Lauren N Layman, Lacey C Ray, Kevin M Ayres, Joel E Ringdahl
Disruptive behaviors such as elopement, calling-out, and aggression are often a major barrier to instruction in preschool classrooms. One widely used class-wide behavior management system is Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT). To date, we could only locate two studies on CW-FIT used in preschool settings which found a therapeutic change in on-task behavior as well rates of teacher praise, teacher reprimands, student socials skills, and student problem behaviors. The current study used a withdrawal design to also evaluate the effectiveness of Tier 1 CW-FIT on on-task student behavior and teacher praise and reprimand behavior in a preschool setting during both large and small group activities...
January 16, 2023: Behavior Modification
Eunkyeng Baek, Wen Luo, Kwok Hap Lam
Multilevel modeling (MLM) is an approach for meta-analyzing single-case experimental designs (SCED). In this paper, we provide a step-by-step guideline for using the MLM to meta-analyze SCED time-series data. The MLM approach is first presented using a basic three-level model, then gradually extended to represent more realistic situations of SCED data, such as modeling a time variable, moderators representing different design types and multiple outcomes, and heterogeneous within-case variance. The presented approach is then illustrated using real SCED data...
January 16, 2023: Behavior Modification
Regina Carroll, Mary Halbur, Elizabeth Preas
This special issue on telehealth in Behavior Modification features 10 studies related to developing and delivering behavioral interventions through telehealth. The studies in this issue cover a variety of topics including using telehealth to train caregivers, training clinicians to use telehealth, and directly implementing interventions or assessments through telehealth. The special issue concludes with a comprehensive literature review examining variables that impact the effectiveness of telehealth as a service-delivery tool...
March 2023: Behavior Modification
Catherine Kishel, Timothy Vollmer
Individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exhibit deficits in social interaction and communication. Kronfli, Vollmer, et al. developed an in-person assessment to evaluate participant response to social cues indicating uninterest in a conversation. In the current study, we sought to extend these procedures to the assessment of conversation skills via telehealth given the ongoing pandemic and so that participants in remote areas could receive services. Participants were exposed to a hierarchy of social cues of uninterest ranging in salience from one-word responses to a clear verbal statement of uninterest until they demonstrated sensitivity to a social cue...
December 20, 2022: Behavior Modification
William J Higgins, Wayne W Fisher, Amanda Logan Hoppe, Leny Velasquez
The present study evaluated the effectiveness of using telehealth technologies to remotely train caregivers of children with ASD to conduct discrete-trial instruction (DTI). We used a multiple-baseline-across-participants design to evaluate caregiver correct implementation of the DTI procedures and child emission of independent correct tacts as dependent measures. We observed robust and immediate improvements for all three caregivers and two of three children. Treatment effects were maintained during follow-up and generalization probes...
December 15, 2022: Behavior Modification
Swathi Ragulan, Erin Bertoli, Jacqueline A Shinall, SungWoo Kahng
Behavioral technicians (BT) within the field of applied behavior analysis may be at greater risk for experiencing burnout and stress due to the nature of their clients, job demands, and work environments. Burnout and stress may negatively impact BT's work performances, more specifically, their treatment integrity. Acceptance and Commitment Training (ACT) may be a useful tool to address the private events as well as the covert and overt behaviors associated with burnout and stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of an ACT intervention on improving treatment integrity and reducing work-related burnout and stress amongst BTs...
December 12, 2022: Behavior Modification
Christina Alaimo, Laura Seiverling, Emily A Jones
Relatively few empirical studies of pediatric chewing interventions have been published in the psychology literature. The purpose of this paper was to systematically review chewing interventions within the applied behavior analysis literature. We identified a small, but growing, behavior analytic literature demonstrating the effectiveness of various multicomponent treatment packages to teach and improve chewing skills. Future researchers should consider a range of participant characteristics, including results of oral motor assessments, explore a more extensive definition of chewing to target the complex nature of chewing as well as component skills, and examine the necessary and sufficient components of chewing interventions along with the potential benefits of multidisciplinary interventions...
December 8, 2022: Behavior Modification
Abby K Hodges, Kristin L Hathaway, Meara X H McMahon, Valerie M Volkert, William G Sharp
Successful feeding intervention ultimately requires generalization and adoption of treatment into the home. Treatment models, however, differ regarding how and when caregivers are integrated into care delivery process. Some treatments involve a primary model of parent training with caregivers serving as co-therapist at the onset of intervention, while others involve a complimentary model where a therapist delivers the intervention and caregiver training occurs once the child's behavior is stable. This review systematically evaluates the evidence-base regarding behavioral feeding intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with a specific focus on interventions involving parent training...
December 8, 2022: Behavior Modification
Christina M Alaimo, Laura Seiverling, Holly R Weisberg, Jessica T Ortsman, Emily A Jones
Telehealth behavioral interventions are increasingly necessary when in-person services are not accessible (e.g., due to geographic location, time, cost, and health and safety restrictions). There is a growing evidence-base for the effectiveness of telehealth interventions but few demonstrations of telehealth interventions for pediatric feeding disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a telehealth caregiver training package to teach caregivers to implement a feeding intervention, in their home as primary interventionists, to treat their children's food selectivity...
December 7, 2022: Behavior Modification
Matthew L Edelstein, Alicia Sullivan, Jessica L Becraft
In an effort to address some of the criticisms of Behavioral Parent Training programs (BPT; high attrition, reliance on caregiver report measures), the current study examined the feasibility, acceptability, and outcome of an intensive behavior treatment program (120-minute sessions for 5 days/week over the course of 2 weeks). Using a changing criterion single case experimental design, 12 children ( M child age = 4.9 years) and their primary caregivers completed the 2-week function-based intervention procedure designed to increase children's frustration tolerance via a wait training procedure based on the principles of applied behavior analysis...
November 16, 2022: Behavior Modification
Emily Bouck, Holly Long, Yukyung Bae
In recent years, virtual manipulatives have been explored and used as an alternative to concrete manipulatives in mathematics for students on their own and as part of manipulative-based instructional sequences. Researchers examining virtual manipulative-based instructional sequences tend to focus on students documented with disabilities, as opposed to students at-risk or struggling with mathematics, as well as students' acquisition of the target skill, despite students experiencing learning in four stages: acquisition, fluency, maintenance, and generalization...
November 16, 2022: Behavior Modification
Richard M Kubina, Seth A King, Madeline Halkowski, Shawn Quigley, Tracy Kettering
Applied behavior analysts have traditionally relied on visual analysis of graphic data displays to determine the extent of functional relations between variables and guide treatment implementation. The present study assessed the influence of graph type on behavior analysts' ( n  = 51) ratings of trend magnitude, treatment decisions based on changes in trend, and their confidence in decision making. Participants examined simulated data presented on linear graphs featuring equal-interval scales as well as graphs with ratio scales (i...
November 13, 2022: Behavior Modification
Meara X H McMahon, Kristin L Hathaway, Abby K Hodges, William G Sharp, Valerie M Volkert
Children diagnosed with pediatric feeding disorder (PFD) or avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID) may present with comorbid oral-motor delays that often contribute to their failure to consume an adequate volume and/or variety of foods. Once the food enters the mouth, these children may exhibit additional problematic behavior such as expulsion and packing that further averts oral intake. Previous research has evaluated the impact of modified-bolus placement methods, including flipped spoon and NUK® brush, in comparison to upright spoon on expulsion and packing...
November 13, 2022: Behavior Modification
Clare Bohan, Sinéad Smyth
The Caught Being Good Game (CBGG) is a classroom management intervention which is described as a variation of the classic Good Behavior Game (GBG). It is based on the principle of positive reinforcement, such that teams of students can earn points for following the class rules during the game. Points are awarded by the teacher at different intervals during the game and these intervals were the focus of the current study. We aimed to determine if the CBGG is effective with an initially dense schedule of reinforcement which is progressively thinned...
November 13, 2022: Behavior Modification
Johanna Linde, Jason B Luoma, Christian Rück, Jonas Ramnerö, Tobias Lundgren
Shame is considered central in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and empirical accounts highlight the link between shame and BDD symptoms as well as common negative psychosocial effects of the disorder, yet there is a lack of interventions addressing shame in this context. In the past decade, Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and interventions that foster self-compassion have shown promise for reducing the negative effects of shame in a range of clinical problems. The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate an acceptance and compassion-based treatment specifically targeting shame in BDD...
November 13, 2022: Behavior Modification
Charlene N Agnew, Theresa Fiani, Emily A Jones
Building on studies of preferences for social interaction in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) we sought to provide a way for siblings with ASD to express their perspective about the quality of their sibling relationships. We developed a behavioral assessment of sibling relationship preference (Sibling Relationship Assessment [SRA]) and examined the psychometric properties of test-retest reliability, inter-rater reliability, and convergent validity. The SRA was feasible to administer and revealed expected differences between sibling dyads with one sibling with ASD compared to typically-developing sibling dyads...
November 4, 2022: Behavior Modification
Stephanie Gerow, Marie Kirkpatrick, Kristina McGinnis, Tracey N Sulak, Tonya N Davis, Stephanie Fritz
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often experience skill deficits that can negatively affect long-term outcomes. Interventions based on applied behavior analysis (ABA) yield improvements in targeted skills. However, families often have difficulty accessing ABA services. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a caregiver coaching program delivered via telehealth. Thirty children with ASD and their caregivers (e.g., parents, grandparents) participated in all phases of the study. The program consisted of therapists providing coaching in English or Spanish to caregivers of children with ASD via synchronous video call telehealth visits, typically provided one to two times per week...
November 1, 2022: Behavior Modification
Keira Moore, Amanda Bullard, Gemma Sweetman, William H Ahearn
Anxiety is a cluster of responses that can involve both operant and respondent behavior, which can be both public and/or private in nature, and occurs when an upcoming aversive stimulus is signaled. Despite the reported high comorbidity of autism and anxiety, there has been very limited research on how to directly assess and treat anxiety, especially with individuals who have limited communication skills. In Study 1, anxiety was assessed in five individuals with autism, ranging in age from 10 to 19 years old...
November 2022: Behavior Modification
Chiara Ferrari, Elena Marinopoulou, Helena Lydon
In the present study a comprehensive protocol to assess chewing in four children with Down syndrome is provided and described. One baseline and four assessment meals were conducted across four textures of foods to investigate the presence or absence of components of chewing (bite down, chew and tongue lateralization), as well as movements associated with the development of chewing. Results showed that at baseline all participants ate their typical diet (i.e., pureed food) but no chewing components or movements were observed...
October 29, 2022: Behavior Modification
Kandice Knopp, Julia L Ferguson, Jessica Piazza, Mary Jane Weiss, Matthew Lee, Joseph H Cihon, Justin B Leaf
Recent behavior analytic research has demonstrated that the provision of applied behavior analytic services via direct telehealth can be an effective teaching modality for some learners with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Historically, teaching procedures based on applied behavior analysis (ABA), including discrete trial teaching (DTT), have been provided and evaluated via in-person delivery. This study sought to compare the implementation of DTT via direct telehealth to DTT implemented in-person within and across participants...
October 18, 2022: Behavior Modification
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