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Behavior Modification

John Ferron, Lodi L Rohrer, Joel R Levin
To strengthen the scientific credibility arguments for single-case intervention studies, randomization design-and-analysis methods have been developed for the multiple-baseline, ABAB, and alternating treatment designs, including options for preplanned designs, wherein the series and phase lengths are established prior to gathering data, as well as options for response-guided designs, wherein ongoing visual analyses guide decisions about when to intervene. Our purpose here is to develop randomization methods for another class of single-case design, the changing criterion design...
May 12, 2019: Behavior Modification
Gabriella Ulloa, Carrie S W Borrero, John C Borrero
Food refusal is commonly treated using behavioral treatment packages consisting of differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA) and escape extinction. However, the effectiveness of such behavioral interventions is inextricably linked to the integrity with which the procedures are conducted. Although previous research has evaluated the effects of treatment integrity failures for behavioral interventions related to severe problem behavior and academic skill acquisition, the effects of these failures in the area of pediatric food refusal remain unknown...
May 8, 2019: Behavior Modification
Nancy S Hutchins, Mack D Burke, Lisa Bowman-Perrott, Kevin R Tarlow, Heather Hatton
Social skills interventions are critical for promoting social, emotional, and behavioral competence for students with or at risk of emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This single-case meta-analysis examined the effects of social skills interventions (SSIs) for students with EBD and ASD. Effect sizes were calculated for 78 cases across 25 included studies using a nonparametric effect size, Baseline Corrected Tau. The overall weighted mean effect size of 0.54 suggested a moderate effect across the 25 studies...
May 7, 2019: Behavior Modification
Nicole R Nugent, Sachin R Pendse, Heather T Schatten, Michael F Armey
The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of, and rationale for, the increasing adoption of a wide range of cutting-edge technological methods in assessment and intervention which are relevant for treatment. First, we review traditional approaches to measuring and monitoring affect, behavior, and cognition in behavior and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Second, we describe evolving active and passive technology-enabled approaches to behavior assessment including emerging applications of digital phenotyping facilitated through fitness trackers, smartwatches, and social media...
April 29, 2019: Behavior Modification
Seth B Clark, Nathan A Call, Christina A Simmons, Mindy C Scheithauer, Colin S Muething, Natalie Parks
Studies on preference assessments have shown that when both edible and leisure items are compared, edible items tend to displace leisure items in preference hierarchies. However, the mechanisms behind this process are currently unclear. One possibility is that displacement may be a product of the relatively brief periods of access to leisure items typically used in preference assessments. The purpose of the current investigation was to examine whether the duration of access to leisure items affects displacement...
April 15, 2019: Behavior Modification
Molly S Daffner, George J DuPaul, Lee Kern, Christine L Cole, Courtney L Cleminshaw
Children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at risk for experiencing problems with social functioning that are associated with adverse outcomes in adolescence and adulthood. To date, the most common ADHD treatments for children, psychostimulants and adult-mediated interventions, have had limited success reducing social impairments associated with ADHD. Using a non-concurrent multiple baseline across participants design, we examined the efficacy of a sibling-mediated social intervention for reducing negative and increasing positive social behaviors of three children with ADHD...
April 11, 2019: Behavior Modification
Sigmund Eldevik, Hege Aarlie, Kristine B Titlestad, Ellie Kazemi, Greg Elsky
The success of behavior-analytic procedures to teach language to individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has been well established in the literature. Nevertheless, some individuals may not learn any receptive or expressive language following extensive teaching efforts. We examined the effects of two reinforcement contingencies, functional and arbitrary, on increasing the level of auditory-visual conditional discriminations in children with ASD with a history of having difficulty learning discriminations...
April 9, 2019: Behavior Modification
Helen M Milojevich, Emily M Slonecker, Angela F Lukowski
Participation in social skills therapy (SST) facilitates cognitive functioning in children with developmental disabilities. The present pilot study examined whether participation in SST was associated with enhanced encoding and 1-month delayed recall in children with Down syndrome (DS). Children were presented with novel three-step event sequences in an elicited imitation procedure. Immediate imitation was permitted as an index of encoding; long-term memory was assessed 1 month later. Parents completed questionnaires inquiring about children's participation in SST...
April 9, 2019: Behavior Modification
Maithri Sivaraman, John T Rapp
Although numerous studies have shown that response interruption and redirection (RIRD) can decrease vocal stereotypy displayed by children with autism spectrum disorder, relatively few have evaluated the subsequent effects of RIRD. We evaluated the immediate (when a change agent implemented RIRD) and subsequent (after a change agent discontinued RIRD) effects of RIRD on two participants' vocal stereotypy using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline design with an embedded reversal design combined with a multiple schedule...
April 9, 2019: Behavior Modification
Kristen M Brogan, John T Rapp, Bailey R Sturdivant
The continuation of a baseline pattern of responding into a treatment phase, sometimes referred to as a "transition state," can obscure interpretation of data depicted in single-case experimental designs (SCEDs). For example, when using visual analysis, transition states may lead to the conclusion that the treatment is ineffective. Likewise, the inclusion of overlapping data points in some statistical analyses may lead to conclusions that the treatment had a small effect size and give rise to publication bias...
April 9, 2019: Behavior Modification
Jennie M Kuckertz, Sadia Najmi, Kylie Baer, Nader Amir
Although efficacious treatments exist for anxiety disorders, issues remain regarding how best to conceptualize and measure purported change processes in clinical research. In the current study, we examined the relationship between treatment-specific (exposure therapy, attention bias modification [ABM]) as well as more general change processes with symptoms within a transdiagnostic sample using mixed models. Results indicated that slope of self-efficacy across treatment and between-session habituation across identical exposures was associated with slope of symptom change...
April 3, 2019: Behavior Modification
Gretchen O Reynolds, Marie Saint-Hilaire, Cathi A Thomas, David H Barlow, Alice Cronin-Golomb
Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by motor symptoms, but nonmotor symptoms also significantly impair daily functioning and reduce quality of life. Anxiety is prevalent and debilitating in PD, but remains understudied and undertreated. Much affective research in PD focuses on depression rather than anxiety, and as such, there are no evidence-based treatments for anxiety in this population. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) has shown promise for treating depression in PD and may be efficacious for anxiety...
March 31, 2019: Behavior Modification
René Tanious, Tamal Kumar De, Bart Michiels, Wim Van den Noortgate, Patrick Onghena
Previous research has introduced several effect size measures (ESMs) to quantify data aspects of single-case experimental designs (SCEDs): level, trend, variability, overlap, and immediacy. In the current article, we extend the existing literature by introducing two methods for quantifying consistency in single-case A-B-A-B phase designs. The first method assesses the consistency of data patterns across phases implementing the same condition, called CONsistency of DAta Patterns (CONDAP). The second measure assesses the consistency of the five other data aspects when changing from baseline to experimental phase, called CONsistency of the EFFects (CONEFF)...
March 31, 2019: Behavior Modification
Justin D Garwood, John W McKenna, Garrett J Roberts, Stephen Ciullo, Mikyung Shin
The importance of social studies and civics education is increasing, as evidenced by the growing number of states requiring coursework in this area for graduation and its growing presence in school accountability frameworks. Social studies instruction is critical for all students so that they may understand their roles, rights, and responsibilities as citizens and how their actions can influence their communities. Students who exhibit antisocial behaviors, such as those with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD), may especially benefit from social studies and civics education as it promotes college and career readiness and provides opportunities to engage in social problem solving and perspective taking...
March 10, 2019: Behavior Modification
Kate L Morrison, Brooke M Smith, Clarissa W Ong, Eric B Lee, Jonathan E Friedel, Amy Odum, Gregory J Madden, Thomas Ledermann, Jillian Rung, Michael P Twohig
This study examined the transdiagnostic effect of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on impulsive decision-making in a community sample. A total of 40 adults were randomized to eight individual sessions of ACT or an inactive control. Participants completed pre-, mid-, and post-assessments for psychological symptoms; overall behavior change; valued living; delay discounting; psychological flexibility; and distress tolerance. Data were analyzed with multilevel modeling of growth curves. Significant interaction effects of time and condition were observed for psychological flexibility, distress tolerance, psychological symptoms, and the obstruction subscale of valued living...
March 10, 2019: Behavior Modification
Margaret P Weiss, Holly Glaser
The recent Supreme Court decision in Endrew F. v. Douglas County School District focused attention on outcomes for students with disabilities. It is not just about participating; it is about the instruction and outcomes from those services. Co-teaching is a prevalent service delivery model for students with disabilities who access the general curriculum. Much has been written about co-teaching but not necessarily about the instruction that takes place in a co-taught classroom. In this case study, we present a preliminary investigation of a conceptual model for instruction in co-teaching...
March 7, 2019: Behavior Modification
Barathi Chinnappan, John T Rapp, Barry R Burkhart
Over the past 30 years, researchers have shown that various types of group contingency procedures can decrease problem behavior displayed by young children in academic settings. Recently, researchers have demonstrated that presession rules, within-session feedback, and interdependent group contingencies (i.e., contingently delivered tangible and edible items) increased appropriate behavior displayed by detained adolescents in a residential treatment facility. Nevertheless, it is possible that rules with feedback about rule violations could produce comparable outcomes...
March 6, 2019: Behavior Modification
Amanda Niedfeld, John T Rapp, Jodi C Coon, Jennifer L Cook
Adjudicated adolescents detained in residential facilities for illegal sexual behavior, as well as adolescents living at home, may engage in problem behaviors such as excessive vocalizations. In residential detention facilities, these excessive vocalizations may result in disciplinary action and loss of privileges. Moreover, excessive vocalizations may also reduce the amount of positive social interactions that staff members and caregivers have with the adolescents. The current study evaluated a multiple-schedule procedure for reducing excessive vocalizations displayed by three adolescents...
March 6, 2019: Behavior Modification
James M Kauffman, Andrew L Wiley, Jason C Travers, Jeanmarie Badar, Dimitris Anastasiou
The opinion of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Endrew case has implications for the education of all students with disabilities. Implications for several categories of disability are discussed: those with autism spectrum disorder and those with disabilities often considered high incidence, particularly those placed for a significant portion of their school day in general education. The aspects of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act most relevant to the Endrew case are also compared with Article 24 of the United Nations's Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities...
March 5, 2019: Behavior Modification
Kamila Dadakhodjaeva, Keith C Radley, Daniel H Tingstrom, Brad A Dufrene, Evan H Dart
An effective group contingency, the Good Behavior Game (GBG), has been implemented successfully with a wide range of age groups. However, improvements in student behavior are often not observed when the GBG is abruptly terminated, and research has yet to evaluate the effects of the GBG when the frequency of implementation is reduced. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the GBG, implemented daily initially then on a less frequent schedule. The study utilized a multiple baseline design across three kindergarten classrooms to evaluate the effectiveness and maintenance of the GBG at reducing classwide and target student disruptive behavior (DB) and increasing classwide and target student academic engagement...
January 30, 2019: Behavior Modification
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