Xiaohong Yin, Keshun Xia, Song Peng, Bo Tan, Yaohui Huang, Mao Wang, Mingfang He
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and fatal form of brain tumor, which is associated with a poor prognosis. ATP-binding cassette subfamily F member 1 (ABCF1) is an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, which is implicated in regulating immune responses and tumorigenesis. Aberrant E3 ubiquitylation has been evidenced in GBM. However, the role of ABCF1 in GBM needs to be further explored. The expression of ABCF1, CXC chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL12), and CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) in GBM tissues was examined by the GEPIA tool, real-time PCR and Western blotting...
September 27, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Allison Vreeland, Denise Calaprice, Noga Or-Geva, Richard E Frye, Dritan Agalliu, Herbert M Lachman, Christopher Pittenger, Stefano Pallanti, Kyle Williams, Meiqian Ma, Margo Thienemann, Antonella Gagliano, Elizabeth Mellins, Jennifer Frankovich
Post-infectious neuroinflammation has been implicated in multiple models of acute onset obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) including Sydenham's chorea (SC), pediatric acute-onset neuropsychiatric syndrome (PANS), and pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections (PANDAS). These conditions are associated with a range of autoantibodies which are thought to be triggered by an infections, most notably group A streptococci (GAS). Based on animal models using huma sera, these autoantibodies are thought to cross-react with neural antigens in the basal ganglia and modulate neuronal activity and behavior...
September 22, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Emily G Severance, Emese Prandovszky, Shuojia Yang, Flora Leister, Ashley Lea, Ching-Lien Wu, Ryad Tamouza, Marion Leboyer, Faith Dickerson, Robert H Yolken
Complex brain disorders like schizophrenia may have multifactorial origins related to mis-timed heritable and environmental factors interacting during neurodevelopment. Infections, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases are over-represented in schizophrenia leading to immune system-centered hypotheses. Complement component C4 is genetically and neurobiologically associated with schizophrenia, and its dual activity peripherally and in the brain makes it an exceptional target for biomarker development. Studies to evaluate the biomarker potential of plasma or serum C4 in schizophrenia do so to understand how peripheral C4 might reflect central nervous system (CNS)-derived neuroinflammation, synapse pruning and other mechanisms...
September 21, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Timothy N Phoenix
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Cécile Morin, Cindy Bokobza, Bobbi Fleiss, Elisa L Hill-Yardin, Juliette Van Steenwinckel, Pierre Gressens
Understanding the long-term functional implications of gut microbial communities during the perinatal period is a bourgeoning area of research. Numerous studies have revealed the existence of a "gut-brain axis" and the impact of an alteration of gut microbiota composition in brain diseases. Recent research has highlighted how gut microbiota could affect brain development and behavior. Many factors in early life such as the mode of delivery or preterm birth could lead to disturbance in the assembly and maturation of gut microbiota...
September 15, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Daxiong Xu, Qi'an Guo
Emerging studies have indicated that abnormally expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) are related to the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemia. Nevertheless, the function of miR-26a in neuronal damage and microglial activation during cerebral infarction remains elusive. It was revealed that miR-26a was downregulated in oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-treated microglia and neurons. Overexpressing miR-26a reduced the inflammatory reaction in BV2 cells and decreased neuronal apoptosis following OGD stimulation. miR-26a upregulation inactivated the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway and inhibited TREM1 expression...
September 13, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Lakshmi Shree Kulumani Mahadevan, Melissa Murphy, Marina Selenica, Elizabeth Latimer, Brent T Harris
PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal Infections) is an acute onset or exacerbation of neuropsychiatric symptoms following a group A streptococcus (GAS) infection. It is believed to be a result of autoimmune response to streptococcal infection, but there is insufficient evidence to fully support this theory. Although this disease is primarily thought to be a disease of childhood, it is reported to occur also in adults. PANDAS is a well-defined clinical entity, but the neuropathology of this condition is not established yet...
September 12, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Antoine Giraud, Pauline Garel, Brian H Walsh, Stéphane Chabrier
The developmental condition of children after neonatal arterial ischemic stroke (NAIS) is characterized by cognitive and motor impairments. We hypothesized that independent walking age would be a predictor of later global cognitive functioning in this population. Sixty-one children with an available independent walking age and full-scale IQ score seven years after NAIS were included in this study. Full-scale IQ was assessed using the fourth edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV). Independent walking age was negatively correlated with full-scale IQ score at seven years of age (Pearson correlation coefficient of -0...
August 30, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Rachel Hartley, Timothy N Phoenix
Medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor, comprises four molecularly and clinically distinct subgroups (termed WNT, SHH, Group3, and Group4). Prognosis varies based on genetic and pathological features associated with each molecular subgroup. WNT-MB, considered low-risk, are rarely metastatic and contain activating mutations in CTNNB1; Group3-MB, commonly classified as high-risk, are frequently metastatic and can contain genomic alterations resulting in elevated MYC expression. Here we compare model systems of low-risk WNT-MB and high-risk Group3-MB to identify tumor and microenvironment interactions that could contribute to features associated with prognosis...
August 5, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Liuhui Wu, Shu Su, Yan Dai, Huaqiong Qiu, Liping Lin, Mengsha Zou, Long Qian, Meina Liu, Hongyu Zhang, Yingqian Chen, Zhiyun Yang
OBJECTIVES: To explore the alterations in the white matter (WM) structural connectome in children with drug-naïve attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Forty-nine pediatric ADHD and 51 age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) children aged 6-14 years old were enrolled. This cross-sectional study applied graph theoretical analysis to assess the white matter organization based on deterministic diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). WM structural connectivity was constructed in 90 cortical and subcor-tical regions, and topological parameters of the resulting graphs were calculated...
August 2, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Eva Catenaccio, Rachel J Smith, Raul Chavez-Valdez, Vera J Burton, Ernest Graham, Charlamaine Parkinson, Dhananjay Vaidya, Aylin Tekes, Frances J Northington, Allen D Everett, Carl E Stafstrom, Eva K Ritzl
Quantitative analysis of electroencephalography (qEEG) is a potential source of biomarkers for neonatal encephalopathy (NE). However, prior studies using qEEG in NE were limited in their generalizability due to individualized techniques for calculating qEEG features or labor-intensive pre-selection of EEG data. We piloted a fully automated method using commercially available software to calculate the suppression ratio (SR), absolute delta power, and relative delta, theta, alpha, and beta power from EEG of neonates undergoing 72 h of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for NE between April 20, 2018, and November 4, 2019...
July 19, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Richard S Nowakowski
The author met Verne Caviness in 1972 at Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA when he was a graduate student and Verne was a Fellow in Neurology. They came to know each other well and eventually started a long and successful collaboration. This is a story about Verne and some of our colleagues over a period of about 40 years.
July 3, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Agnieszka Kalinowski, Lu Tian, Reenal Pattni, Hanna Ollila, Maroof Khan, Cindy Manko, Melissa Silverman, Meiqian Ma, Laurie Columbo, Bahare Farhadian, Susan Swedo, Tanya Murphy, Mats Johnson, Elisabeth Fernell, Christopher Gillberg, Margo Thienemann, Elizabeth D Mellins, Douglas F Levinson, Alexander E Urban, Jennifer Frankovich
Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS) is an abrupt-onset neuropsychiatric disorder. PANS patients have an increased prevalence of co-morbid autoimmune illness, most commonly arthritis. In addition, an estimated one-third of PANS patients present with low serum C4 protein, suggesting decreased production or increased consumption of C4 protein. To test the possibility that copy number (CN) variation contributes to risk of PANS illness, we compared mean total C4A and total C4B CN in ethnically-matched subjects from PANS DNA samples and controls (192 cases and 182 controls)...
June 28, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Hur Dolunay Kanal, Steven W Levison
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury in neonatal encephalopathy triggers a wave of neuroinflammatory events attributed to causing the progressive degeneration and functional deficits seen weeks after the primary damage. The cellular processes mediating this prolonged neurodegeneration in HI injury are not sufficiently understood. Consequently, current therapies are not fully protective. In a recent study, we found significant improvements in neurologic outcomes when a small molecule antagonist for Activin-Like Kinase 5 (ALK5), a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor was used as a therapeutic in a rat model of moderate term HI...
June 22, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Ksenia Musaelyan, Mark A Horowitz, Stephen McHugh, Francis G Szele
Antidepressants in general, and fluoxetine in particular, increase adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) in mice. Here we asked how the antidepressant fluoxetine affects behavior and AHN in a corticosterone model of depression. In three groups of adult male C57BL/6j mice we administered either vehicle (VEH), corticosterone (CORT) treatment to induce a depression-like state or corticosterone plus a standard dose of fluoxetine (CORT+FLX). Following treatment, mice performed the open field test, the novelty suppressed feeding (NSF) test and the splash test...
June 9, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Nana Matoba, James W Collins, Maria Dizon
Despite advances in perinatal medicine, racial disparity in birth outcomes remains a public health problem in the United States. The underlying mechanisms for this long-standing racial disparity are incompletely understood. This review presents transgenerational risk factors for racial disparities in preterm birth, exploring the impact of interpersonal and structural racism, theoretical models of stress and biological markers of racial disparities.
June 8, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Tian Ren, Zheng Li, Chunjie Wang, Bao-Ming Li
Previous neuroimaging studies on arithmetic development have mainly focused on functional activation or functional connectivity between brain regions. It remains largely unknown how brain structures support arithmetic development. The present study investigated whether early gray matter structural covariance contributes to later gain in arithmetic ability in children. We used a public longitudinal sample comprising 63 typically developing children. The participants received structural magnetic resonance imaging scanning when they were 11 years old, and were tested with a multiplication task at 11 years old (Time 1) and 13 years old (Time 2), respectively...
June 6, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
R Ann Sheldon, Christine Windsor, Fuxin Lu, Nicholas R Stewart, Xiangning Jiang, Donna M Ferriero
The developing brain is uniquely susceptible to oxidative stress and endogenous antioxidant mechanisms are not sufficient to prevent injury from a hypoxic-ischemic challenge. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity reduces hypoxic-ischemic injury. Therapeutic hypothermia also reduces hypoxic-ischemic injury, in the rodent and the human brain, but the benefit is limited. Here, we combined GPX1 overexpression with hypothermia in a P9 mouse model of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) to test the effectiveness of both treatments together...
May 24, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Meiqian Ma, Jesse Sandberg, Bahare Farhadian, Melissa Silverman, Yuhuan Xie, Margo Thienemann, Jennifer Frankovich
Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS), Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorder Associated with Streptococcal infections (PANDAS), Sydenham chorea and other post-infectious psychiatric deteriorations are thought to be caused by inflammatory/autoimmune mechanisms, likely involving the basal ganglia based on imaging studies. Patients have a relapsing-remitting course and some develop severe refractory psychiatric disease. We found that 55/193 (28%) of consecutive patients meeting PANS criteria developed chronic arthritis and 25/121 (21%) of those with related psychiatric deteriorations developed chronic arthritis...
May 12, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
Amelia Foss, Manav Pathania
In depth study of pediatric gliomas has been hampered due to difficulties in accessing patient tissue and a lack of clinically-representative tumor models. Over the last decade, however, profiling of carefully curated cohorts of pediatric tumors has identified genetic drivers that molecularly segregate pediatric gliomas from adult gliomas. This information has inspired the development of a new set of powerful in vitro and in vivo tumor models that can aid in identifying pediatric-specific oncogenic mechanisms and tumor-microenvironment interactions...
May 12, 2023: Developmental Neuroscience
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