Domenico Ribatti, Vincenzo Benagiano
The chick embryo area vasculosa is an extraembryonic membrane that is commonly used in vivo to study both angiogenesis and anti-angiogenesis. This review article analyzes the possibility to use the area vasculosa as an in vivo assay for the screening of putative angiogenic and anti-angiogenic molecules in alternative to the chorioallantoic membrane, more useful to study tumor growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis, and the angiogenic activity of acellular scaffolds and organoids.
March 20, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Subramanya S Mallikarjunappa, Adeboye O Osunkoya
Current management options for high-risk prostate cancer (PCa) patients include radical prostatectomy with lymph node dissection and other local or systemic therapeutic approaches. However, there is paucity of data in the pathology literature on the radical prostatectomy findings in patients with locally aggressive Grade group 5 PCa with negative limited or extended lymph node dissection. A search was made through our Urologic Pathology files and consults of the senior author for patients who had radical prostatectomy specimens with locally aggressive Grade group 5 PCa and limited or extended lymph node dissection from 2010 to 2022...
March 18, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Corinna Lang-Schwarz, Michael Vieth, Theresa Dregelies, William Sterlacci
BACKGROUND: To date, little is known regarding human epithelial growth factor receptor (HER2) low-expressing colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to promising rising therapies with HER2-antibody-drug conjugates we aimed to analyze the frequency of HER2-low in patients with CRC. Additionally we characterized the clinicopathologic background of this group and its potential relationship with the tumor microenvironment represented by budding and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). METHODS: 319 patients with CRC, stages I-IV, were enrolled...
March 17, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Franziska S Karras, Julian Schreier, Kerstin Körber-Ferl, Sarah R Ullmann, Sabine Franke, Albert Roessner, Dörthe Jechorek
Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma (DDCS) is a rare malignant cartilage tumor arising out of a low-grade chondrosarcoma, whereby the well-differentiated and the dedifferentiated components coexist in the same localization. DDCS has a massively increased metastatic potential in comparison to low-grade chondrosarcoma. So far, the underlying mechanisms of DDCS development and the increased malignancy are widely unknown. Targeted DNA sequencing revealed no genetic differences between both tissue components. Besides genetic events, alterations in epigenetic control may play a role in DDCS development...
March 11, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Nourhan M Abdelmaksoud, Hesham A El-Mahdy, Ahmed Ismail, Elsayed G E Elsakka, Ahmed A El-Husseiny, Emad Gamil Khidr, Esraa M Ali, Mohammed Helmy Rashed, Fatma El-Saeed El-Demerdash, Ahmed S Doghish
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the 2nd common cancer in females after breast cancer. Besides, it's the most common among gynecological cancers. Several epigenetic factors such as miRNAs have been reported to affect EC aspects including initiation, progression, angiogenesis, and resistance to therapy. miRNAs could regulate the expression of various genes involved in EC pathogenesis. This effect is attributed to miRNAs' effects in proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. miRNAs also influence crucial EC-related mechanistic pathways such as JAK/STAT axis, EGFR, TGF-β signaling, and P53...
March 11, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Ellie M Proussaloglou, Luis Z Blanco, Kalliopi P Siziopikou
Pregnancy associated breast cancer (PABC) is defined as a breast cancer diagnosed during gestation, lactation or within 5 years postpartum. While the development of malignancy during pregnancy is rare, the incidence is increasing. Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers diagnosed during pregnancy, affecting up to 1 in 3000 deliveries. New understanding of the pathophysiology of PABC recently resulted in updated definitions distinguishing breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy (PrBC) from cancer diagnosed during the postpartum period (PPBC) due to distinct biology and prognosis...
March 11, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Doaa Alqaidy, Cesar A Moran
Seven patients with ligneous lesions of the bronchus are presented. The patients are five men and two women between the ages of 51 and 79 years (average: 65) who had prior history of pulmonary non-small cell carcinoma in the past 2-3 years. All the patients had undergone surgical resection followed by chemotherapy. The patients were evaluated for the potential recurrence of carcinoma and bronchial biopsies were obtained. Histologically, all the cases shared similar features, manly the presence of a subepithelial amorphous, acellular, eosinophilic material with minimal inflammatory reaction...
March 9, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Niloufar Salimian, Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Sepideh Mirzaei, Mehrdad Hashemi
Recent findings have shown the significant role of long non-coding RNAs in the pathogenesis of various cancers. In this regard, the variation in the expression of LINC01929 was explored in various cancers to explore its impact on the development of diverse malignancies and cancers. The data of the cancer genome atlas (TCGA) were utilized to evaluate the changes in the expression of LINC01929 in various cancers, as well as its relationship with the patients' survival rate. The co-expression of the genes and data merging of TCGA were utilized to identify the LINC01929-associated pathways...
March 7, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Ying-Le Tang, Lin Zhu, Yan Tao, Wen Lu, Hong Cheng
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays an important role as a key signal-receiving transmembrane protein molecule in the liver, and substances that target the liver exert therapeutic effects via TLR4-related signaling pathways. This article provides a comprehensive review of targeting the TLR4 signaling axis to play an important role in the liver based on endogenous substances. Articles were divided into 5 major types of liver disease, acute liver injury, viral hepatitis, alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver cancer, to elucidate how various endogenous substances affect the liver via the TLR4 pathway and the important role of the pathway itself in liver-related diseases to discover the potential therapeutic implications of the TLR4-related pathway in the liver...
March 7, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
L L Friker, T Tzaridis, S J Enkirch, C Lüders, E Hattingen, G Kristiansen, T Goschzik, A Waha, C Lütter, J Weller, U Herrlinger, T Pietsch, M Gessi, B G Baumert, G H Gielen
Gliosarcoma is a rare histopathological subtype of glioblastoma. Metastatic spreading is unusual. In this report, we illustrate a case of gliosarcoma with extensive extracranial metastases with confirmation of histological and molecular concordance between the primary tumor and a metastatic lesion of the lung. Only the autopsy revealed the extent of metastatic spread and the hematogenous pattern of metastatic dissemination. Moreover, the case bared a familial coincidence of malignant glial tumors as the patient's son was diagnosed with a high-grade glioma shortly after the patient's death...
March 7, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Tanguy Fenouil, Pierre Marie Lavrut, Maud Rabeyrin, Mustapha Adham, Kayvan Mohkam, Jean Yves Mabrut, Thomas Walter, Valerie Hervieu
INTRODUCTION: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a major public health issue with an incidence/mortality ratio reaching 98 %. Only 15-20 % of patients with PDAC can undergo surgery. Following PDAC surgical resection, 80 % of patients will experience local or metastatic recurrence of this disease. pTNM staging is the gold standard for risk stratification but is not sufficient to recapitulate the prognosis. Several prognostic factors are known to impact survival after surgery when uncovered during pathological examination...
March 7, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Bingtan Kong, Jie Zhou, Hao Wang, Yinan Li, Yuancan Pan, Hui Zhu, Qing Zhang, Qingsheng Fan, Xiaomin Wang, Ganlin Zhang
The histopathological growth pattern (HGP) is a morphological reflection of interactions between cancer cells and the surrounding tissue, and has been identified with a remarkably predictive value in liver metastases. However, there is still a lack of studies on HGP of primary liver cancer even furtherly on HGP evolution. We employed VX2 tumor-bearing rabbits as the primary liver cancer model of which tumor size and distant metastasis were investigated. HGP assessment and computed tomography scanning was performed in four cohorts of different time points to map the HGP evolution...
March 6, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Mohsen Karami Fath, Saba Shafieyari, Nasim Ardalani, Farzane Moumivand, Hossein Kaviani Charati, Mohammad Zareei, Arash Mansoori Nia, Maryam Zokaei, Ghasem Barati
The expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), particularly HIF-1, plays a major role in the adaptation of solid tumors to hypoxic conditions. The activation of the HIF pathway results in an expression of genes involved in the promotion of cell growth, proliferation, vascularization, metastasis, and therapeutic resistance. Circular RNA (CircRNA) is considered as a major regulator of gene expression. CircRNAs could regulate the HIF-1 pathway in cancer cells. In addition, they might be regulated by the HIF-1 pathway to promote cancer progression...
March 5, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Honglin Yan, Wenxian Huang, Chuang Chen, Xiuyun Zhang, Kaimei Zhu, Jingping Yuan
Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) acts as an anti-engulfment signal on tumor cells, and its overexpression is correlated with poor prognosis of various malignant tumors. However, the role and mechanism of CD47 in tumor cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis remain unclarified. Emerging evidence indicates that microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential regulators to mediate CD47 generation. In this study, we found that CD47 was up-regulated while miR-133a was down-regulated in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in vitro and in vivo...
March 5, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Lei Meng, Pibo Hu, Aman Xu
PGAM5 has been associated with the development of tumours, however, its function in gastric cancer (GC) remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the role and mechanism of PGAM5 in regulating GC. The results revealed that PGAM5 was upregulated in GC tissues and cell lines, which was correlated with tumour size and TNM stage. Moreover, PGAM5 knockdown inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion progression, whereas PGAM5 overexpression promoted the function of GC cells in vitro. PGAM5 also promoted the activation of the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway...
March 5, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Lu He, Jun Yang, Biao Zhang, Yuyang Wang, Jing Wang, Qing Ye
BACKGROUND: Microsatellite instability (MSI) represents as a molecular hallmark of deficient MMR system at the genomic level. Increasing clinical significance of MSI status highlights the necessity of simple, accurate markers for detection. Although 2B3D NCI panel is the most widely applied, it has been questioned whether the performance of NCI panel is second to none in MSI detection. METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy of the NCI panel versus a 6-mononucleotide site panel (BAT25, BAT26, NR21, NR24, NR27, and MONO-27) in assessing MSI status of 468 Chinese patients with CRC, and compared MSI test results with the results by immunohistochemistry of four MMR proteins (MLH1, PMS2, MSH2, MSH6) in the present study...
February 28, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Çağdaş Aktan, Ali Şahin Küçükaslan, Bilge Aydin Türk, Işıl Yildirim
AIM: Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) serve as important regulatory molecules of gene expression and protein functionality at multiple biological levels, and their deregulation plays a key role in tumorigenesis including in breast cancer metastasis. Therefore, in this study, we aim to compare the expression of novel lncRNAs in the landscape of invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive lobular (ILC) carcinoma of breast. MAIN METHODS: We have designed an in-silico approach to find the lncRNAs that regulate the breast cancer...
February 28, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Ahmed S Doghish, Mohamed A Ali, Salah S Elyan, Mahmoud A Elrebehy, Hend H Mohamed, Reda M Mansour, Ayatallah Elgohary, Aml Ghanem, Ahmed H I Faraag, Nourhan M Abdelmaksoud, Hebatallah Ahmed Mohamed Moustafa
Cervical cancer (CC) is the primary cause of cancer deaths in underdeveloped countries. The persistence of infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant contributor to the development of CC. However, few women with morphologic HPV infection develop invasive illnesses, suggesting other mechanisms contribute to cervical carcinogenesis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are small chain nucleic acids that can regulate wide networks of cellular events. They can inhibit or degrade their target protein-encoding genes...
February 28, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Xiaoling Zhu, Xin Jin, Zhenjun Li, Xialin Chen, Jianguo Zhao
BACKGROUND: Tumor metastasis is a fundamental reason for the poor prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Publications suggested that upregulated Aquaporin-11 (AQP11) can improve CRC patients' prognoses, but few articles investigated the regulation of AQP11 in CRC cell adhesion and hepatic metastases. Therefore, this study will explore the regulatory mechanism of AQP11 regulating CRC cell adhesion and hepatic metastases at the molecular level. METHODS: AQP11 and miR-152-3p expression were analyzed based on The Cancer Genome Atlas-Colon Adenocarcinoma/Rectum Adenocarcinoma (TCGA-COAD/READ) dataset and several other datasets...
February 27, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Arash Safarzadeh, Bashdar Mahmud Hussen, Mohammad Taheri, Majid Mokhtari
Colorectal Neoplasia Differentially Expressed (CRNDE) is an lncRNA with crucial roles in cancer development. It is located on chromosome 16 on the opposite strand to the adjacent IRX5 gene, implying the presence of a shared bidirectional promoter for these two genes. Expression of CRNDE has been assessed in a diverse array of hematological malignancies and solid tumors, representing its potential as a therapeutic target in these conditions. This lncRNA has a regulatory effect on activity of several pathways and axes that are involved in the regulation of cell apoptosis, immune responses and tumorigenesis...
February 24, 2023: Pathology, Research and Practice
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