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Infant Behavior & Development

Emily Zimmerman, Kathryn Connaghan, Jill Hoover, Danielle Alu, Julie Peters
The current study examined maternal language and prosody production during feeding (milk vs. solid foods) and playing with their infant compared to an adult-directed speech (ADS) baseline in 12 healthy full-term infants (6-13 months old). We recorded maternal language during 10 min of spontaneous speech across the four conditions. We further recorded maternal connected speech containing specific word targets, elicited through picture description, to attain prosodic measures. Results showed that mothers used significantly fewer verbs and more utterances per minute in the baseline condition compared to play or solid feeding conditions...
February 8, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
Erin R McKay, Leanna Rosinski, Linda C Mayes, Helena J V Rutherford, David J Bridgett
Existing evidence indicates that maternal responses to infant distress, specifically more sensitive and less inconsistent/rejecting responses, are associated with lower infant negative affect (NA). However, due to ethical and methodological constraints, most existing studies do not employ methods that guarantee each mother will be observed responding to infant distress. To address such limitations, in the current study, a distressed infant simulator (SIM), programmed to be inconsolable, was employed to ensure that mothers (N = 150; 4 months postpartum) were observed responding to infant distress...
January 19, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
Jonathan F Kominsky
Infant looking-time paradigms often use specialized software for real time manual coding of infant gaze. Here, I introduce PyHab, the first open-source looking-time coding and stimulus presentation solution designed specifically with open science in mind. PyHab is built on the libraries of PsychoPy (Peirce, 2007). PyHab has its own graphical interface for building studies and requires no programming experience to use. When creating a study, PyHab saves a folder that contains all of the code required to run the study and all of the stimuli, making each experiment a self-contained, easily shared package...
January 17, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
Simon P Byrne, Alexandria Mayo, Cayla O'Hair, Melissa Zankman, Grace M Austin, Chloe Thompson-Booth, Eamon J McCrory, Linda C Mayes, Helena J V Rutherford
It is vital that new mothers quickly and accurately recognize their child's facial expressions. There is evidence that during pregnancy women develop enhanced processing of facial features associated with infancy and distress, as these cues signal vulnerability and are therefore biologically salient. In this study, 51 pregnant women at 17-36 weeks gestation watched neutral infant and adult faces gradually morph into either happy or sad expressions. We measured the speed and accuracy with which participants were able to recognize facial affect (happy vs...
January 16, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
Ana Luisa B T B T Dau, Laura S Callinan, Megan V Smith
The current study aimed to examine the impact of maternal depression, maternal fetal attachment (MFA) and parenting stress on maternal sensitivity, intrusiveness and positive regard for the child with a sample of 36 low-income, mothers-infant dyads that were followed from pregnancy through the first year postpartum. Maternal depression and parenting stress were expected to have a negative impact on maternal sensitivity, intrusiveness and positive regard, while high MFA was hypothesized to have a positive impact on these three outcomes...
January 15, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
Justin Chumbley, Annekatrin Steinhoff
Humans depend on social relationships for survival and wellbeing throughout life. Yet, individuals differ markedly in their ability to form and maintain healthy social relationships. Here we use a simple mathematical model to formalize the contention that a person's attachment style is determined by what they learn from relationships early in life. For the sake of argument, we therefore discount individual differences in the innate personality or attachment style of a child, assuming instead that all children are simply born with an equivalent, generic, hardwired desire and instinct for social proximity, and a capacity to learn...
January 11, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
Ferran Pons, Laura Bosch, David J Lewkowicz
We investigated whether attention to a talker's eyes in 12 month-old infants is related to their communication and social abilities. We measured infant attention to a talker's eyes and mouth with a Tobii eye-tracker and examined the correlation between attention to the talker's eyes and scores on the Adaptive Behavior Questionnaire from the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID-III). Results indicated a positive relationship between eye gaze and scores on the Social and Communication subscales of the BSID-III...
January 8, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
John M Taylor, Christi A Bergin
Measures of parenting quality that are valid among high-risk families are needed for research and program evaluation. This study investigates the functioning of the Parent-Caregiver Involvement Scale -Short Form (P/CIS-SF) in a high-risk sample. The P/CIS-SF measures several behaviors pertaining to both "amount" and "quality," as well overall "impressions" of parenting. Participants were 170 six-month-olds and their mothers who were at risk for child abuse, impoverished, single, young, and had multiple children...
January 7, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
M M P G Noten, K B van der Heijden, S C J Huijbregts, N Bouw, S H M van Goozen, H Swaab
Impaired empathy is an important risk factor of aggression, but results are contradictory in toddlerhood. The association between empathy and aggression may differ for empathic distress and empathic concern in response to empathy-evoking situations, and for boys and girls. Therefore, the current study investigated whether empathic distress and empathic concern at age 20 months (N = 133, 69 boys) predicted aggression at ages 20 and 30 months (N = 119, 62 boys), while taking a potential moderating effect of sex into account...
January 7, 2019: Infant Behavior & Development
Kazuhide Hashiya, Xianwei Meng, Yusuke Uto, Kana Tajiri
The current study aimed to extend the understanding of the early development of spontaneous facial reactions toward observed facial expressions. Forty-six 9- to 10-month-old infants observed video clips of dynamic human facial expressions that were artificially created with morphing technology. The infants' facial responses were recorded, and the movements of the facial action unit 12 (e.g., lip-corner raising, associated with happiness) and facial action unit 4 (e.g., brow-lowering, associated with anger) were visually evaluated by multiple naïve raters...
December 15, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Eve Sauer LeBarton, Rebecca J Landa
Motor difficulties may be an early Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) risk indicator and may predict subsequent expressive language skills. Further understanding of motor functioning in the first year of life in children with ASD is needed. We examined motor skills in 6-month-olds (n = 140) at high and low familial risk for ASD using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales (Grasping, Visual-Motor Integration, and Stationary subscales). In Study 1, motor skill at 6 months predicted ASD status at 24-36 months; ASD was associated with poorer infant motor skills...
December 14, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Lauren R Bader, Hillary N Fouts, Julia Jaekel
Parents' exposure to stressful ecosocial situations, like inadequate resources, is linked to parents' perceptions of infants' fussing and crying and less sensitive caregiving. However, studies supporting these findings predominantly come from Western contexts of parenting and infant care. Ecosocial situations may have different effects on parenting and infants in distinct cultural contexts. In this study, the link between Gamo mothers' expressions of stress about their infants' negative emotional displays (N = 29 mothers and infants) and mother-infant interactions was investigated...
December 3, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Sebastian Dörrenberg, Lisa Wenzel, Marina Proft, Hannes Rakoczy, Ulf Liszkowski
The current study tested the reliability and generalizability of a narrative act-out false belief task held to reveal Theory of Mind (ToM) competence at 3 years of age, before children pass verbal standard false belief tasks (the "Duplo task"; Rubio-Fernández & Geurts, 2013, Psychological Science). We conducted the task across two labs with methodologically improved matched control conditions. Further, we administered an analogue intensionality version to assess the scope of ToM competence in the Duplo task...
December 1, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Brea Chouinard, Kimberly Scott, Rhodri Cusack
Online testing of infants by recording video with a webcam has the potential to improve the replicability of developmental studies by facilitating larger sample sizes and by allowing methods (including recruitment) to be specified in code. However, the recorded video still needs to be manually scored. This labour-intensive process puts downward pressure on sample sizes and requires subjective judgements that may not be reproducible in a different laboratory. Here we present the first fully automatic pipeline, using a face analysis software-as-a-service and a discriminant-analysis classifier to score infant videos acquired online...
November 30, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Esther Schott, Mijke Rhemtulla, Krista Byers-Heinlein
Research with infants is often slow and time-consuming, so infant researchers face great pressure to use the available participants in an efficient way. One strategy that researchers sometimes use to optimize efficiency is data peeking (or "optional stopping"), that is, doing a preliminary analysis (whether a formal significance test or informal eyeballing) of collected data. Data peeking helps researchers decide whether to abandon or tweak a study, decide that a sample is complete, or decide to continue adding data points...
November 20, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Jennifer LaBounty, Margaret Oliver, Kaitlyn True, Hannah Cooper, Sheena Friesen, Gabrielle Castro
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between temperament style and understanding of goal-directed action in 10-11-month-old infants. Infant social understanding was assessed using a looking-time measure similar to Woodward (1998). This method yielded two measures of infant social understanding; 'decrement of attention' (a measure of infant attention during habituation) and 'novelty preference' (an index of infants' understanding of goal-directed behavior). Temperament style was provided by online parent report (IBQ; Rothbart, 1981)...
November 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Christina Schonberg, Gary F Marcus, Scott P Johnson
We asked whether 11- and 14- month-old infants' abstract rule learning, an early form of analogical reasoning, is susceptible to processing constraints imposed by limits in attention and memory for sequence position. We examined 11- and 14- month-old infants' learning and generalization of abstract repetition rules ("repetition anywhere," Experiment 1 or "medial repetition," Experiment 2) and ordering of specific items (edge positions, Experiment 3) in 4-item sequences. Infants were habituated to sequences containing repetition- and/or position-based structure and then tested with "familiar" vs...
November 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Janet L Hauck, Gabriela R Zott, Isabella T Felzer-Kim, Chelsea M Adkins
This study examined low-intensity physical activity (PA), sleep behavior (24-hour accelerometry), and growth in 22 6-month old infants. Relationships were assessed using bivariate correlations. Infants accumulating less 'total' sleep spent more time in low-intensity PA (r = -.524, p = .012). Those with less 'nighttime' sleep had greater nap frequency (r = -.460, p = .031), nap duration (r =  -.529, p = .011) and weight-for-length z-scores (r = -.481, p = .024), but still accumulated less total sleep (r = ...
October 30, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Penina M Backer, Kelsey M Quigley, Cynthia A Stifter
Mother-infant dyadic emotion regulation - the joint modulation of affective rhythms as interactive partners dynamically respond to each other across time - has been shown to promote social-emotional wellbeing both during and beyond infancy. Although contributions of dyadic regulation to self-regulatory development may particularly apparent during infant distress, studies have traditionally examined dyadic regulation in low-stress contexts. The present study addresses this gap by identifying distinct patterns of mother-infant dyadic emotion regulation following a highly distressing immunization procedure and then examining how these groups differed in mother and infant personality and temperament characteristics...
October 19, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
Sarah C Kucker, Larissa K Samuelson, Lynn K Perry, Hanako Yoshida, Eliana Colunga, Megan G Lorenz, Linda B Smith
The goal of science is to advance our understanding of particular phenomena. However, in the field of development, the phenomena of interest are complex, multifaceted, and change over time. Here, we use three decades of research on the shape bias to argue that while replication is clearly an important part of the scientific process, integration across the findings of many studies that include variations in procedure is also critical to create a coherent understanding of the thoughts and behaviors of young children...
October 19, 2018: Infant Behavior & Development
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