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Environment International

Dapeng Wang, Peng Luo, Zhonglan Zou, Qingling Wang, Maolin Yao, Chun Yu, Shaofeng Wei, Baofei Sun, Kai Zhu, Qibing Zeng, Jun Li, Bing Liang, Aihua Zhang
BACKGROUND: Currently, most arsenic (As) studies in populations are concerned with water-borne arsenicosis. However, residents in Xingren County of Guizhou Province, Southwest of China, represent a unique case of arsenicosis which is related to indoor combustion of high As-containing coal. This study aimed to assess the alterations of As levels and its risk factors in coal-borne arsenicosis residents during the past 20 years. METHODS: Four follow-up investigations in Xingren County were selected from the year 1998 to 2017, a total of 245, 272, 584, and 309 residents were involved in the four investigations, respectively...
May 15, 2019: Environment International
Peipei Song, Jianpeng Gao, Xianxu Li, Cui Zhang, Lusheng Zhu, Jinhua Wang, Jun Wang
Phthalates (phthalic acid esters) have been widely applied as plasticizers. They are ubiquitous contaminants in soils, thereby posing a threat to human health. In this study, ecotoxicological effects of three typical PAEs (dimethyl phthalate-DMP, di-n-octyl phthalate-DOP and butyl benzyl phthalate-BBP) were investigated. As a biological indicator, earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were exposed to phthalates at various doses (0, 0.1, 1, 10 and 50 mg/kg) for different times (7, 14, 21, and 28 d). We evaluated the effects of phthalates on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase-SOD, peroxidase-POD and catalase-CAT) activities, glutathione S-transferase enzyme (GST) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) content and DNA damage...
May 15, 2019: Environment International
Huahua Li, Xiaoxue Mei, Bingfeng Liu, Zhen Li, Baichen Wang, Nanqi Ren, Defeng Xing
Ethanoligenens, a novel ethanologenic hydrogen-producing genus, is a representative fermenter in its unique acetate-ethanol fermentation and physiology. Acetic acid accumulation is one of major factors that affect H2 -ethanol co-production. However, sufficient information is unavailable on the tolerance mechanisms of hydrogen-producing bacterium in acetic acid stress. The fermentation process of Ethanoligenens harbinense YUAN-3 was significantly slowed down in the selection stress of exogenous acetic acid. The maximum gas production rate of strain YUAN-3 decreased from 192...
May 11, 2019: Environment International
Jannik Sprengel, Sina Wieselmann, Alexander Kröpfl, Walter Vetter
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are a group of man-made pollutants of growing environmental concern. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) were recently classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), while medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) are still unregulated. Foodstuff is a major pathway for the human CP intake, and the regular diet has been analyzed in several studies recently. However, dietary supplements (DS) had not been analyzed on CPs. Our goal was to investigate the occurrence of CPs in DS and to evaluate the possible threat for the consumers...
May 10, 2019: Environment International
Shengnan Hou, Na Zheng, Lin Tang, Xiaofeng Ji, Yunyang Li, Xiuyi Hua
Since heavy metal pollution is widespread in street dust in China, the effects of heavy metals in street dust on human health cannot be ignored. However, studies estimating heavy metal pollution in street dust nationwide are limited. In this study, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in street dust at 3877sites throughout China were obtained from the published scientific literature. Based on these data, the contamination levels, spatial distributions, sources and potential health risks of heavy metals in street dust were comprehensively estimated...
May 9, 2019: Environment International
Federica Madia, Andrew Worth, Maurice Whelan, Raffaella Corvi
Cancer is a key public health concern, being the second leading cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality after cardiovascular diseases. At the global level, cancer prevalence, incidence and mortality rates are increasing. These trends are not fully explained by a growing and ageing population: with marked regional and socioeconomic disparities, lifestyle factors, the resources dedicated to preventive medicine, and the occupational and environmental control of hazardous chemicals all playing a role. While it is difficult to establish the contribution of chemical exposure to the societal burden of cancer, a number of measures can be taken to better assess the carcinogenic properties of chemicals and manage their risks...
May 9, 2019: Environment International
Yinglong Su, Dong Wu, Huipeng Xia, Congyan Zhang, Jianhong Shi, Kevin J Wilkinson, Bing Xie
The dissemination and propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is an emerging global health concern, and the potential effects of nanomaterials on ARGs fates have drawn much attention recently. In the current study, the effects of metallic nanoparticles on ARGs occurrence of leachate culturable microbiota were investigated by four typical metal and metal oxide nanoparticles (Cu, Zn, CuO, and ZnO). The ARGs diversity was remarkably decreased during the cultivation and enrichment of leachate microbiota, and their abundances decreased for 1...
May 9, 2019: Environment International
Qing-Lin Chen, Dong Zhu, Xin-Li An, Jing Ding, Yong-Guan Zhu, Li Cui
Growing evidences have demonstrated that heavy metal contamination can promote the proliferation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) via co-selection. However, effects of nano-metal-materials on the occurrence and level of ARGs in the soil and plant, have not been fully explored. To gain insights into this impact, we conducted a pot experiment by adding nano‑silver particles (AgNPs) as a stimuli and Ag ion (AgNO3 ) and tetracycline as a comparison. By using high throughput quantitative PCR, our results indicated that application of AgNPs (~20 nm and ~50 nm) at a concentration of 100 ppm resulted in no significant changes in the abundance of ARGs in either soil or phyllosphere (P > 0...
May 9, 2019: Environment International
Yu-Xia Jiang, Wen-Jun Shi, Dong-Dong Ma, Jin-Na Zhang, Guang-Guo Ying, Hui Zhang, Choon-Nam Ong
Dydrogesterone (DDG) is a synthetic progestin widely used in numerous gynecological diseases. DDG has been shown to disturb fish reproduction, however, the mechanism is still unclear. Here we studied the histological changes and differences of metabolome between exposed and control fish gonads after exposure of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos to 2.8, 27.6, and 289.8 ng/L DDG until sexual maturity for a total of 140 days. Dydrogesterone exposure led to male-biased zebrafish sex ratios. Histological examination revealed that DDG induced postovulatory follicles and atretic follicles in the ovary of the female fish...
May 9, 2019: Environment International
Fanny Coutelot, Robert J Thomas, John C Seaman
Technetium (99 Tc), a uranium-235 (235 U) and plutonium-239 (239 Pu) fission product, is a primary risk driver in low level radioactive liquid waste at U.S. Department of Energy sites. Previous studies have shown success in using Zero Valent Iron (ZVI) to chemically reduce and immobilize redox sensitive groundwater contaminants. Batch and column experiments were performed to assess the ability of a novel porous iron composite material (PIC) to immobilize Tc(VII) in comparison with two commercial Fe oxide sorbents and reagent grade ZVI in the presence and absence of NO3 - , a competing oxidized species that is often found in high concentrations in liquid nuclear waste...
May 8, 2019: Environment International
Stefan Tanda, Roman Ličbinský, Jitka Hegrová, Walter Goessler
New Year's Eve fireworks represent one of the most unusual atmospheric pollution events in the course of a year. A majority of particles aerosolized by burning of fireworks consist of metals and their compounds used in firework displays. In this study, ambient particulate matter was sampled using a 14 stage cascade impactor in two European cities during turn of the years 2016/17 and 2017/18. Concentrations of 33 elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. To assess the impact of New Year's Eve fireworks on ambient air quality, chemically resolved size distributions of particles with diameters between 15 nm and 10 μm collected during fireworks episodes were compared to ones collected in normal winter weeks...
May 8, 2019: Environment International
N Cowan, P Levy, J Drewer, A Carswell, R Shaw, I Simmons, C Bache, J Marinheiro, J Brichet, A R Sanchez-Rodriguez, J Cotton, P W Hill, D R Chadwick, D L Jones, T H Misselbrook, U Skiba
Trapezoidal integration by linear interpolation of data points is by far the most commonly used method of cumulative flux calculations of nitrous oxide (N2 O) in studies that use flux chambers; however, this method is incapable of providing accurate uncertainty estimates. A Bayesian approach was used to calculate N2 O emission factors (EFs) and their associated uncertainties from flux chamber measurements made after the application of nitrogen fertilisers, in the form of ammonium nitrate (AN), urea (Ur) and urea treated with Agrotain® urease inhibitor (UI) at four grassland sites in the UK...
May 8, 2019: Environment International
Vladimir R Djordjevic, David R Wallace, Amie Schweitzer, Novica Boricic, Djordje Knezevic, Slavko Matic, Nikola Grubor, Mirko Kerkez, Dejan Radenkovic, Zorica Bulat, Biljana Antonijevic, Vesna Matovic, Aleksandra Buha
Although profoundly studied, etiology of pancreatic cancer (PC) is still rather scarce. Some of established risk factors of PC are connected to an increased cadmium (Cd) body burden. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the role of this environmental pollutant in PC development by conducting human observational, experimental and in vitro studies. The case-control study included 31 patients with a histologically based diagnosis of exocrine PC subjected to radical surgical intervention as cases and 29 accidental fatalities or subjects who died of a nonmalignant illness as controls...
May 8, 2019: Environment International
Luming Zhao, Kang Jian, Huijun Su, Yayun Zhang, Jianhua Li, Robert J Letcher, Guanyong Su
Despite of the ubiquity of organophosphate esters (OPEs) in various environmental matrices, information regarding the dietary intakes of OPEs is currently limited. To better understand dietary exposure and intake, the present study investigated 11 OPE flame retardants (FRs) in 105 composite food samples divided into 9 food categories, collected in 2018 and based on the contents of a typical Chinese food market basket. Nine OPEs, including triethyl phosphate (TEP), tributyl phosphate (TNBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), 2-ethylhexyl-diphenyl phosphate (EHDPP), tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBOEP), tris(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate (TEHP) and tris(methyl-phenyl) phosphate (TMPP), were measurable above the method limits of quantifications (MLOQs) in at least one of the analyzed samples...
May 8, 2019: Environment International
Yang Zhang, Yuxi Liu, Shaohua Xie, Haibao Huang, Guangsheng Guo, Hongxing Dai, Jiguang Deng
Herein we fabricated the supported single-atom silver catalysts using an in situ molten salt method. The Mn2 O3 nanowires supported single-atom silver catalyst (i.e., 0.06 wt% Ag/Mn2 O3 ) exhibited excellent catalytic activity for toluene combustion, with the temperatures required for 50 and 90% of toluene conversions being 170 and 205 °C, respectively, at a space velocity of 40,000 mL/(g h). However, the toluene conversion at 205 °C quickly decreased from 90 to 30% within 2.5 h of on-stream reaction...
May 8, 2019: Environment International
Frances M Nilsen, John A Bowden, Thomas R Rainwater, Arnold M Brunell, Brittany L Kassim, Phil M Wilkinson, Louis J Guillette, Stephen E Long, Tracey B Schock
Toxic trace element exposure occurs through release of the ubiquitous and naturally occurring elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg). The unique environmental conditions of the wetland ecosystems along the southeastern Atlantic coast of the United States lead to the accumulation of Hg which is greater than in most other ecosystems in the country. There are also point sources of As, Cd, and Pb in this region. To effectively monitor trace element concentrations, and consequently the potential human exposure, accessible local sentinel species are needed...
May 8, 2019: Environment International
Angelia L Seyfferth, Douglas Amaral, Matt A Limmer, Luiz R G Guilherme
Increasing plant-availability of Si through soil amendment of Si-rich rice residues can decrease inorganic As without affecting Cd levels in grain under flooded soil conditions. However, the impacts of Si amendments on Cd and As uptake by rice under different flooding extents have not been reported. We investigated the effects of different flooding extent on As and Cd uptake by rice and accumulation in grain in well-weathered soil amended with Si-rich rice husk (Husk) or mixed charred/ashed rice husk (Ash)...
May 8, 2019: Environment International
Lianfa Li, Mariam Girguis, Frederick Lurmann, Jun Wu, Robert Urman, Edward Rappaport, Beate Ritz, Meredith Franklin, Carrie Breton, Frank Gilliland, Rima Habre
BACKGROUND: Accurate estimation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) and nitrogen oxide (NOx ) concentrations at high spatiotemporal resolutions is crucial for improving evaluation of their health effects, particularly with respect to short-term exposures and acute health outcomes. For estimation over large regions like California, high spatial density field campaign measurements can be combined with more sparse routine monitoring network measurements to capture spatiotemporal variability of NO2 and NOx concentrations...
May 7, 2019: Environment International
Dan L Crouse, Lauren Pinault, Adele Balram, Michael Brauer, Richard T Burnett, Randall V Martin, Aaron van Donkelaar, Paul J Villeneuve, Scott Weichenthal
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies have consistently demonstrated that exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) is associated with increased risks of mortality. To a lesser extent, a series of studies suggest that living in greener areas is associated with reduced risks of mortality. Only a handful of studies have examined the interplay between PM2.5 , greenness, and mortality. METHODS: We investigated the role of residential greenness in modifying associations between long-term exposures to PM2...
May 7, 2019: Environment International
Veronika Veselská, Hana Šillerová, Jörg Göttlicher, Zuzana Michálková, Jamal A Siddique, Sylva Číhalová, Vladislav Chrastný, Ralph Steininger, Stefan Mangold, Michael Komárek
This study investigates redox transitions associated with the adsorption of Cr(VI) on commonly occurring soil components (silicates, oxides and humic acids) and their synthetic mixtures by coupling the mechanistic surface complexation modeling with spectroscopic and isotopic analyses. The mixtures of soil components were prepared to reflect the composition of the real anthroposol sample, determined by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), total organic carbon (TOC) measurement and extraction methods. The effect of different initial Cr(VI) concentrations (2×10-2 , 5×10-4 , 10-4 , 10-5 , and 10-6 M), background electrolyte (10-3 , 10-2 , and 10-1 M KNO3 ), pH values (3-9), and sorbate/sorbent ratios (2g/L - 20g/L) were investigated...
May 7, 2019: Environment International
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