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Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

Pedro Morán, Sandra Pérez, Anselmo Odeón, Andrea Verna
Bovine gammaherpesvirus 4 (BoHV4) is a member of the family Herpesviridae. In Argentina, BoHV4 was isolated and characterized in 2007 from samples of aborted cows. Argentinean isolates are highly divergent and are classified as: Genotype 1(Movar-like), Genotype 2 (DN599-like) and Genotype 3 (a novel group). The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the biological characteristics of six Argentinean BoHV4 field isolates in cell lines from different origins. All strains induced productive infection in the cell lines used, with different degrees of permissiveness...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Guilherme Bim Dias, Renan Bressianini do Amaral, Igor Renan Honorato Gatto, Ivan Moura Lapera, Luís Guilherme de Oliveira, Estevam G Lux Hoppe, Rosangela Zacarias Machado, Marcos Rogério André
Mycoplasma suis, the etiological agent of swine hemoplasmosis, is an epicellular bacterium that adheres to the surface of pig erythrocytes leading to deformations of the target cells. Little is known about the occurrence of M. suis in wild swine populations around the world, its economic impact on swine herds, and the risk of human infection. The aim of this study was to investigate, by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based on the 16S rRNA gene, the occurrence of M. suis in a captive population of white-lipped peccaries (100 Tayassu pecari) and in free-living wild boars (14 Sus scrofa) in Brazil...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Mohsen Tabasi, Sana Eybpoosh, Saeid Bouzari
BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is the most common zoonotic diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate the diagnostic performance of an indirect-ELISA (I-ELISA) method based on whole cell Brucella abortus S99 lysates for detection of IgM anti-Brucella antibodies in a human serum. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted in two species-rich endemic areas of Iran (Tehran and Lorestan provinces). Serum samples of 102 patients and 150 healthy individuals were tested by the new kit and the commercial Vircell kit for the presence of anti-Brucella IgM antibodies...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Mario Cervone, Alessandra Gavazza, Alina Zbriger, Francesca Mancianti, Stefania Perrucci
Prevalence and species composition of intestinal parasites were evaluated in dogs affected by high-grade multicentric lymphoma and undergoing chemotherapy and in control healthy dogs. Obtained data were statistically analyzed. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasite infections was 33.3%. In lymphoma dogs, the prevalence of protozoa infections (46.7%) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of helminth infections (6.7%) and Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Neospora caninum, Cystoisospora ohioensis-complex, Entamoeba sp...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Malek J Hallinger, Anja Taubert, Carlos Hermosilla, Frank Mutschmann
Reptiles are becoming popular pets in many parts of the world. They are also known to harbor numerous gastrointestinal parasites. We used faecal smears to examine 748 stool samples from 14 different agamid lizard species. In addition, we used coproantigen ELISA tests (11 samples) and immunofluorescence assays (IFA) (19 samples) to detect reptile Cryptosporidium infections. In 28 cases, veterinarians requested therapy to treat oxyurid- and/or Isospora amphiboluri-infections and resent fecal samples after proposed therapy and anti-parasitic treatments had been applied...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Taehwan Oh, Hanjin Kim, Kee Hwan Park, Jiwoon Jeong, Siyeon Yang, Ikjae Kang, Chanhee Chae
The efficacy of four commercial porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines against respiratory disease was evaluated and compared in pig farms suffering from co-infection with PRRSV-1 and PRRSV-2. All vaccinated groups on average exhibited improved growth rate compared to the unvaccinated pigs. Interestingly, the two groups vaccinated with either of the PRRSV-2 MLV vaccines had a better overall growth rate compared to the pigs vaccinated with either of the PRRSV-1 MLV vaccines...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Ömer Orkun, Ayşe Çakmak
Wild animals fulfill an important mission in the ecology of tick-borne diseases as both suitable hosts to tick vectors and reservoirs of the pathogens. However, current data regarding the role of wild animals in the ecology of tick-borne pathogens is insufficient and more investigations are required. In this study, we investigated tick-borne bacterial pathogens in wild boar, hare, and fox and their ticks in Turkey. A total of 102 tick pools comprised of 445 ticks and blood samples were analyzed for the presence of bacterial DNA by PCRs targeted rickettsial gltA and ompA genes, 5S-23S rDNA gene for Borrelia spp...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Rasha Gharieb, Mohamed Mohamed, Ahmed Khalil, Ahmed Ali
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of influenza A viruses in birds and humans residing in the same localities of Sharkia Province, Egypt and the risk factors' assessment in poultry farms. A total of 100 birds comprised of 50 chickens, 25 ducks and 25 wild egrets were sampled. Swab samples were collected from 65 people (50 poultry farm workers and 15 hospitalized patients). All samples were screened for the presence of influenza A viruses using isolation and molecular assays. Avian influenza viruses were only detected in chicken samples (18%) and molecularly confirmed as subtype H5...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Xin Li, Zecai Zhang, Xiaoran Chang, Xu Wang, Junying Hu, Qian Lin, Yingqi Jia, Xu Yang, Xinping Wang
Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the common pathogenic bacteria in veterinary clinical infection. As an opportunistic microorganism, E. coli normally does not cause diseases. However, it causes infections under certain circumstance to domesticated animal and poultry, resulting in severe diarrhea, septicemia, and respiratory infections. Although there are increasing reports regarding the infections of E. coli to domestic animals and poultry, the infection of E. coli in dogs is relatively less reported, especially on septicemia and meningoencephalitis...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
B Ujvári, R Weiczner, Z Deim, G Terhes, E Urbán, A R Tóth, T Magyar
Isolates of Pasteurella multocida recovered from infected humans (n = 15) were characterized by traditional and molecular microbiological methods and were compared with cat-derived strains (n = 5). The most prevalent subspecies among strains from human infections was P. multocida subsp. septica (80%), and nearly all isolates showed a similar combination of virulence-associated genes. MLST analysis classified the 20 P. multocida strains into 16 different sequence types, and we assigned 11 new sequence types (ST), however, only one of those (ST 334) was shared by two human and one cat isolates...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Dongjin Zhu, Defang Zhou, Jie Liu, Xiaojing Hao, Ziqiang Cheng
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease of unknown cause. In the study, we found that duck circovirus (DuCV) induces PSC in natural and reproductive cases. PSC in DuCV naturally infected ducks was investigated by PCR and histopathology. A model of PSC was developed in one-day old duck by infection of DuCV. Effects on serum levels of liver enzymes and histology were evaluated, and DuCV tropism for bile duct in liver was analyzed by immuohistochemistry. Pathology observation of natural or reproductive DuCV infected ducks showed that the lesion of liver were characterized by cholangiocytic injuries and progressive fibrous obliteration of the biliary tree associated with lymphocytes infiltration...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Alba Nicolas-Boluda, Emmanuel Donnadieu
These last years, significant progress has been made in the design of strategies empowering T cells with efficient anti-tumor activities. Hence, adoptive T cell therapy and the use of monoclonal antibodies against the immunosuppressive surface molecules CTLA-4 and PD-1 appear as the most promising immunotherapies against cancer. One of the challenges ahead is to render these therapeutic interventions even more effective as a still elevated fraction of cancer patients is refractory to these treatments. A frequently overlooked determinant of the success of T cell-based immunotherapy relates to the ability of effector T cells to migrate into and within tumors, as well as to have access to tumor antigens...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Giovana Biezus, Gustavo Machado, Paulo Eduardo Ferian, Ubirajara Maciel da Costa, Leonardo Henrique Hasckel da Silva Pereira, Jéssica Aline Withoeft, Igor Augusto Coelho Nunes, Thiago Rinaldi Muller, Thierry Grima de Cristo, Renata Assis Casagrande
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 274 cats for determination of FeLV antigenemia and FIV seropositivity and factors associated with those infections in cats presented at the Veterinary Hospital of the Santa Catarina State University - UDESC (Brazil). Apparent prevalence for sick cats at the hospital population was 28.41% (95%CI 21.88-34.94%) for FeLV, 7.65% (95%CI 3.71-11.50%) for FIV and 2.18% (95%CI 0.56-5.47%) for both viruses. For healthy cats, the apparent prevalence was 9.89% (95%CI 3.75-16.02%) for FeLV, 2...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Laurent X Nouvel, Marie-Claude Hygonenq, Guillaume Catays, Enrico Martinelli, Philippe Le Page, Éric Collin, Hisashi Inokuma, François Schelcher, Christine Citti, Renaud Maillard
Mycoplasma wenyonii, a hemoplasma infecting cattle, was never detected in France. In 2014, evocative inclusions were observed in erythrocytes from cattle presenting milk drops, anemia, and edema in Brittany (France). A survey was then initiated to investigate the epidemiological situation and correlate mycoplasma detection with clinical signs. For this purpose, a new PCR assay targeting polC gene was designed. Comparative results with published PCR assays place this new one as more specific, allowing a one-step diagnosis without further sequencing...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Azar Najafi, Asad Mirzaei, Ali Kermanjani, Jahangir Abdi, Abolhassan Ghaderi, Razi Naserifar
INTRODUCTION: Amoebiasis is a multifactorial, life-threatening public health issue and the third parasitic disease cause of mortality in worldwide, particularly in low- and mid-income countries. The aim of this study was to attempt to explore genetic encoding differences of CP8 (conserved gene) of Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in its various infectious properties isolated from Ilam located at a southwest part of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 2023 stool samples were collected between 2016 and 2018 from the hospital in Ilam, of which only 30 isolates were identified as E...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Pavle Gavrilović, Ivan Pavlović, Igor Todorović
Alaria alata (Diplostomidae, Trematoda), a potentially zoonotic pathogen, is the only Alaria species in Europe. In recent years, increasing reports of mesocercariae of A. alata in wild boars have been recorded in European countries; however there have been no described cases in domestic pigs over the past decades. Out of 272 diaphragm samples from wild boars (Sus scrofa) and domestic pigs (Sus scrofa), from Serbia, included in the present investigations, mesocercariae of A. alata were found in six (3%) samples from wild boars and in two (2...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Hongxi Chen, Dekang Zhu, Mingshu Wang, Renyong Jia, Shun Chen, Mafeng Liu, Xinxin Zhao, Qiao Yang, Ying Wu, Shaqiu Zhang, Yunya Liu, Ling Zhang, Yanling Yu, Xiaoyue Chen, Anchun Cheng
To investigate the correlation between avian tuberculosis and duck amyloidosis, the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, duodenum and pectoralis muscle of ducks naturally infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium were used to detect amyloidosis by Congo red staining and potassium permanganate-Congo red staining. The expression level of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α and SAA2 were detected by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, duodenum and pectoralis muscle of the infected ducks exhibited amyloid proteins under ordinary light microscopy and the polarization light under polarized light microscopy...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Agata Bancerz-Kisiel, Magdalena Gral, Marta Odyniec, Wojciech Szweda
The aim of the study was to determine whether the presence of the Yersinia virulence plasmid could affect the production of enterotoxin YstA by Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from pigs which are the main source of infection for humans. The phenotypic features characteristic for the Yersinia virulence plasmid were detected on CRMOX agar in 8 out of 12 strains producing enterotoxin YstA, in 5 out of 12 doubtful strains, and in 11 out of 12 strains not producing YstA. Autoagglutination ability was detected in all 12 Y...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Saber Esmaeili, Ashraf Mohabati Mobarez, Mohammad Khalili, Ehsan Mostafavi
Coxiella burnetii is causative agent of Q fever, which is a public health problem in most countries. The aim of this study was to study the prevalence rate of C. burnetii in raw milk of dairy animals in Iran with previous history of abortion. In this survey, milk samples were collected from different dairy animals with history of abortion from Qom province (center of Iran). Samples were tested by Nested PCR and Real-time PCR for detection of IS1111 gene of C. burnetii. In total, 34.92% (44 of 126) milk samples were positive for C...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Roholla Taghadosi, Mohammad Reza Shakibaie, Hossein Hosseini-Nave
The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence, antibiotic resistance, presence of class 1 and 2 integrons, Extended Spectrum β-Lactamases (ESBL) genes, phylogenetic group and epidemiological relationships of EPEC, ETEC and EHEC pathotypes isolated from patients with diarrhea and farm animals in south east region of Iran. A total of 671 diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) were collected from stool samples of 395 patients with diarrhea and 276 farm cattles and goats. Presence of EPEC, ETEC and EHEC were identified using multiplex-PCR employing primers targeted the shiga toxin (stx), intimin (eae), bundle forming pili (bfp), and enterotoxins (lt and st) genes...
April 2019: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
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