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Francisco Dionisio, Rita Zilhão, João Alves Gama
Plasmids are genetic elements that play a role in bacterial evolution by providing new genes that promote adaptation to diverse conditions. Plasmids are also known to reduce bacterial competitiveness in the absence of selection for plasmid-encoded traits. It is easier to understand plasmid persistence when considering the evidence that plasmid maintenance can improve during co-evolution with the bacterial host, i.e. the chromosome. However, bacteria isolated from nature often harbor diverse mobile elements: phages, transposons, genomic islands and even other plasmids...
February 13, 2019: Plasmid
Robert A Moran, Sashindran Anantham, Ruth M Hall
The four plasmids in E. coli 39R861 have been used as size standards for closed-circular plasmid DNA since the 1980s. However, their sizes had only been estimated. Here, the complete sequence of the 61.3 kb cryptic FII plasmid p39R861-3 is reported, and the sizes of p39R861-4, pSa and NTP168 were determined to be 155.8, 40.1 and 6.8 kb, respectively. An improved size standard, 39R861+, was created by adding two sequenced, compatible plasmids to 39R861 via conjugation. The 94.8 kb conjugative B/O plasmid p838B-R mobilised the cryptic, 2...
February 7, 2019: Plasmid
Vincenzo Di Pilato, Romina Papa-Ezdra, Adriana Chiarelli, Virginia García Fulgueiras, Lucia Pallecchi, Rafael Vignoli
Azithromycin represents a valid therapeutic option for gastrointestinal and systemic infections caused by multidrug resistant (MDR) diarrheagenic Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella species. However, acquired macrolide resistance in these species has been increasingly described, mostly related to macrolide modifying enzymes encoded by mph- and erm-type genes. In this study, we characterized the first blaCTX-M-14 /ermB-carrying IncI1 plasmid from Latin America, which was detected in a MDR E. coli clinical isolate from Uruguay...
February 4, 2019: Plasmid
Soumitra Sau, Santanu Kumar Ghosh, Yen-Ting Liu, Chien-Hui Ma, Makkuni Jayaram
An underlying theme in the segregation of low-copy bacterial plasmids is the assembly of a 'segrosome' by DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions, followed by energy-driven directed movement. Analogous partitioning mechanisms drive the segregation of host chromosomes as well. Eukaryotic extra-chromosomal elements, exemplified by budding yeast plasmids and episomes of certain mammalian viruses, harbor partitioning systems that promote their physical association with chromosomes. In doing so, they indirectly take advantage of the spindle force that directs chromosome movement to opposite cell poles...
February 3, 2019: Plasmid
David Kneis, Teppo Hiltunen, Stefanie Heß
Horizontal gene transfer is an essential component of bacterial evolution. Quantitative information on transfer rates is particularly useful to better understand and possibly predict the spread of antimicrobial resistance. A variety of methods has been proposed to estimate the rates of plasmid-mediated gene transfer all of which require substantial labor input or financial resources. A cheap but reliable method with high-throughput capabilities is yet to be developed in order to better capture the variability of plasmid transfer rates, e...
December 29, 2018: Plasmid
Rahul Gauttam, Christian Desiderato, Lisa Jung, Adnan Shah, Bernhard J Eikmanns
The Gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum represents a promising platform for the production of amino acids, organic acids, and other bio-products. However, the availability of only few expression vectors limits its use for production purposes, using metabolic engineering approaches when co-expression of several target genes is desired. To widen the scope for co-expression, the pCG1/p15A and pBL1/colE1 replicons were employed to construct the two differentially-inducible and compatible expression vectors pRG_Duet1 and pRG_Duet2...
December 27, 2018: Plasmid
Pedro J Alcolea, Ana Alonso, Vicente Larraga
DNA vaccines require a vector to replicate genes and express encoding antigens. Antibiotic resistance genes are often used as selection markers, which must not be released to the environment upon final product commercialization. For this reason, generation of antibiotic resistance-free vectors is imperative. The pPAL vector contains the cytomegalovirus enhancer and promoter for expression in mammalian cells, and the E. coli fabI chromosomal gene as a selectable marker. The fabI gene encodes the enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI)...
December 6, 2018: Plasmid
Alessandra Carattoli, Laura Villa, Daniela Fortini, Aurora García-Fernández
IncI1 has become one of the most common plasmid families in contemporary Enterobacteriaceae from both human and animal sources. In clinical epidemiology, this plasmid type ranks first as the confirmed vehicle of transmission of extended spectrum beta-lactamase and plasmid AmpC genes in isolates from food-producing animals. In this review, we describe the epidemiology and evolution of IncI1 plasmids and closely related IncIγ plasmids. We highlight the emergence of epidemic plasmids circulating among different bacterial hosts in geographically distant countries, and we address the phylogeny of the IncI1 and IncIγ family based on plasmid Multilocus Sequence Typing...
December 5, 2018: Plasmid
Robert A Moran, Ruth M Hall
Ampicillin, streptomycin and sulphamethoxazole resistant commensal E. coli 838-3B contains five plasmids that range in size from >90 kb to <2 kb. The resistance genes blaTEM (ampicillin), strA (streptomycin) and sul2 (sulphamethoxazole) transferred along with a B/O plasmid named p838B-R. However, three plasmids smaller than 7 kb were also found in transconjugants, suggesting that they could be mobilised by the B/O plasmid. The complete sequences of p838B-R and pBuzz, a small plasmid mobilised by p838B-R with 70% efficiency, were determined...
November 20, 2018: Plasmid
Larissa A Balabanova, Yuri N Shkryl, Lubov V Slepchenko, Yulia A Yugay, Tatiana Y Gorpenchenko, Natalia N Kirichuk, Yulia V Khudyakova, Irina Yu Bakunina, Anna B Podvolotskaya, Victor P Bulgakov, Aleksandra V Seitkalieva, Oksana M Son, Liudmila A Tekutyeva
An ability to synthesize extracellular enzymes degrading a wide spectrum of plant and algae polymeric substrates makes many fungi relevant for biotechnology. The terrestrial thermophilic and marine fungal isolates capable of plant and algae degradation have been tested for antibiotic resistance for their possible use in a new genetic transformation system. Plasmids encoding the hygromycin B phosphotransferase (hph) under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, the trpC gene promoter of Aspergillus nidulans, and the Aureobasidium pullulans TEF gene promoter were delivered into the fungal cells by electroporation...
November 19, 2018: Plasmid
M Oliva, R Monno, P Addabbo, G Pesole, M Scrascia, C Calia, A M Dionisi, M Chiara, D S Horner, C Manzari, C Pazzani
In the present study we report the identification of a sul3-associated class 1 integron containing the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH array embedded in a Tn21-derived element that is part of a conjugative FII plasmid named pST1007-1A. The plasmid was identified in the Salmonella Typhimurium strain ST1007, a member of a clinically relevant clonal MDR lineage diffuse in Italy. ST1007 exhibited resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim encoded by blaTEM-1 , cmlA1, (aadA1, aadA2, strAB), (sul2, sul3), tet(B) and dfrA12 genes, respectively...
October 16, 2018: Plasmid
Ganesh K Maurya, Hari S Misra
The gene knockouts are mostly created using homologous recombination-based replacement of target gene(s) with the expressing cassette of selection marker gene(s). Here, we constructed a series of plasmids bearing the expressing cassettes of genes encoding different antibiotics markers like nptII (KanR ), aadA (SpecR ), cat (CmR ) and aac(3) (GenR ). D. radiodurans is a radioresistant Gram positive bacterium that does not support the independent maintenance of colE1 origin-based plasmids. Using these constructs, the disruption mutants of both single and multiple genes involved in segregation of secondary genome elements have been generated in this bacterium...
September 24, 2018: Plasmid
Ewa Sadowy
Linezolid is considered a last resort drug in treatment of severe infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens, resistant to other antibiotics, such as vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant staphylococci and multidrug resistant pneumococci. Although the vast majority of Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria remain susceptible to linezolid, resistant isolates of enterococci, staphylococci and streptococci have been reported worldwide. In these bacteria, apart from mutations, affecting mostly the 23S rRNA genes, acquisition of such genes as cfr, cfr(B), optrA and poxtA, often associated with mobile genetic elements (MGE), plays an important role for resistance...
September 22, 2018: Plasmid
Xiu-Zhong Zhang, Chang-Wei Lei, Jin-Xin Zeng, Yan-Peng Chen, Zhuang-Zhuang Kang, Yu-Long Wang, Xiao-Lan Ye, Xi-Wen Zhai, Hong-Ning Wang
We have identified an IncX1 plasmid named pQJDSal1 from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Pullorum (S. Pullorum). The plasmid is 67,685 bp in size and has 72 putative genes. pQJDSal1 harbors a conserved IncX1-type backbone with predicted regions for conjugation, replication and partitioning, as well as a toxin/antitoxin plasmid addiction system. Two regions (A and B) that have not been previously reported in IncX1 plasmids are inserted into the backbone. Region A (10.7 kb), inserted between parA and taxD, consists of a new Tn6168-like transposon containing an arsenic resistant operon arsB2CHR and sulfonamide resistance gene sul2...
September 21, 2018: Plasmid
Monika Dolejska, Costas C Papagiannitsis
Multidrug resistance (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria have been increasingly reported in humans, companion animals and farm animals. The growing trend of plasmid-mediated resistance to antimicrobial classes of critical importance is attributed to the emergence of epidemic plasmids, rapidly disseminating resistance genes among the members of Enterobacteriaceae family. The use of antibiotics to treat humans and animals has had a significant impact on the environment and on wild animals living and feeding in human-influenced habitats...
September 20, 2018: Plasmid
João Alves Gama, Rita Zilhão, Francisco Dionisio
Naturally occurring plasmids have medical importance given that they frequently code for virulence or antibiotic resistance. In many cases, plasmids impose a fitness cost to their hosts, meaning that the growth rate of plasmid-bearing cells is lower than that of plasmid-free cells. However, this does not fit with the fact that plasmids are ubiquitous in nature nor that plasmids and their hosts adapt to each other very fast - as has been shown in laboratory evolutionary assays. Even when plasmids are costly, they seem to largely interact in such a way that the cost of two plasmids is lower than the cost of one of them alone...
September 19, 2018: Plasmid
Alma K Tamez-Castrellón, Ricardo Romo-Lucio, Iván Martínez-Duncker, Héctor M Mora-Montes
Some members of the Sporothrix genus can cause sporotrichosis, a worldwide distributed mycosis that affects several mammalian species, including human beings. Sporothrix schenckii and Sporothrix brasiliensis are the fungal species frequently associated with this disease, and the latter has gained significant interest because of the increased number of cases associated with transmission by cats. Despite the relevance of these organisms in the medical field, limited strategies for their genetic manipulation have been explored...
September 17, 2018: Plasmid
Jean-Yves Madec, Marisa Haenni
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) plasmids have been recognized as important vectors for efficient spread of AMR phenotypes. The food reservoir includes both food-producing animals and food products, and a huge diversity of AMR plasmids have been reported in this sector. Based on molecular typing methods and/or whole genome sequencing approaches, certain AMR genes/plasmids combinations were found more frequently in food compared to other settings. However, the food source of a definite AMR plasmid is highly complex to confirm due to cross-sectorial transfers and international spread of AMR plasmids...
September 6, 2018: Plasmid
Andrew G Wiggins, Stephen P LaVoie, Joy Wireman, Anne O Summers
Multi-antibiotic resistant (MAR) bacteria cost billions in medical care and tens of thousands of lives annually but perennial calls to limit agricultural and other misuse of antibiotics and to fund antibiotic discovery have not slowed this MAR deluge. Since mobile genetic elements (MGEs) stitch single antibiotic resistance genes into clinically significant MAR arrays, it is high time to focus on how MGEs generate MAR and how disabling them could ameliorate the MAR problem. However, to consider only antibiotics as the drivers of MAR is to miss the significant impact of exposure to non-antibiotic toxic chemicals, specifically metals, on the persistence and spread of MAR...
September 4, 2018: Plasmid
Ruth Hall, Alessandra Carattoli, Ewa Sadowy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Plasmid
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