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International Journal of Epidemiology

Pooja Sripad, Charlotte E Warren, Michelle J Hindin, Mahesh Karra
Background: Our study investigates the associations between women's autonomy and attitudes toward the acceptability of intimate-partner violence against women (IPVAW) and maternal health-care utilization outcomes. Methods: We combine data from 113 Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2003 and 2016, which give us a pooled sample of 765 169 mothers and 777 352 births from 63 countries. We generate composite scores of women's autonomy (six-point scale with reference: no contribution) and acceptability of IPVAW (five-point scale with reference: no acceptance) and assess the associations between these measures and women's use of antenatal care services and facility delivery in pooled and unique country samples...
February 7, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Yahya Pasdar, Farid Najafi, Mehdi Moradinazar, Ebrahim Shakiba, Hosain Karim, Behrooz Hamzeh, Michael Nelson, Annette Dobson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Ruth E Farmer, Deborah Ford, Rohini Mathur, Nish Chaturvedi, Rick Kaplan, Liam Smeeth, Krishnan Bhaskaran
Background: Previous studies provide conflicting evidence on whether metformin is protective against cancer. When studying time-varying exposure to metformin, covariates such as body mass index (BMI) and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) may act as both confounders and causal pathway variables, and so cannot be handled adequately by standard regression methods. Marginal structural models (MSMs) with inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) can correctly adjust for such confounders. Using this approach, the main objective of this study was to estimate the effect of metformin on cancer risk compared with risk in patients with T2DM taking no medication...
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jake Olivier, Sofiane Boufous, Raphael Grzebieta
Background: Australian bicycle helmet laws were first introduced in Victoria in July 1990 and the remaining Australian states, Australian Capital Territory and Northern Territory by July 1992. Previous research on helmet legislation has focused on changes in helmet wearing and bicycle-related head injury. Although it is generally accepted that bicycle helmets can reduce the risk of fatality due to head injury, there has been little research assessing the impact of helmet legislation on cycling fatalities...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Joseph Barker, Karl Smith Byrne, Aiden Doherty, Charlie Foster, Kazem Rahimi, Rema Ramakrishnan, Mark Woodward, Terence Dwyer
Background: Physical inactivity is associated with an increased risk of major chronic diseases, although uncertainty exists about which chronic diseases, themselves, might contribute to physical inactivity. The objective of this study was to compare the physical activity of those with chronic diseases to healthy individuals using an objective measure of physical activity. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 96 706 participants aged 40 years or older from the UK Biobank prospective cohort study (2006-10)...
February 5, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Sofia Carlsson, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Cecilia Magnusson, Ylva Trolle Lagerros, Tomas Andersson
Background: Smoking and use of Swedish smokeless tobacco (snus) are associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to estimate the unique and shared genetic components of these traits and to what extent the association is explained by shared genetic factors. Methods: We used twins of the Swedish Twin Registry who responded to a questionnaire between 1998 and 2006 (n = 40 247) and were followed until 2015 in the National Prescription and Patient Registries...
February 4, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Valérie Pittet, Pierre Michetti, Christoph Mueller, Christian P Braegger, Roland von Känel, Alain Schoepfer, Andrew J Macpherson, Gerhard Rogler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Tuulia Tynkkynen, Qin Wang, Jussi Ekholm, Olga Anufrieva, Pauli Ohukainen, Jouko Vepsäläinen, Minna Männikkö, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Michael V Holmes, Matthew Goodwin, Susan Ring, John C Chambers, Jaspal Kooner, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Johannes Kettunen, Michael Hill, George Davey Smith, Mika Ala-Korpela
Background: Quantitative molecular data from urine are rare in epidemiology and genetics. NMR spectroscopy could provide these data in high throughput, and it has already been applied in epidemiological settings to analyse urine samples. However, quantitative protocols for large-scale applications are not available. Methods: We describe in detail how to prepare urine samples and perform NMR experiments to obtain quantitative metabolic information. Semi-automated quantitative line shape fitting analyses were set up for 43 metabolites and applied to data from various analytical test samples and from 1004 individuals from a population-based epidemiological cohort...
January 25, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Yuna He, Wenhua Zhao, Jian Zhang, Liyun Zhao, Zhenyu Yang, Junsheng Huo, Lichen Yang, Jingzhong Wang, Li He, Jing Sun, Jianhua Piao, Xiaoguang Yang, Keyou Ge, Gangqiang Ding
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Chihua Li, L H Lumey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Anette Varbo, Børge G Nordestgaard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 23, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Ruogu Meng, Jun Lv, Liming Li
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 21, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Emily He, Rupert Alison, Roger Blanks, Kirstin Pirie, Gillian Reeves, Robyn L Ward, Robert Steele, Julietta Patnick, Karen Canfell, Valerie Beral, Jane Green
Background: In 2006, the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England began offering biennial faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) at ages 60-69 years. Although FOBt is aimed at detecting colorectal neoplasms, other conditions can affect the result. In a large UK prospective study, we examined associations, both before and after screening, between FOBt positivity and 10 conditions that are often associated with gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: By electronically linking BCSP and Million Women Study records, we identified 604 495 women without previous colorectal cancer who participated in their first routine FOBt screening between 2006 and 2012...
January 21, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Inger T Gram, Song-Yi Park, Gertraud Maskarinec, Lynne R Wilkens, Christopher A Haiman, Loïc Le Marchand
Background: The purpose of this study was to examine if the smoking-related higher breast cancer risk was similar for the five race/ethnicity groups in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) study and by oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptor status. Methods: From 1993 to 2013, we followed 67 313 women who were enrolled in the MEC study at 45-75 years of age. We identified breast cancer cases and tumour receptor status via linkage to the Hawaii and California Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program cancer registries through December 2013...
January 18, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Linde van Lee, Sarah R Crozier, Izzuddin M Aris, Mya T Tint, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Navin Michael, Phaik Ling Quah, Sian M Robinson, Hazel M Inskip, Nicholas C Harvey, Mary Barker, Cyrus Cooper, Sendhil S Velan, Yung Seng Lee, Marielle V Fortier, Fabian Yap, Peter D Gluckman, Kok Hian Tan, Lynette P Shek, Yap-Seng Chong, Keith M Godfrey, Mary F F Chong
Background: Choline status has been positively associated with weight and fat mass in animal and human studies. As evidence examining maternal circulating choline concentrations and offspring body composition in human infants/children is lacking, we investigated this in two cohorts. Methods: Maternal choline concentrations were measured in the UK Southampton Women's Survey (SWS; serum, n = 985, 11 weeks' gestation) and Singapore Growing Up Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO); n = 955, 26-28 weeks' gestation) mother-offspring cohorts...
January 11, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Ramon Martinez, Patricia Soliz, Roberta Caixeta, Pedro Ordunez
The analysis of causes impacting on premature mortality is an essential function of public health surveillance. Diverse methods have been used for accurately assessing and reporting the level and trends of premature mortality; however, many have important limitations, particularly in capturing actual early deaths. We argue that the framework of years of life lost (YLL), as conceptualized in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), is a robust and comprehensive measure of premature mortality. Global Burden of Disease study is systematically providing estimates of YLL; however, it is not widely adopted at country level, among other reasons because its conceptual and methodological bases seem to be not sufficiently known and understood...
January 9, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Jun Zhang, Ying Tian, Weiye Wang, Fengxiu Ouyang, Jian Xu, Xiaodan Yu, Zhongcheng Luo, Fan Jiang, Hong Huang, Xiaoming Shen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 9, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Izzuddin M Aris, Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman, Ling-Jun Li, Ken P Kleinman, Brent A Coull, Diane R Gold, Marie-France Hivert, Michael S Kramer, Emily Oken
Bac kground: Few studies have examined the independent and combined relationships of body mass index (BMI) peak and rebound with adiposity, insulin resistance and metabolic risk later in life. We used data from Project Viva, a well-characterized birth cohort from Boston with repeated measures of BMI, to help fill this gap. Methods: Among 1681 children with BMI data from birth to mid childhood, we fitted individual BMI trajectories using mixed-effects models with natural cubic splines and estimated age, and magnitude of BMI, at peak (in infancy) and rebound (in early childhood)...
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
John J McNeil, Robyn L Woods, Stephanie A Ward, Carlene J Britt, Jessica E Lockery, Lawrence J Beilin, Alice J Owen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Stefan Sieber, Boris Cheval, Dan Orsholits, Bernadette W Van der Linden, Idris Guessous, Rainer Gabriel, Matthias Kliegel, Marja J Aartsen, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Delphine Courvoisier, Claudine Burton-Jeangros, Stéphane Cullati
Background: Welfare regimes in Europe modify individuals' socioeconomic trajectories over their life-course, and, ultimately, the link between socioeconomic circumstances (SECs) and health. This paper aimed to assess whether the associations between life-course SECs (early-life, young adult-life, middle-age and old-age) and risk of poor self-rated health (SRH) trajectories in old age are modified by welfare regimes (Scandinavian [SC], Bismarckian [BM], Southern European [SE], Eastern European [EE])...
January 3, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
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