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Chinese Journal of Physiology

Hui-Hsuan Ke, Dueng-Yuan Hueng, Wen-Chiuan Tsai
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2) are known to induce tumor progression in certain malignancies but act as tumor suppressors in other human neoplasms. In this study, we not only tested the association between PTX3 expression and the World Health Organization (WHO) tumor grading system but also evaluated overall patient survival under variable expression of PTX3 and Nrf2 in primary brain tumors (PBTs). Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed for PTX3 and Nrf2 in 10 nonneoplastic brain tissues and 197 PBTs...
January 2019: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Kun-Ze Lee, Ji-Chuu Hwang
The hypoglossal nerve displays respiratory rhythmic bursting and is composed of preinspiratory and inspiratory activity which is important in maintaining upper airway patency. The present study was designed to examine the modulatory role of glycinergic inhibition in respiratory rhythmic hypoglossal bursting. The activity of the phrenic nerve, as well as the medial and lateral branches of the hypoglossal nerve, was recorded simultaneously in urethane-anesthetized and mechanically ventilated adult rats in response to moderate and high levels of sustained lung inflation...
January 2019: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Cheng-Chia Tsai, Mao-Hsien Wang, Kuo-Chi Chang, Hung-Sheng Soung, Chih-Chuan Yang, Hsiang-Chien Tseng
Having powerful antioxidative properties, L-theanine (LT), one of the major amino acid components in green tea, has potent anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the potential protective effects of LT on haloperidol (HAL)-induced orofacial dyskinesia (OD) in rats. HAL treatment (1 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 21 days) induced OD; significant increases (P < 0.001) in the frequency of vacuous chewing movement and tongue protrusion as well as the duration of facial twitching. LT treatment (100 mg/kg orally for 35 days, starting 14 days before HAL injection) was able to prevent most of the HAL-induced OD...
January 2019: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Răzvan Constantin Serban, Alkora Ioana Balan, Marcel Perian, Irina Pintilie, Cristina Somkereki, Adina Huţanu, Alina Scridon
The pathophysiology of coronary artery disease (CAD) includes low-grade chronic inflammation. At its turn, inflammation is known to promote myocardial structural remodeling and to increase vulnerability to atrial arrhythmias. Meanwhile, the impact of chronic inflammation on the electrophysiological properties of the atria remains unknown. We aimed to evaluate the impact of low-grade chronic inflammation on atrial electrophysiology in patients with stable CAD undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)...
January 2019: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Tsung-Ming Chen, Ya-Huey Chen, H Sunny Sun, Shaw-Jenq Tsai
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disorder and is the leading cause of disability of people, which negatively impact people's physical and mental health. Although OA causes great socioeconomic burden and individual suffering, no effective treatment options are provided so far. This is partially resulted from poor regenerative activity of articular cartilage and our incomplete understanding of the underlying mechanism of OA. Traditional drug therapies such as acetaminophen and opioids are effective in relieving pain but do not reverse cartilage damage and are often associated with adverse events...
January 2019: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Po-Shiuan Hsieh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Chinese Journal of Physiology
HuaShuai Li, Ying-Ju Chen, Yi-Ju Hsu, Ming-Fang Wu, Chien-Chao Chiu, Yu-Tang Tung, Wei-Jern Tsai, Wen-Ching Huang, Chi-Chang Huang
A fast-paced lifestyle, pressure from the environment and a heavy work load often cause extreme tiredness in modern life. Different kinds of nutritional supplements in the form of functional foods or traditional Chinese medicine, such as ‘essence of chicken’ and Ganoderma lucidum have been claimed to benefit physical performance and promote health. Previous studies have revealed that ‘essence of chicken’ or G. lucidum have a wide spectrum of biological activities. In this study, we combined these two ingredients together (designated as CEG) to evaluate their synergistic effects on physiological adaption on exercise fatigue and physical activities...
December 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Zheng Xu, Zengxun Liu, Xiaoguang Dong, Tao Hu, Lingling Wang, Junwei Li, Xiaoyu Liu, Jinhao Sun
Alcohol addiction can cause brain dysfunction and threatens both individuals and society. Recently, emerging studies have suggested the dysbiosis of gut microbiota induced by alcohol exposure contributed to the reward-seeking behaviors as well as anxiety, depression. In the current study, animal model of chronic alcohol exposure was established by providing mice with gradient concentrations of alcohol from 2%, 4%, and 6% to 8% for 21 days. Moreover, three fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) plans were innovatively designed to explore the potential effects of FMT from 3 healthy donors on alcohol-induced neuropsychic behaviors...
December 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Jinxin Wang, Ruilin Li, Zhiyuan Deng, Zuoyan Sun, Lijuan Chai, Hong Guo, Hong Wang, Lu Chen, Limin Hu, Shaoxia Wang
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication of diabetes and becomes the chief cause of end-stage renal disease. Our study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effect and underlying mechanism of Xueshuantong for Injection (XST) on DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rats. Effect of XST treatment (XST, 50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) lasting 60 days after STZ-induced (60 mg/kg, i.p.) diabetes was investigated. Blood sugar levels and body weight were recorded every week of the experiment. At the 28th and 56th days after injection urine glucose and 24 h urine protein excretion were determined...
December 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Wei-Chuan Liao, Chiang-Ting Chou, Wei-Zhe Liang, Lyh-Jyh Hao, Chun-Chi Kuo, Ko-Long Lin, Jue-Long Wang, Chung-Ren Jan
Niflumic acid, a drug used for joint and muscular pain, affected Ca²⁺ signaling in different models. However, the effect of niflumic acid on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and Ca²⁺-related physiology in human osteosarcoma cells is unknown. This study examined the effect of niflumic acid on cytosolic free Ca²⁺ concentrations ([Ca²⁺]i) in MG63 human osteosarcoma cells. Intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in suspended cells were monitored by using the fluorescent Ca²⁺-sensitive dye fura- 2. Cell viability was examined by using 4-[3-[4-lodophenyl]-2-4(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio- 1,3-benzene disulfonate] water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1)...
December 24, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Yen-Ju Huang, Yu-Chen Pai, Linda Chia-Hui Yu
Commensal microbes are involved in intestinal homeostasis, and the dysregulation of host-microbe interactions may lead to the development of local and systemic disorders. Recent evidence indicated that microbiota dysbiosis plays a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and metabolism-related disorders. The circadian clock system originally identified in the brain was later found in the gastrointestinal tract. Although the light-controlled central clock in the brain is responsible for the synchronization of peripheral clocks, the timing of meal consumption serves as another cue for the rhythmic setting of gastrointestinal digestion, absorption, and epithelial renewal and barrier functions...
December 24, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Chia-Heng Lin, Chen-Chun Lin
Obesity is a chronic inflammatory state associated with increased postoperative morbidity in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In this study, we sought to determine whether the white blood cell (WBC) response may be an additional predictor for postoperative morbidities in obese patients undergoing cardiac surgery. A total of 1,171 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into three groups based on their body mass index (BMI): non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m²), obese (BMI 30-34...
December 19, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hong-Nian Liu, Hiroaki Hirata, Yusuke Okuno, Motohito Okabe, Koichi Furukawa
The neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin control the peristaltic movement of the gut that consists of propagating waves of rhythmic contraction and relaxation. While intestinal cells of Cajal (ICC) serve as a pacemaker in the gut, the effect of dopamine on the pacemaker activity of ICC remains unknown. Here, we report that together with serotonin receptors, the dopamine receptor D₂ contributes to maintaining [Ca²⁺]i oscillations in ileum ICC. When the antagonist for the D₂ receptor was applied to the cell cluster or the tissue culture prepared from muscle layers of the mouse small intestine, the amplitude of [Ca²⁺]i oscillations in ICC declined after a transient increase...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Caiyan Yang, Yang Yu, Fan Wu, Yuhua Wu, Jun Feng, Lin Yan, Liangjuan Han, Jun Ren, Lihong Nie, Ru Zhou
The aim of this study was to investigate the vasodilatory effects of aloperine, one of main alkaloid was extracted from Sophora alopecuroides, on rat isolated thoracic aortic rings and its possible mechanisms. The isolated aortic arteries from normotensive Sprague Dawley rats were precontracted with phenylephrine (1 × 10⁻⁶ M) or KCl (60 mM). Then, aloperine (3.44 × 10⁻³ – 17.21 × 10⁻³ M) was added cumulatively and the tension curves was observed and recorded. The changes in tension in both endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings were also recorded...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Esen Gumuslu, Oguz Mutlu, Sibel Kokturk, Guner Ulak, Fatma Ceyla Eraldemir, Ozan Can Tatar, Alisan Burak Yasar, Pelin Tanyeri, Furuzan Akar, Faruk Erden
Schizophrenia, an important brain neurodevelopmental disorder, is observed in 1% of the global population. New-generation antipsychotics have been developed as alternatives to typical antipsychotics for more effective and safe therapy. Chronic administration of asenapine and paliperidone compared to haloperidol on depression, anxiety and analgesy in the forced swimming test (FST), elevated plus maze (EPM) and hot plate tests were examined in mice. Moreover effects of drugs, on expression levels of brain neurotrophic factors [brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB),nerve growth factor (NGF), synapsin and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2)] in the hippocampus of mice, neurogenesis and neurodegeneration, and blood enzyme levels were also investigated...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hung-Che Chien, Pei-Chi Chan, Chuan-Chou Tu, Yuan-Ji Day, Li-Man Hung, Chi-Chang Juan, Yu-Feng Tian, Po-Shiuan Hsieh
Regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), also known as chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5), has been reported to facilitate macrophage migration, which plays a crucial role in tissue inflammation. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics and underlying mechanism of RANTES on macrophage chemotaxis under physiological and pathological conditions. The study was conducted on macrophage RAW264.7 cell and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) isolated from CCL receptor 5 (CCR5) knockout mice...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Tso-Ching Lin, Sue-Hong Wang, Chuan-Chuan Huang, Yung-Cheng Lai, Tuzz-Ying Song, Ming-Shiun Tsai
Eucalyptus globulus possesses important pharmacological activities, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the anti-fatigue, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory effects of eucalyptus essential oil after swimming exercise using an animal model. Male Sprague– Dawley rats were administered eucalyptus oil (200 μL/h) daily via inhalation (15 min), and anti-fatigue effects were assessed following eucalyptus essential oil administration for 2 or 4 weeks when forced to swim until exhaustion while carrying ~5% body weight-equivalent...
October 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Hsiao-Chun Lin, Chen-Tung Yen
Neuropathic pain is due to lesion or dysfunction of the somatosensory system. Treating patients with neuropathic pain is difficult because the underlying mechanisms are understood limitedly, especially at the supraspinal level. In this study, we used two kinds of molecular markers to investigate the neuronal activity changes in the anterior cingulate cortex, insular cortex (IC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of the neuropathic rats under tactile allodynia. We used spared nerve injury of the sciatic nerve (SNI) as the neuropathic pain model...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Xiaoliang Dong, Bing Rui, Fangyuan Yin, Dan Chen, Ling Li, Zhimin Yin, Lan Luo
Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTpi) is the most important subtribe of GSTs protein superfamily, and plays an important role in the process of detoxification, antioxidant and antiinflammation. Here we use a GSTpi inhibitor, 6-(7-nitro-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazol-4-ylthio) hexanol (NBDHEX), to evaluate the effect of GSTpi on the growth of mice. Mice treated with NBDHEX have heavier weight and longer length. But there is no significant difference in ratios of the weights of brain, kidney, lung, spleen, liver and heart to the whole body weight and Lee’s index between NBDHEX and control mice...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
I-Shu Chen, Chiang-Ting Chou, Wei-Zhe Liang, Yuan-Yuarn Liu, Chun-Chi Kuo, Jue-Long Wang, Lyh-Jyh Hao, Chung-Ren Jan
Captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, induced different Ca²⁺ signaling responses in various cell models. However, the effect of captopril on Ca²⁺ homeostasis and cell viability in hepatoma cells is unknown. This study examined whether captopril altered Ca²⁺ homeostasis and viability in HepG2 human hepatoma cells. Intracellular Ca²⁺ concentrations in suspended cells were monitored by using the fluorescent Ca²⁺-sensitive dye fura-2. Cell viability was examined by using 4-[3-[4-lodophenyl]-2-4(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio-1,3-benzene disulfonate] water soluble tetrazolium-1 (WST-1)...
August 31, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
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