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Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin

Katrin Rentzsch, Jochen E Gebauer
Among well-acquainted people, those high on agentic narcissism are less popular than those low on agentic narcissism. That popularity-difference figures prominently in the narcissism literature. But why are agentic narcissists less popular? We propose a novel answer-the tit-for-tat hypothesis. It states that agentic narcissists like other people less than non-narcissists do and that others reciprocate by liking agentic narcissists less in return. We also examine whether the tit-for-tat hypothesis generalizes to communal narcissism...
February 7, 2019: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Ming-Hui Li, Li-Lin Rao
The question of how we decide that someone else has done something wrong is at the heart of moral psychology. Little work has been done to investigate whether people believe that others' moral judgment differs from their own in moral dilemmas. We conducted four experiments using various measures and diverse samples to demonstrate the self-other discrepancy in moral judgment. We found that (a) people were more deontological when they made moral judgments themselves than when they judged a stranger (Studies 1-4) and (b) a protected values (PVs) account outperformed an emotion account and a construal-level theory account in explaining this self-other discrepancy (Studies 3 and 4)...
January 30, 2019: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Mark J Brandt, Chris G Sibley, Danny Osborne
A central challenge for identifying core components of a belief system is examining the position of components within the structure of the entire belief system. We test whether operational (i.e., positions on issues) or symbolic (i.e., affective attachments to political groups and labels) components are most central by modeling a political belief system as a network of interconnected attitudes and beliefs. Across seven waves of representative panel data from New Zealand, we find that symbolic components are more central than operational components ( ds range = 0...
January 28, 2019: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jia Wei Zhang, Serena Chen, Theordora K Tomova, Begüm Bilgin, Wen Jia Chai, Tamilselvan Ramis, Hadi Shaban-Azad, Pooya Razavi, Thingujam Nutankumar, Arpine Manukyan
Theory and research converge to suggest that authenticity predicts positive psychological adjustment. Given these benefits of authenticity, there is a surprising dearth of research on the factors that foster authenticity. Five studies help fill this gap by testing whether self-compassion promotes subjective authenticity. Study 1 found a positive association between trait self-compassion and authenticity. Study 2 demonstrated that on days when people felt more self-compassionate, they also felt more authentic...
January 18, 2019: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Vanda Sieber, Lavinia Flückiger, Jutta Mata, Katharina Bernecker, Veronika Job
People who believe that willpower is not limited exhibit higher self-regulation and well-being than people who believe that willpower is a limited resource. So far, only little is known about the antecedents of people's beliefs about willpower. Three studies examine whether autonomous goal striving promotes the endorsement of a nonlimited belief and whether this relationship is mediated by vitality, the feeling of being awake and energetic. Study 1 ( n = 208) showed that autonomous goal striving predicts a change in willpower beliefs over 4 months and that this change is mediated by vitality...
January 17, 2019: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Susan Yamamoto, Evelyn M Maeder
The purpose of these studies was to examine the principles people engage in when thinking about punishment, using a new measure (the Punishment Orientation Questionnaire [POQ]). Although traditional conceptualizations of punishment divide it into utilitarianism (e.g., deterrence) and retributivism ("eye for an eye"), we argue that a more useful metric of lay attitudes concerns orientation toward or away from punishment. After pilot testing and factor analysis, we used item response theory to assess four scales: prohibitive utilitarianism (limiting punishment based on utility), prohibitive retributivism (aversion to punishing innocent people), permissive utilitarianism (willingness to give strict punishment based on the benefits thereof), and permissive retributivism (desire for just deserts)...
January 11, 2019: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Rael J Dawtry, Philip J Cozzolino, Mitchell J Callan
We examined the causal order of relationships between rape myth acceptance (RMA), victim blaming, and memory reconstruction. In Study 1, RMA-congruent memory (or alternatively, victim blaming) mediated the relationship between RMA and victim blaming (memory reconstruction). In Study 2, similar relationships emerged between RMA, victim blaming, and memory reconstruction. Although no mediation of RMA occurred in Study 2 independently, a mini meta-analysis of Studies 1 and 2 data replicated both patterns of mediation observed in Study 1...
January 11, 2019: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
David S Chester, C Nathan DeWall, Brian Enjaian
Sadism is a "dark" trait that involves the experience of pleasure from others' pain, yet much is unknown about its link to aggression. Across eight studies (total N = 2,255), sadism predicted greater aggression against both innocent targets and provocateurs. These associations occurred above-and-beyond general aggressiveness, impulsivity, and other "dark" traits. Sadism was associated with greater positive affect during aggression, which accounted for much of the variance in the sadism-aggression link...
December 20, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Cindel J M White, Ara Norenzayan, Mark Schaller
Karmic beliefs, centered on the expectation of ethical causation within and across lifetimes, appear in major world religions as well as spiritual movements around the world, yet they remain an underexplored topic in psychology. In three studies, we assessed the psychological predictors of Karmic beliefs among participants from culturally and religiously diverse backgrounds, including ethnically and religiously diverse students in Canada, and broad national samples of adults from Canada, India, and the United States (total N = 8,996)...
December 16, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Michael L Slepian, Nir Halevy, Adam D Galinsky
Past research has conceptualized secrecy as speech inhibition during social interaction. In contrast, the current research broadens the understanding of secrecy by conceptualizing it as the commitment to conceal information. Seven experiments demonstrate the implications of this broader conceptualization for understanding secrecy's consequences. The results demonstrate that thinking about secrets-relative to thinking about personal information unknown by others that is not purposefully concealed (i.e., undisclosed information)-indirectly increases the experience of fatigue by evoking feelings of isolation and a motivational conflict with one's affiliation goals...
December 11, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jeremy A Frimer, Mark J Brandt, Zachary Melton, Matt Motyl
We propose that political extremists use more negative language than moderates. Previous research found that conservatives report feeling happier than liberals and yet liberals "display greater happiness" in their language than do conservatives. However, some of the previous studies relied on questionable measures of political orientation and affective language, and no studies have examined whether political orientation and affective language are nonlinearly related. Revisiting the same contexts (Twitter, U...
December 11, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jenny M Cundiff, J Richard Jennings, Karen A Matthews
This article examines whether emotional suppression is associated with socioeconomic position (SEP) in a community sample of Black and White men, and whether emotional suppression may help explain the aggregation of multiple biopsychosocial risk factors for cardiovascular disease at lower SEP (social support, depression, cardiovascular stress reactivity). Aim 1 tests whether multiple indicators of SEP show a consistent graded association with self-reported trait suppression, and whether suppression mediates associations between SEP and perceived social support and depressive affect...
December 10, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jordan R Axt, Grace Casola, Brian A Nosek
Social judgment is shaped by multiple biases operating simultaneously, but most bias-reduction interventions target only a single social category. In seven preregistered studies (total N > 7,000), we investigated whether asking participants to avoid one social bias affected that and other social biases. Participants selected honor society applicants based on academic credentials. Applicants also differed on social categories irrelevant for selection: attractiveness and ingroup status. Participants asked to avoid potential bias in one social category showed small but reliable reductions in bias for that category ( r = ...
December 6, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Joseph D Wellman, Clara L Wilkins, Ellen E Newell, D Kamiya Stewart
Previous research has found that among low-status individuals, both group identification (GID) and status-legitimizing beliefs (SLBs) motivate varying responses to ingroup discrimination claimants. SLBs are traditionally thought to motivate decreased support for low-status claimants, while GID is thought to motivate increased liking and support of ingroup members. The current research examines these conflicting influences on ingroup claimants among women (Studies 1a and 1b) and Latino/as (Studies 2 and 3). We find that when SLBs are strongly endorsed (Studies 1a, 1b, and 2) or primed (Study 3), GID does not predict liking or support for a claimant...
November 28, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Jens Lange, Liz Redford, Jan Crusius
We propose that people high in entitlement are characterized by motivation to attain status. Five studies (total N = 2,372) support that entitlement promotes motivation to seek status. This motivation, in turn, relates to affective processes when facing upward comparisons and contributes to status attainment. Specifically, entitlement fostered prestige and dominance motivation. These, in turn, predicted greater benign and malicious envy, respectively, when encountering high-status others. The indirect effects occurred when entitlement was measured (Studies 1A and 1B) and manipulated (Studies 2A and 2B)...
November 28, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Ledina Imami, Sarah C E Stanton, Samuele Zilioli, Erin T Tobin, Allison K Farrell, Francesca Luca, Richard B Slatcher
Self-disclosure and perceived responsiveness are important building blocks of social relationships that have long-lasting consequences for health and well-being. However, the conditions under which self-disclosure and responsiveness are likely to benefit health, and how early in life these benefits arise, remain unclear. Among 141 youth (aged 10-17) with asthma, we investigated how average daily levels of self-disclosure and responsiveness are linked to positive and negative affect and the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1, a marker of improved regulation of stress physiology and immune functioning...
November 28, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Brian P Don, Yuthika U Girme, Matthew D Hammond
Indirect support seeking involves sulking, whining, and/or displaying sadness to elicit social support. Ironically, this strategy tends to backfire by prompting rejection from close others. The current research examines how low self-esteem contributes to the use and relational consequences of indirect support seeking during couples' interactions. Results across two dyadic, observational studies (Study 1 = 76 couples, Study 2 = 100 couples) demonstrated that support seekers with lower self-esteem engaged in greater indirect support seeking, and seekers' greater indirect support seeking was associated with greater negative support from partners...
November 22, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Sunita Sah, George Loewenstein, Daylian Cain
When expert advisors have conflicts of interest, disclosure is a common regulatory response. In four experiments (three scenario experiments involving medical contexts, and one field experiment involving financial consequences for both parties), we show that disclosure of a financial or nonfinancial conflict of interest can have a perverse effect on the advisor-advisee relationship. Disclosure, perhaps naturally, decreases an advisee's trust in the advice. But disclosure can also lead to concern that failure to follow advice will be interpreted as a signal of distrust...
November 17, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Molly I Fisher, Matthew D Hammond
We examine how relational needs underlie sexism by conducting a meta-analysis ( k = 22; N = 4,860) on the links between adults' romantic attachment and endorsement of ambivalent sexism. Results across two random-effects meta-analytic methods supported that men's and women's attachment anxiety predicted stronger endorsement of both benevolent sexism and hostile sexism. Simultaneously, men's attachment avoidance predicted lower endorsement of benevolent sexism, and for men in relationships (vs. single men), stronger endorsement of hostile sexism...
November 9, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Andrea L Miller, Eugene Borgida
Although psychological science has documented individual and situational factors that affect the process of system justification, the temporal dimension of system justification has not been systematically examined. This study used the 2016 U.S. presidential election as a naturalistic setting in which to test for the existence of a temporal dimension. We propose that the potential for a Clinton victory represented a system threat for individuals who supported traditional gender roles, and the approaching election provided a mechanism for measuring the effect of the temporal proximity of the system-threatening event...
November 9, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
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