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Developmental Neuroscience

Leslie M Wise, Diego Hernández-Saavedra, Stephanie M Boas, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Janice M Juraska
Both high-fat diets (HFD) and bisphenol A (BPA), an environmental endocrine disruptor, are prevalent in industrialized societies. Previous studies have detected separate effects of BPA and HFD; however, none have assessed possible interactive effects. Here, pregnant dams consumed 0, 40, or 400 µg BPA/kg/day and were fed either a control (CON; 15.8% kcal fat) or HFD (45% kcal fat) from gestational day 2 through parturition. The pups were individually dosed with BPA from postnatal days (P) 1-10, while the dams continued to consume one of the two diets...
December 21, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Jeong Bin Lee, Bethann M Affeldt, Yaritxa Gamboa, Mary Hamer, Jeff F Dunn, Andrea C Pardo, Andre Obenaus
Concussion or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is often accompanied by long-term behavioral and neuropsychological deficits. Emerging data suggest that these deficits can be exacerbated following repeated injuries. However, despite the overwhelming prevalence of mTBI in children due to falls and sports-related activities, the effects of mTBI on white matter (WM) structure and its development in children have not been extensively examined. Moreover, the effect of repeated mTBI (rmTBI) on developing WM has not yet been studied, despite the possibility of exacerbated outcomes with repeat injuries...
November 22, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Travis C Jackson, Shawn E Kotermanski, Patrick M Kochanek
Neuroprotective cold-shock proteins (CSPs) are abundant in the normothermic neonatal rodent brain but decrease with advancing neurodevelopmental age and are low or absent in the adult brain. It has not been established if neurodevelopmental age alters the baseline expression of CSPs in the human brain. Here, we tested the hypothesis that protein levels of RNA-binding motif 3 (RBM3), reticulon-3 (RTN3), and cold-induced RNA-binding protein (CIRBP) are abundant in the normothermic developing human brain but low-to-absent in adults...
November 6, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Xing-Liang Yang, Xin Wang, Bi-Wen Peng
Nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5) has recently been classified as a new member of the Rel family. In addition, there are 5 more well-defined members (NF-κB and NFAT1-4) in the Rel family, which participate in regulating the expression of immune and inflammatory response-related genes. NFAT5 was initially identified in renal medullary cells where it regulated the expression of osmoprotective-related genes during the osmotic response. Many studies have demonstrated that NFAT5 is highly expressed in the nuclei of neurons in fetal and adult brains...
November 2, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Pankaj Prasun, Raghav Madan, Subhash Puthuraya, Divya Subramanian, Ishita Datta, Vaneet Kalra, Ronald Thomas, David W Stockton, Senthil Sundaram, Joseph Callaghan, Michael Callaghan, Nitin Chouthai
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is multifactorial. This study attempts to identify genetic and clinical factors contributing to IVH in newborns with a focus on those born ≤28 weeks of gestation. METHODS: This was a prospective study of 382 consecutive newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. DNA purification was conducted using standard methods. TaqMan SNP assays were conducted for functional polymorphisms in VEGF (RS699947, RS2010963, RS3025039, and RS1570360) and MMP2 (RS243685 and RS2285053) genes...
November 2, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Neha Sharma, Lisamarie Moore, Shravanthi Chidambaram, Nicholas W Colangelo, Sonia M de Toledo, Edouard I Azzam
Neural stem cells are attracting enormous attention in regenerative medicine due to their ability to self-renew and differentiate into the cell lineages that constitute the central nervous system. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the regulation of their redox environment, which is essential for homeostatic cellular functions. The redox-modulated c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) are a molecular switch in stress signal transduction and are involved in numerous brain functions. Using a selective but broad-spectrum inhibitor of JNK 1/2/3, we investigated the role of JNK in regulating the levels of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria, mitochondrial membrane potential, viability, proliferation and lineage alterations in human H9-derived neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPs)...
October 18, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Catherine Sarret, Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Anna Sontheimer, Jérôme Coste, Nadia Savy, Bruno Pereira, Bastien Roche, Odile Boespflug-Tanguy
AIMS: We performed quantitative diffusion tensor imaging and brain tractography to distinguish clinical severity in a series of 35 patients with hypomyelinating PLP1-related disorders classified using the Motor Developmental Score according to the best motor function acquired before the age of 5 years and the gross motor function measure (GMFM) at the time of magnetic resonance imaging acquisition. METHODS: We calculated fractional anisotropy and diffusivity values in 26 regions of interest and the numbers of fibers and volumes of hemisphere tractograms...
September 27, 2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Jill L Chang, Mirrah Bashir, Christiana Santiago, Kathryn Farrow, Camille Fung, Ashley S Brown, Robert W Dettman, Maria L V Dizon
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is estimated to occur in 5% of pregnancies, with placental insufficiency being the most common cause in developed countries. While it is known that white matter injury occurs in premature infants, the extent of IUGR on white matter injury is less defined in term infants. We used a novel murine model that utilizes a thromboxane A2 (TXA2) analog (U46619), a potent vasoconstrictor, to induce maternal hypertension and mimic human placental insufficiency-induced IUGR to study the white matter...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Hidenori Ito, Rika Morishita, Makoto Mizuno, Noriko Kawamura, Hidenori Tabata, Koh-Ichi Nagata
MACRO Domain Containing 2 (MacroD2) is a neurodevelopmental disorder-related mono-ADP-ribosylhydrolase. Molecular features of this protein in neural tissues are largely unknown. In this study, we generated a specific antibody against MacroD2, and carried out expression and morphological analyses of the molecule during mouse brain development. In Western blotting, 2 MacroD2 isoforms with molecular masses of ∼70 and ∼75 kDa started to be expressed at embryonic day 16.5, reached the maximal level at postnatal day 8, and then gradually decreased through P30...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Marc P O'Sullivan, Klaudia M Sikora, Caroline Ahearne, Deirdre M Twomey, Mikael Finder, Geraldine B Boylan, Boubou Hallberg, Deirdre M Murray
The role of inflammation is an important factor in the progression of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE). We have previously shown that interleukin-16 (IL-16) is increased in infants with moderate and severe HIE and relates to poor neurodevelopmental outcomes. We aimed to validate IL-16 as a cord blood-based biomarker for HIE and to examine its relationship to long-term outcomes. The study sample consisted of 105 full-term infants who experienced perinatal asphyxia (PA) (with and without an encephalopathy) along with healthy, gestational age-matched newborn controls...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Madison C B Paton, Beth J Allison, Jingang Li, Michael C Fahey, Amy E Sutherland, Ilias Nitsos, Robert J Bischof, Justin M Dean, Timothy J M Moss, Graeme R Polglase, Graham Jenkin, Courtney A McDonald, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: Infants born preterm following exposure to in utero inflammation/chorioamnionitis are at high risk of brain injury and life-long neurological deficits. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of early intervention umbilical cord blood (UCB) cell therapy in a large animal model of preterm brain inflammation and injury. We hypothesised that UCB treatment would be neuroprotective for the preterm brain following subclinical fetal inflammation. METHODS: Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Chao Tang, Yuqing Wei, Jiajia Zhao, Jingxin Nie
There are distinct symptoms for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) at different ages. To explore the developmental mechanism of ADHD from childhood to adolescence, patients from different age groups with ADHD drawn from a large dataset should be investigated. In this study, we hypothesized that there are significant differences in the developmental patterns of local and global brain activities between ADHD and typically developing (TD) individuals. Three voxel-based measurements and the functional connectivity (FC) of the brain networks were extracted from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of both ADHD and TD participants 7-16 years of age...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Xiaodi Chen, Aparna Patra, Grazyna B Sadowska, Barbara S Stonestreet
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental morbidities in preterm and full-term infants. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction represents an important component of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a vital component of the blood-brain barrier. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are important ECM components. They contribute to brain development, blood-brain barrier maintenance, and to regenerative and repair processes after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Arcangela Anna Cera, Emanuele Cacci, Camilla Toselli, Silvia Cardarelli, Alessandra Bernardi, Roberta Gioia, Mauro Giorgi, Giancarlo Poiana, Stefano Biagioni
In adult mammals, neural stem cells (NSCs) reside in specialized niches at the level of selected CNS regions, such as the subventricular zone (SVZ). The signaling pathways that reg-ulate NSC proliferation and differentiation remain poorly understood. Early growth response protein 1 (Egr-1) is an important transcription factor, widely studied in the adult mammalian brain, mediating the activation of target genes by a variety of extracellular stimuli. In our study, we aimed at testing how Egr-1 regulates adult NSCs derived from mouse SVZ and, in particular, the interplay between Egr-1 and the proliferative factor EGF...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Kulpreet Cheema, Jacqueline Cummine
Reading requires efficient communication between brain regions that are situated all over the cortex. These brain areas are structurally connected by white-matter pathways that develop over the period of reading acquisition. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between white-matter tracts and reading performance across the lifespan. METHODS: Behavioral (reading performance) and neuroimaging (diffusion tensor imaging [DTI]) data were collected from participants aged 3-21 years as a part of the multi-site project called the pediatric imaging neurocognition genetics study...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Anders Brunse, Afrouz Abbaspour, Per Torp Sangild
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) increases the risk of brain injury and impaired neurodevelopment. Rapid brain maturation prior to birth may explain why preterm brains are particularly vulnerable to serious infections. Using pigs as models, we hypothesized that preterm birth was associated with altered blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier (BCSFB) function and cerebral structural deficits, and that NEC was associated with systemic inflammation, BCSFB disruption, and neuroinflammation. First, cesarean-delivered preterm and term pigs (n = 43-44) were euthanized at birth to investigate BCSFB function and markers of brain structural maturation, or on day 5 to measure markers of blood-brain barrier maturation in the hippocampus and striatum (experiment 1)...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Mari Falck, Damjan Osredkar, Elke Maes, Torun Flatebø, Thomas Ragnar Wood, Lars Walløe, Hemmen Sabir, Marianne Thoresen
BACKGROUND: Preclinical research on the neuroprotective effect of hypothermia (HT) after perinatal asphyxia has shown variable results, depending on comorbidities and insult severity. Exposure to inflammation increases vulnerability of the neonatal brain to hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) injury, and could be one explanation for those neonates whose injury is unexpectedly severe. Gram-negative type inflammatory exposure by lipopolysaccharide administration prior to a mild HI insult results in moderate brain injury, and hypothermic neuroprotection is negated...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Michael J Hylin, Ryan C Holden, Aidan C Smith, Aric F Logsdon, Rabia Qaiser, Brandon P Lucke-Wold
The leading cause of death in the juvenile population is trauma, and in particular neurotrauma. The juvenile brain response to neurotrauma is not completely understood. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to contribute to injury expansion and behavioral deficits in adult rodents and furthermore has been seen in adult postmortem human brains diagnosed with chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is increased in juveniles with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is poorly delineated...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Mary Tolcos, Annie McDougall, Amy Shields, Yoonyoung Chung, Rachael O'Dowd, Ann Turnley, Megan Wallace, Sandra Rees
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) can lead to adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae in postnatal life. However, the effects of IUGR on the cerebellum are still to be fully elucidated. A major determinant of growth and development of the cerebellum is proliferation and subsequent migration of cerebellar granule cells. Our objective was to determine whether IUGR, induced by chronic placental insufficiency (CPI) in guinea pigs, results in abnormal cerebellar development due to deficits suggestive of impaired granule cell proliferation and/or migration...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
Birger Victor Dieriks, Justin M Dean, Eleonora Aronica, Henry J Waldvogel, Richard L M Faull, Maurice A Curtis
Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a family of transport proteins that facilitate intracellular transport of fatty acids. Despite abundant expression in the brain, the role that FABPs play in the process of cell proliferation and migration in the subventricular zone (SVZ) remains unclear. Our results provide a detailed characterisation of FABP3, 5, and 7 expression in adult and fetal human and sheep SVZ. High FABP5 expression was specifically observed in the adult human SVZ and co-labelled with polysialylated neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), GFAPδ, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), indicating a role for FABP5 throughout the full maturation process of astrocytes and neuroblasts...
2018: Developmental Neuroscience
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