 (CPV-2) first emerged, it could not replicate in cats. All current CPV variants (CPV-2a-c) can infect cats to cause subclinical disease or FPL. Feline panleukopenia has re-emerged in Australia in shelter cats associated with failure to vaccinate. Parvoviruses can remain latent in mononuclear cells post-infection. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction are used to determine the infecting strain...
April 6, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961999/update-on-feline-hemoplasmosis
#3
REVIEW
Emi N Barker
"The wall-less, hemotropic, mycoplasma species Mycoplasma haemofelis, "Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis" and, to a lesser extent, "Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum" have the potential to induce clinical hemolytic anemia in infected cats. Prevalence varies markedly between infecting species, complicated by a chronic carrier state. Accurate and prompt confirmation of infection and identification of the infecting hemoplasma species enables appropriate antibiotics (eg, tetracycline; fluoroquinolone) to be prescribed...
April 5, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961998/diagnosis-of-canine-leptospirosis
#4
REVIEW
Krystle L Reagan, Jane E Sykes
Several diagnostic tests are available to aid veterinarians in diagnosis of leptospirosis. Understanding the course of infection is imperative to determining which diagnostic test to order and sample to submit. Diagnostic tests for dogs suspected of having leptospirosis include antibody-based tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Paired acute and convalescent microscopic agglutination test (MAT) are diagnostic for leptospirosis. PCR performed on blood and/or urine can be a valuable tool to aid in diagnosis of leptospirosis...
April 5, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961997/cutaneous-and-renal-glomerular-vasculopathy-what-do-we-know-so-far
#5
REVIEW
Rosanne E Jepson, Jacqueline M Cardwell, Stefano Cortellini, Laura Holm, Kim Stevens, David Walker
Cutaneous renal glomerular vasculopathy (CRGV), colloquially named "Alabama rot," is an emerging condition in the United Kingdom, previously reported from the United States and Germany. The cause of CRGV is not yet determined; no definitive link to an infectious agent has been made. Dogs diagnosed with CRGV initially develop cutaneous lesions, and a proportion of these dogs go on to manifest acute kidney injury, which may result in oligoanuric acute renal failure. Antemortem diagnosis is challenging given the lack of a specific diagnostic test, and confirmation of CRGV is therefore currently dependent on identification of thrombotic microangiopathy on renal histopathology...
April 5, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961996/canine-brucellosis-old-foe-and-reemerging-scourge
#6
REVIEW
Lin K Kauffman, Christine A Petersen
The genus Brucella is a primary cause of reproductive diseases. Widely known as a problem in livestock, Brucella is gaining notoriety as a cause of canine reproductive disease and as a scourge to dog breeders. Only within the last few decades has the risk of severe brucellosis in dogs, and the people who own and work with them, been more fully appreciated. This review summarizes the epidemiology, clinical signs, and advances in diagnosis and management of Brucella canis. Canine brucellosis prevention, owner education, and possible therapies for the future are also discussed...
April 5, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961995/feline-vector-borne-diseases-in-north-america
#7
REVIEW
Barbara Qurollo
"In North America, with the exceptions of Bartonella henselae and Cytauxzoon felis, feline vector-borne diseases (FVBDs) have been minimally studied in domestic cats. Cats can be infected with many of the same vector-borne pathogens that infect dogs. Nonspecific clinical signs linked to FVBDs and low prevalence of certain vector-borne pathogens contribute to a limited awareness of FVBDs in sick cats. As clinicians become informed about FVBDs and as vector-borne disease diagnostics are routinely applied to evaluate sick cats, we will gain a stronger understanding of vector-borne pathogens in cats...
April 5, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30961994/rabies-current-preventive-strategies
#8
REVIEW
Susan M Moore
Desensitization to rabies is a result of successfully eliminating canine rabies in the United States, which occurred in 2007; however, the need for mandatory rabies vaccination in pets remains. Rabies cases are rare in comparison with other vaccine-preventable diseases in companion animals; however, because it is a zoonotic disease with the highest case fatality rate of any infectious disease demands the establishment of strict laws for disease prevention. Preventive strategies include addressing current concerns in consideration of disease surveillance, appropriate vaccination recommendations, and local regulations protecting public health...
April 5, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30956002/h3n8-and-h3n2-canine-influenza-viruses-understanding-these-new-viruses-in-dogs
#9
REVIEW
Colin Ross Parrish, Ian Eugene Huber Voorhees
Two different influenza A viruses have infected and spread among dogs since 2000, and both have been widespread in dogs in North America. The H3N8 canine influenza virus arose in the United States as a variant of equine influenza virus. The H3N2 canine influenza virus arose in Asia by transfer of an avian influenza virus to dogs. Both viruses cause mild respiratory disease and are associated with outbreaks in densely housed dogs or those with frequent connections to other dogs. The 2 canine influenza viruses each caused widespread epidemics over at least several years that were associated with localized outbreaks...
April 4, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30956001/impact-of-dog-transport-on-high-risk-infectious-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Maureen E C Anderson, Jason W Stull, J Scott Weese
Translocation of dogs inherently poses infectious disease risks when pathogen distributions vary between regions, even within the same country. Concerns include introduction of novel pathogens that can infect dogs, zoonotic pathogens, pathogens that can become established in existing reservoirs or vectors, and vectors that might carry pathogens and/or become established in a new region. This article presents the drivers of canine movement and their relative risks, and provides examples of diseases to show how different pathogen characteristics and transmission pathways can affect the impact of movement of infected dogs...
April 4, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30956000/the-dynamic-nature-of-canine-and-feline-infectious-disease-risks-in-the-twenty-first-century
#11
REVIEW
Jason W Stull, Maureen E C Anderson, J Scott Weese
Canine and feline infectious diseases are constantly changing in frequency and location. Numerous drivers or determinants of these changes are suspected, including emergence of new pathogens; change in virulence and resistance of existing pathogens; change in land use, climate, and weather; travel and trade; habitat destruction and urbanization; change in animal-animal contact networks; host susceptibility; availability and uptake of prevention measures; and change in ability to detect pathogens and track diseases...
April 4, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853241/goals-of-care-development-and-use-of-the-serious-veterinary-illness-conversation-guide
#12
REVIEW
Katherine Goldberg
Goals of care (GOC) conversations and resulting goal-concordant treatment are the heart of palliative medicine. Despite repeated evidence that GOC conversations offer significant benefit and minimal harm, barriers to widespread and high-quality implementation persist in human medicine. One strategy to overcoming these barriers has been utilization of a structured checklist format for serious illness conversations. The Serious Illness Conversation Guide was developed for human patients and has been modified for use in the veterinary profession...
March 7, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853240/advances-in-palliative-medicine
#13
EDITORIAL
Katherine J Goldberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30853239/current-topics-in-serious-illness-and-palliative-medicine-a-curricular-initiative-in-a-us-veterinary-teaching-institution
#14
REVIEW
Katherine Goldberg
Although interest in hospice and palliative care for companion animals is on the rise, formal training in these areas is limited. Veterinary teaching institutions, professional organizations, and accrediting bodies have much to gain from the human palliative medicine field. Core competencies, curricular milestones, and scope of practice for palliative medicine are identified. A formal palliative care intervention has been implemented in a US veterinary teaching institution, and preliminary evaluation data reflect significant potential for integration of palliative care training into veterinary teaching...
March 7, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30850306/perspectives-on-feeding-and-nutrition
#15
REVIEW
Anthony J Smith
Many palliative care patients have reduced oral intake during their illness. Managing inadequate intake through appetite stimulation and/or artificial hydration and nutrition poses many clinical, ethical, and logistical dilemmas. This article aids the health care team in making appropriate recommendations regarding assisted nutrition and hydration for palliative care and terminal patients. It provides a decision-making framework, including an ethical approach to determining appropriate use of assisted feeding and hydration methods in pets at the end of life...
March 5, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846378/the-animal-as-patient-ethology-and-end-of-life-care
#16
REVIEW
Jessica Pierce
Treating the animal patient as a "person" involves refining the capacity to see the patient as clearly as possible. Veterinary end-of-life care can usefully engage with the science of animal emotion and cognition to help bring the patient into 3-D. This article highlights 3 specific areas in which engagement with the ethology literature and more careful attention to the subjective experiences of animals could improve end-of-life care: (1) interpretation and management of pain, (2) assessments of quality of life, and (3) attention to the autonomy of animal patients...
March 5, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846385/pain-and-palliative-care-service-massachusetts-society-for-the-prevention-of-cruelty-to-animals-angell-animal-medical-center
#17
REVIEW
Lisa Moses
A veterinary palliative care service was developed as a specialty service in 2006 at a large, nonprofit teaching veterinary hospital. The service originally was conceived as a pain medicine service, but quickly refocused on palliative care because a need was evident. The Pain and Palliative Care Service at Angell Animal Medical Center is structured primarily as an outpatient service, but does provide consultation services for hospitalized patients. The goals of the service, appointment structure, referral relationships, client communication issues, and practitioner sustainability are described in detail in this article as an aid to development of similar services...
March 4, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846384/where-have-we-been-where-are-we-going-continuity-from-2011
#18
REVIEW
Tamara Shearer
This article provides a brief review of important foundational concepts and an overview of major milestones in the history of animal hospice and palliative care. This article also presents a view of future goals and challenges that lie ahead of the veterinary profession as the field of animal hospice and palliative care evolves. Some examples of topics reviewed and explored in the article include current "state of-the-art" of animal hospice, future research goals, improved veterinary college curricula, collaboration among medical disciplines, and support of the veterinary staff...
March 4, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846382/common-neurologic-problems-impact-on-patient-welfare-caregiver-burden-and-veterinarian-wellbeing
#19
REVIEW
Julie M Ducote'
Most neurologic diseases are incurable. Palliative care is vital in the treatment of companion animals with serious or chronic neurologic disease. A Neuropalliative Care Core Skill Set includes multifaceted communication competencies and symptom management. Because some of the most common clinical signs of neurologic disease are also associated with stress of caregiving, veterinarians should understand their clients' unique potential for caregiver burden. Acknowledging caregiver burden in their clients, means that veterinarians treating patients with neurologic disease must be proactive in building their own resilience to the occupational stress inherent in treating their patients and supporting their patients' caregivers...
March 4, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30846381/colorado-state-university-pet-hospice-program
#20
REVIEW
Maria Gore, Susan E Lana, Gail A Bishop
Serving clients since 2004, Colorado State University's Veterinary Teaching Hospital is the first and only program to offer a student-run pet hospice program. Under the supervision of faculty and staff advisors, student volunteers provide home hospice care to families who have a terminally ill pet. This article describes the history of the program, how it is organized, the roles and responsibilities of the students, the challenges of the program and future goals. This article seeks to serve as a follow up on the 2008 Journal of Veterinary Medical Education article on the Colorado State University pet hospice program...
March 4, 2019: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
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