Matthew L Edelstein, Emily D Pogue, Harvey S Singer
Complex motor stereotypies are rhythmic, repetitive, fixed, and non-goal directed movements (e.g., bilateral flapping/waving movements of the hands/arms). Movements typically begin in early childhood and can occur in otherwise normally developing ("primary") or autistic ("secondary") children. Stereotypies persist, occur multiple times a day, have prolonged durations, can be socially stigmatizing, and may lead to bullying and isolation. Prior behavioral treatment studies have focused on older children (ages 6-12) and report modest reductions in stereotypy (i...
May 31, 2024: Behavior Modification
Kathryn E Barber, Brandon X Pitts, Jordan T Stiede, Flint M Espil, Douglas W Woods, Matthew W Specht, Shannon M Bennett, John T Walkup, Emily J Ricketts, Joseph F McGuire, Alan L Peterson, Scott N Compton, Sabine Wilhelm, Lawrence Scahill, John C Piacentini
Behavior therapy is a well-established and empirically supported treatment for tic disorders (TDs). However, concerns have been expressed about the negative effects of behavioral interventions, such as tic worsening, tic substitution, and excessive effort. This study explored perceived negative effects of tic management strategies in adults with TDs and predictors of these experiences. Participants ( N  = 72) completed semi-structured interviews 11 years after receiving behavior therapy or supportive therapy in a randomized clinical trial...
April 1, 2024: Behavior Modification
Julia L Rosenzweig, Catlyn A Li Volsi, Tiago de Man, William H Ahearn
Competing stimulus assessments (CSA) are effective tools for identifying stimuli that compete with automatically reinforced behavior. However, Jennett et al. suggests there are cases for which non-contingent access to competing stimuli are insufficient at decreasing target responding and additional treatment components may be necessary. The purpose of the current study was to examine procedural variations (i.e., rotating competing items and prompted engagement) when presenting competing stimuli on increasing functional engagement and decreasing stereotypy...
February 23, 2024: Behavior Modification
Allison M Peart, Daniel D Drevon, Andrea D Jasper
There are numerous effect measures researchers can select when conducting a meta-analysis of single-case experimental design research. These effect measures model different characteristics of the data, so it is possible that a researcher's choice of an effect measure could lead to different conclusions about the same intervention. The current study investigated the impact of effect measure selection on conclusions about the effectiveness of check-in check-out (CICO), a commonly used intervention within School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports...
February 23, 2024: Behavior Modification
Orhan Aydin
Missing data is inevitable in single-case experimental designs (SCEDs) studies due to repeated measures over a period of time. Despite this fact, SCEDs implementers such as researchers, teachers, clinicians, and school psychologists usually ignore missing data in their studies. Performing analyses without considering missing data in an intervention study using SCEDs or a meta-analysis study including SCEDs studies in a topic can lead to biased results and affect the validity of individual or overall results...
February 19, 2024: Behavior Modification
Laura Claudia Chezan, Autumn Bauer, Erik Drasgow, Heidi Garcia, Adam Warman
Many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit generalization errors following mand training. In this study, we extended the literature on the generalization of positively reinforced explicit mands in three young children with ASD and complex communication needs. First, we used mand training to teach a new, socially appropriate, positively reinforced explicit mand to request preferred toys. Second, we assessed the discriminated generalization of the newly acquired mand by using untrained examples and nonexamples...
January 30, 2024: Behavior Modification
Sally M Izquierdo, Joshua Jessel, Theresa Fiani, Emily A Jones
BACKGROUND: Children with Down syndrome often engage in contextually inappropriate social behavior, which researchers suggest may function to escape from difficult activities to preferred social interactions. Caregivers may reinforce the behavior, perceiving it only as evidence of the child's social strength, when, in fact, the pattern may also prevent or slow the development of critical skills. Unlike overt forms of challenging behavior, contextually inappropriate social behavior had never been subjected to experimental analysis...
January 18, 2024: Behavior Modification
Corey Peltier, John William McKenna, Wilhelmina van Dijk
The purpose of this pre-registered study (Peltier & McKenna) was to conceptually replicate if the truncation of the ordinate and DPPXYR increased analysts' estimation of a functional relation and magnitude of treatment effect. Visual analysts ( n  = 27) evaluated eight data sets reporting null ( n  = 2), small ( n  = 2), moderate ( n  = 2), and large ( n  = 2) effects. Each data set was graphed six times with manipulations of the ordinate and DPPXYR, resulting in 48 ABAB graphs...
January 11, 2024: Behavior Modification
Margaret R Gifford, Jeffrey H Tiger, Michael J Harman, Kendall M Kastner
Experimenters provided 33 graphical displays of hypothetical data depicted in a multielement experimental design to editorial board members of prominent, applied, behavior-analytic journals via an online survey. For each display, participants indicated (a) the presence or absence of experimental control and (b) the degree of experimental control (rated on a 1-100 scale). Each depiction varied systematically in (a) the number of data paths, (b) the number of data paths elevated above the control, (c) the mean difference between affected data paths and control conditions, and (d) the degree of variability within conditions...
January 11, 2024: Behavior Modification
Timothy R Moore, Seunghee Lee, Rachel Freeman, Maryam Mahmoundi, Adele Dimian, Amy Riegelman, Jessica J Simacek
Self-injurious behavior (SIB) among children and youth with developmental disabilities has not diminished in prevalence despite the availability of effective interventions, and the impact on quality of life for people and their families is devastating. The current meta-analysis reviews SIB intervention research between 2011 and 2021 using single-case experimental designs with children and youth up to 21 years old and provides a quantitative synthesis of data from high-quality studies including moderator analyses to determine effects of participant and study characteristics on intervention outcomes...
January 10, 2024: Behavior Modification
Garrett J Roberts, Esther R Lindström, Gavin W Watts, Brooke Coté, Ekta Ghosh
In this study we tested the usability, feasibility, social validity, and effectiveness of Engaged Learners , a behavior support program designed to be integrated into small group reading interventions. Participants included eight Grade 3 to 5 students with co-occurring reading difficulties and inattention. A concurrent multiple-baseline design was utilized to test the effects of Engaged Learners on engagement outcomes. Visual analysis and effect sizes indicated an improvement in engagement for seven students...
December 24, 2023: Behavior Modification
Orhan Aydin
Single-case experimental designs (SCEDs) have grown in popularity in the fields such as education, psychology, medicine, and rehabilitation. Although SCEDs are valid experimental designs for determining evidence-based practices, they encounter some challenges in analyses of data. One of these challenges, missing data, is likely to be occurred frequently in SCEDs research due to repeated measurements over time. Since missing data is a critical factor that can weaken the validity and generalizability of a study, it is important to determine the characteristics of missing data in SCEDs, which are especially conducted with a small number of participants...
November 17, 2023: Behavior Modification
Nadrat N Nuhu, Colin Muething, Scott E Gillespie, Joanna Lomas Mevers, Mindy Scheithauer
Past research suggests behavioral treatments are effective for challenging behavior in children and young adults with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, access to these services can be limited and require substantial resources. To address this issue, the current study provides a programmatic description of an individualized parent-mediated service model targeting moderate challenging behavior. In the program, therapists coached parents to implement functional analyses and individualized function-based treatment packages...
October 20, 2023: Behavior Modification
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September 19, 2023: Behavior Modification
Jonathan E Friedel, Alison D Cox, Sarah Davis
It is considered best practice to conduct a functional analysis and visually inspect data collected to determine the function of problem behavior, which then informs the intervention approaches applied. Visual inspection has been described as a "subjective" process that may be affected by factors unrelated to the data. Structured decision-making guidelines have been established to address some of these shortcomings. The current paper is a follow-up to earlier work describing positive outcomes related to the viability of a decision support system based on structured criteria from Roane et al...
September 9, 2023: Behavior Modification
Willem Landman, Stefan Bogaerts, Marinus Spreen
Single case research is a viable way to obtain evidence for social and psychological interventions on an individual level. Across single case research studies various analysis strategies are employed, varying from visual analysis to the calculation of effect sizes. To calculate effect sizes in studies with few measurements per time period (<40 data points with a minimum of five data points in each phase), non-parametric indices such as Nonoverlap of All Pairs (NAP) and Tau-U are recommended. However, both indices have restrictions...
August 31, 2023: Behavior Modification
Adam J D Mann, Matthew T Tull, Kim L Gratz
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) by proxy is the intentional destruction of one's own body tissue through the elicitation of another being's actions. Despite its clinical relevance, research on NSSI by proxy is limited and there are no available measures of this behavior. This research aimed to characterize NSSI by proxy among young adults and provide preliminary data on the validity of a new self-report measure, the NSSI by Proxy Questionnaire (NSSIBPQ). Two nationwide community samples of young adults (one general community sample and one with a history of traditional NSSI and suicidality) completed online studies...
August 20, 2023: Behavior Modification
Briana Cloutier, Tania Lecomte, Felix Diotte, Justin Lamontagne, Amal Abdel-Baki, Jean-Gabriel Daneault, Marie Eve Gélineau Rabbath, Alexandre de Connor, Cécile Perrine
Previous research has highlighted many of the challenges faced by individuals with psychosis in romantic relationships. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of a novel group intervention for men with first-episode psychosis (FEP) on dating success, romantic and sexual functioning, self-esteem, self-stigma, mentalizing skills, and symptomatology, while using a repeated single-case experimental design and comparing results across two treatment modalities (i.e., in-person or online). Twenty-seven participants from five treatment sites completed a 12-week group intervention...
July 26, 2023: Behavior Modification
Emma Grauerholz-Fisher, Timothy R Vollmer, Jonathan K Fernand, Brandon C Perez, Haleh Amanieh, Kara Wunderlich, Kerri P Peters
Several methods for assessing baseline performance in chained tasks have been outlined in the literature, including the fixed-opportunity probe (FOP) and the multiple-opportunity probe (MOP). Concerns have been raised regarding how each of these methods might change the baseline performance of a task, affecting the interpretation of experimental control. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a within-subject comparison of both the FOP and MOP procedures for children with autism performing daily living and self-care skills...
July 26, 2023: Behavior Modification
Joelle Fingerhut, Mariola Moeyaert, Rumen Manolov, Xinyun Xu, Kyung Hyun Park
There are currently a multitude of quantification techniques that have been developed for use with single-case designs. As a result, choosing an appropriate quantification technique can be overwhelming and it can be difficult for researchers to properly describe and justify their use of quantification techniques. However, providing clear descriptions and justifications is important for enhancing the credibility of single-case research, and allowing others to evaluate the appropriateness of the quantification technique used...
May 30, 2023: Behavior Modification
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