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Drug and Chemical Toxicology

Ayman Samir Farid, Ahmed Medhat Hegazy
Fluoroquinolones are some of the most common antibiotics used by clinicians all over the world. Levofloxacin, a fluoroquinolone, is used therapeutically in numerous countries; however, it can cause an increase in liver function tests and liver dysfunction. The current study was designed to determine the effect of Levofloxacin (40 mg/kg body weight (b.wt.) daily for 2 weeks) on rat liver function and oxidative stress markers as well as to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective effects of Moringa oleifera leaf extract as a known antioxidant herb...
February 20, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Di Wu, Wen-Yi Zhou, Xiao-Tong Lin, Lei Fang, Chuan-Ming Xie
OBJECTIVE: Bufalin has been reported to kill various types of cancer including human colorectal cancer. Our previous study demonstrated that bufalin induced cell death via autophagy in HT-29 and Caco-2 colon cancer cells, but the action of bufalin remains unclear. This study was conducted to investigate the role of bufalin in other colon cancer HCT-116 and SW620 cells as well as its potential mechanism. METHODS: The effect of bufalin in HCT-116 and SW620 colon cancer cells was detected by assessing cell viability and cell death...
February 19, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Vahid Reza Askari, Vafa Baradaran Rahimi, Amin Assaran, Mehrdad Iranshahi, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
Inflammation is defined as a defensive response of the body against either the endogenous or exogenous triggers, while this process becomes chronic leading to various disorders such as asthma, cancers, and multiple sclerosis. Recently, pharmacological properties of different constituents of F. szowitsiana have been reported. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of the methanolic extract of F. szowitsiana root on human isolated lymphocytes. The effects of either F...
February 14, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Kiran Shahzad, Farkhanda Manzoor
While nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as insecticides by themselves, they can also be carriers for insecticidal chemicals. Existing literature suggests that the smaller the NP size, the greater the toxicity and penetration into the insect's body. Nonetheless, there is a lack of literature pertaining to the mode of action within insects. This review article summarizes the currently available entomological studies on the mechanisms of NP-insect interactions. Externally, NPs affect pigmentation and integrity of the cuticle, while internally they induce immune responses and alter gene expression leading to altered protein, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism along with cellular toxicity that impairs development and reproduction of the insect...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Simranjeet Kaur, Neha Singla, D K Dhawan
Chlorpyrifos (CPF) has been considered as one of the most potent organophosphates and is linked to several neurological disorders. On the other hand, Quercetin is a vital plant flavanoid and has been reported to regulate a number of physiological processes in the central nervous system. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective potential of quercetin during chlorpyrifos induced neurotoxicity. Female Wistar rats weighing 150-200 g were divided into four different groups viz: Normal control, CPF treated (13...
February 12, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Maryam Barghi, Mahboobeh Ashrafi, Mahmoud Aminlari, Fateme Namazi, Saeed Nazifi
Activation of hepatic stellate cells by free radicals is an initial step in the development of liver fibrosis. Zataria multiflora Boiss (ZM) essential oil as a natural product has antioxidant activity and maybe a suitable candidate for treatment or prevention of the disease. Thus, this study aims to evaluate the protective effect of ZM oil in CCl4 induced liver fibrosis. Male rats were divided into 5 groups, group C: control rats; CO: vehicle control group; CE: rats that received essential oil (500 µl/kg); F: fibrosis group, rat were intraperitoneally injected with CCl4 (1 mL/kg); FE: fibrosis rats that received both CCl4 and ZM essential oil as mentioned above...
February 12, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Kobra Shirani, Bamdad Riahi Zanjani, Soghra Mehri, Kamal Razavi-Azarkhiavi, Ali Badiee, A Wallace Hayes, John P Giesy, Gholamreza Karimi
Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 ) is a 4-hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ). It induces various toxicological effects including immunotoxicity. In the present study, we investigated the effects of AFM1 on immune system and its modulation by MicroRNA (miR)-155. AFM1 was administered intraperitoneally at doses of 25 and 50 µg/kg for 28 days to Balb/c mice and different immune system parameters were analyzed. The levels of miR-155 and targeted proteins were evaluated in isolated T cells from spleens of mice...
February 11, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Nastaran Rezaei, Amir Avan, Mehran Pashirzad, Farzad Rahmani, Reyhaneh Moradi Marjaneh, Reihane Behnam-Rassouli, Mojtaba Shafiee, Mikhail Ryzhikov, Milad Hashemzehi, Fatemeh Ariakia, Amirhossein Bahreyni, Seyed Mahdi Hassanian, Majid Khazaei
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with high incidence and prevalence worldwide. To investigate the therapeutic potency of crocin, as a pharmacologically active component of saffron, in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis mice model. Experimental colitis was induced by 7-day administration of DSS dissolved in water at a concentration of 1.5% (w/v). The animals were randomly divided into four groups (n¼6 for each group). (1) Control group received regular drinking water for four weeks, (2) the second group of mice received regular drinking water for three weeks and then received DSS for one week, (3) and (4) the other two groups received 50-ppm or 200-ppm crocin for three weeks, respectively, and then treated with DSS for one week...
February 3, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Farimah Beheshti, Mahmoud Hosseini, Mehdi Taheri Sarvtin, Ali Kamali, Akbar Anaeigoudari
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria activates macrophages to produce a high level of pro-inflammatory cytokines which is considered as a cause of liver dysfunction. Overproduction of nitric oxide (NO) has been suggested to have a role in hepatic injury. The aim of the present study was to explore the protective effects of aminoguanidine (AG) as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor against LPS -induced liver dysfunction in rat. The animals were divided into five groups: (1) control (2) LPS (3) LPS-AG50, (4) LPS-AG100 and (5) LPS-AG150...
January 29, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Cheemalamarri Chandrasekhar, Hemshikha Rajpurohit, Kalpana Javaji, Madhusudana Kuncha, Aravind Setti, A Zehra Ali, Ashok K Tiwari, Sunil Misra, C Ganesh Kumar
The compound 1-O-methyl chrysophanol (OMC) which belongs to a class of hydroxyanthraquinones was isolated from Amycolatopsis thermoflava strain SFMA-103 and studied for their anti-diabetic properties. OMC was evaluated as an anti-diabetic agent based on in silico studies which initially predicted the binding energy with α-amylase (-188.81 KJ mol-1 ) and with α-glucosidase (70.53 KJ mol-1 ). Further, these results were validated based on enzyme inhibition assays where OMC demonstrated enzyme inhibitory activity towards α-amylase (IC50 3...
January 7, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Noura M Ali, Amr A A Mahmoud, Mona F Mahmoud, Hassan M El Fayoumi
Aluminum is implicated in the etiology of different neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes and cancer. The current study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of glycyrrhizic acid (GAM) and silymarin (SLY) on AlCl3 -induced neurotoxicity in insulin resistant rats. Insulin resistance (IR) was induced by fructose (10%) in drinking water for 18 weeks. Rats received AlCl3 (34 mg/kg/day) with or without fructose, GAM (40 mg/kg/day), or SLY (100 mg/kg/day). The administration of GAM or SLY suppressed AlCl3 -induced memory deficit, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation in brain tissue of IR rats...
January 7, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Aron D Mosnaim, Marion E Wolf, James J Iii O'Donnell, Thomas Hudzik
Phenylethylamine's acute toxic effects in a population of adult (10 to 12 weeks old; ∼30 g) Swiss male albino mice are significantly increased by para-position aromatic ring halogenation. LDLO , LD50 , and LD100 values (mg/kg; x ± SEM) for p-F- (116.7 ± 3.3, 136.7 ± 1.7, and 160.0 ± 2.9), p-Br- (126.7 ± 3.3, 145.0 ± 2.9, and 163.3 ± 3.3), p-Cl- (133.3 ± 3.3, 146.7 ± 1.7, and 165.0 ± 2.9), and p-I-PEA (133.3 ± 3.3, 153.3 ± 1.7, and 168.3 ± 1...
January 7, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Laxman P Sharma, Mayur P Kadve, Madhu C Lingaraju, Avinash G Telang
S-[3-carbamoylsulfanyl-2-(dimethylamino)propyl] carbamothioate (Cartap) (CAS number: 15263-52-2) is a synthetic insecticide of thiocarbamates group that is extensively used in field of agriculture for controlling of several pests like rice stem borer, leaf folder pests in paddy field and diamond back moth, aphids in cabbage and cauliflower crops. Cartap, as a pesticide has not been investigated yet for its effect on vital organs and biochemical stress in vivo and the present study was undertaken to evaluate the same in Swiss albino mice...
January 7, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Jana Juráňová
The cytotoxicity of methacrylate-based biopolymers crosslinked by in situ photopolymerization has been attributed mainly to residual methacrylate monomers released due to incomplete polymerization. The residual monomers, primarily triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate or 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, may irritate adjacent tissue, or be released into the bloodstream and reach practically all tissues. Increased production of reactive oxygen species, which may be connected to concomitant glutathione depletion, has been the most noticeable effect observed in vitro following the exposure of cells to methacrylates...
January 4, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Monika Wieczerzak, Jacek Namieśnik, Błażej Kudłak
Pharmaceutical residues are present in the environment in mixtures and their adverse effects may also result from interactions that occur between compounds. Studies presented in this work focus on genotoxicity of pharmaceuticals from different therapeutic groups in mixtures and in individual solutions impacted with different environmental conditions assessed using comet assay (alkaline approach). Binary mixtures of pharmaceuticals (in different concentration ratios) and in individual solutions impacted with pH change (range from 5...
January 4, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Aner Mesic, Irma Mahmutović-Dizdarević, Emina Tahirović, Irma Durmišević, Izet Eminovic, Anesa Jerković-Mujkić, Renata Bešta-Gajević
Lavender and immortelle essential oils (EOs) are widely used to treat a spectrum of human conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate cyto/genotoxic effects of lavender and immortelle EOs using plant cells (Allium cepa) and human lymphocytes, as well as their antimicrobial potential using nine strains of bacteria and fungi. Our results for lavender and immortelle EOs showed that the frequency of chromosome aberrations (CAs) was increased in comparison with controls. For both oils, increased frequency of apoptosis for all concentrations, as well as the frequency of necrosis (0...
January 4, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Guoliang Li, Dan Han, Yang Zhao, Hanhan Liu, Xuanzi Sun, Jingjing Sun, Hongjuan Liu, Yu Liu
The frequency of methylisothiazolinone (MIT)-related health concerns regarding allergic contact dermatitis with a spongiotic reaction pattern and restrictive lung function indicating peripheral airway dysfunction caused by the use of humidifier disinfectant is increasingly rising. There is a limited number of evidences supporting the environmentally acute and mass exposure to MIT resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Here, we report the first case of ARDS and alimentary tract hemorrhage following mass ingestion of methylisothiazolinone...
January 4, 2019: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Yuanyuan Xiao, Yiyuan Zhang, Fang Xiao
Cell senescence is the state of irreversible growth arrest that can be triggered by a variety of different cellular stresses. Currently, the commonly used detection indicators involved in the study of cell senescence include senescence-associated β-galactosidase, Clusterin, Telomeres/Telomerase, senescence-associated heterochromatin foci, senescence-associated secretory phenotype, senescence marker protein-30, tumor suppressor genes p53 and p16, and other indicators such as Ki67 and decoy receptor 2. These indicators are widely used in the study of cell senescence, each with its own characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages...
December 27, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
O B Ibitoye, T O Ajiboye
Menadione (Vitamin K3 ) is an over-the-counter (OTC) drug used in the treatment of abdominal cramps, colitis, diarrhea, hay fever, hemorrahage, hypoprothrombinemia, and joint pains. In this study, we evaluated the protective influence of protocatechuic acid on menadione-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were randomized into five groups (A-E) of five rats each. Control rats orally received 1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in distilled water (the vehicle for protocatechuic administration) for 7 days. In addition, control rats intraperioneally received olive oil (vehicle for menadione administration) on the 7th day...
December 26, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Ramona Figat, Anna Zgadzaj, Sylwia Geschke, Patrycja Sieczka, Agnieszka Pietrosiuk, Sylwester Sommer, Agata Skrzypczak
Shikonin (SH) is used as a red pigment for food coloring and cosmetics, and has cytotoxic activity towards cancer cells. However, due to strong toxicity SH has limited potential as an anticancer drug. Acetylshikonin (ASH) is one of the SH derivatives with promising anticancer potential. In present study, we attempted to evaluate and compare the cytotoxicity of SH and ASH towards a normal cell line (V79) and in addition to evaluate their antigenotoxic activity. The evaluation was made with the use of the set of cytotoxicity assays with V79 line and the micronucleus test in vitro performed using clinafloxacin (CLFX), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) as direct genotoxins and cyclophosphamide (CPA) as indirect genotoxin...
December 21, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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