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Child Abuse & Neglect

Maha Almuneef, Hassan N Saleheen, Fatimah Al Shehri, Majid A Al-Eissa
BACKGROUND: Global efforts are being made to combat child maltreatment (CM); however, in 2011 the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia's (KSA) response to this issue was found to be mediocre. Several developments have been implemented in KSA since then, and reevaluation is now necessary. OBJECTIVE: To assess the CM-prevention readiness (CMPR) of KSA in regard to implementing large-scale, evidence-based CM-prevention programs. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Key informants based in KSA who were decision makers and senior managers in the CM field; face-to-face interviews were conducted in the participants' offices...
May 9, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Melissa J Green, Maina Kariuki, Marilyn Chilvers, Merran Butler, Ilan Katz, Sharon Burke, Stacy Tzoumakis, Kristin R Laurens, Felicity Harris, Vaughan J Carr
BACKGROUND: Cross-agency administrative data can improve cost-effective triage systems for child protection and other human service delivery. OBJECTIVE: To determine the minimum set of cross-agency indicators that could accurately classify placement in out-of-home-care (OOHC) before age 13-14 years. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Participants were 72,079 Australian children (mean age = 13.16 years; SD = 0.37; 51.4% male) and their parents, for whom linked administrative records spanning the years 1994-2016 were available for analysis within the 'New South Wales Child Development Study'...
May 7, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Lu Yu, Ko Ling Chan
BACKGROUND: Robust evidence suggests a strong association between juvenile victimization and delinquency. Yet, there is a lack of research on the protective factors at the individual level that may buffer the relationship between victimization and delinquent behaviors. OBJECTIVES: This study adopted a positive psychology perspective to examine the effects of three types of personal strength (self-regulation, interpersonal, and intellectual) on the relationship between different types of victimization and delinquency...
May 7, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Theodore P Cross, Thaddeus Schmitt
BACKGROUND: In sexual assault cases, little research has examined differences in forensic medical findings and law enforcement response by victim age across the entire age range. OBJECTIVE: This study addressed this gap by comparing four victim age groups: adults, adolescents over the age of consent, adolescents under the age of consent, and children under 12. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Cases were randomly sampled from a statewide database of medical reports on sexual assault examinations conducted in hospital emergency departments, including only cases reported to law enforcement (N = 563)...
May 7, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jo-Annie Spearson Goulet, Monique Tardif
BACKGROUND: Parents play an important role in children's development of sexual norms and behaviors. Regarding the family environment of adolescents who have engaged in sexual abuse (AESA), some studies have suggested potential factors of interest, although the sexuality of AESA parents has yet to be considered. OBJECTIVES: (1) Explore sexual profiles among parents, (2) Examine if the sexual profiles of parents are related to the sexual profiles of AESA. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Participants include 201 parents (116 mothers, 85 fathers) of AESA recruited from specialized treatment and youth centers in Quebec...
May 4, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Merav Jedwab, Yanfeng Xu, Daniel Keyser, Terry V Shaw
BACKGROUND: A significant proportion of children placed in out of-home care experience placement disruptions in the United States. Placement instability has deleterious effects on children's well-being. OBJECTIVES: (a) To measure the time-to-initial placement change in different types of settings, including non-relative foster homes, kinship care, residential treatment centers (RTC), group homes and other types of settings; and (b) To identify predictors of the initial placement change...
May 4, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Alan Carr, Finiki Nearchou, Hollie Duff, Dearbhaile Ní Mhaoileoin, Katie Cullen, Annie O'Dowd, Laaura Battigelli
BACKGROUND: The Scottish Child Abuse Inquiry (SCAI) commissioned the research project to document the outcomes of institutional abuse in long-term child care in Scotland. OBJECTIVE: To profile the experiences of survivors abused in long-term child care in Scotland, and to develop a model which linked maltreatment, risk and protective factors, and outcomes. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: 225 survivors of historical institutional abuse in Scotland, who made witness statements to SCAI...
May 2, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jessica E Cooke, Nicole Racine, Andre Plamondon, Suzanne Tough, Sheri Madigan
BACKGROUND: Investigations have found mothers' adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) confer an intergenerational risk to their children's outcomes. However, mechanisms underlying this transmission have only been partially explained by maternal mental health. Adult attachment insecurity has been shown to mediate the association of ACEs and mental health outcomes, yet an extension of this research to children's behavioral problems has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: To examine the cascade from maternal ACEs to risk for child behavioral problems at five years of age, via mothers' attachment insecurity and mental health...
April 29, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Joseph Ssenyonga, Katharin Hermenau, Mabula Nkuba, Tobias Hecker
BACKGROUND: Globally, the use of violent discipline methods by teachers to manage child behavior is still highly prevalent despite enactment of laws that prohibit school violence. In the case of Uganda there is a dearth of accurate prevalence statistics on school violence and factors associated with the use of violence by teachers. OBJECTIVES: Therefore, the current study examined the prevalence of and attitudes towards violence. The study also explored the association between teachers' stress, positive attitudes towards violence and the use of violent discipline management methods...
April 27, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Patrick Kelly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 27, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Larissa Rossen, Stacy Tzoumakis, Maina Kariuki, Kristin R Laurens, Merran Butler, Marilyn Chilvers, Felicity Harris, Vaughan J Carr, Melissa J Green
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is associated with early childhood developmental vulnerabilities. However, the extent to which higher levels of child protection responses confer benefit to developmental competencies, and the impact of earlier timing of first reports in relation to early childhood vulnerability remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We examined associations between early developmental vulnerabilities and (1) the highest level of child protection response (where OOHC was deemed the highest response among other types of reports/responses), and (2) the developmental timing of the first child protection report...
April 23, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jessica N Fish, Laura Baams, Armeda Stevenson Wojciak, Stephen T Russell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 22, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rebecca Brown, Hayley Alderson, Eileen Kaner, Ruth McGovern, Raghu Lingam
BACKGROUND: Looked after children and care leavers (LACCL) are some of the most vulnerable and marginalized young people in our communities. Existing research demonstrates that this group often interprets care in terms of genuineness and tends to feel uncared for. Less work exists from the perspective of social workers and formal carers. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore how care is perceived and practiced among LACCL and those with a duty of care for them. We use a theoretical lens of care ethics to compare and contrast understandings in order to explore how they affect the delivery and receipt of care...
April 18, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Elizabeth Crouch, Janice C Probst, Elizabeth Radcliff, Kevin J Bennett, Selina Hunt McKinney
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) among children in the United States and to examine the relationship between child and family characteristics and the likelihood of reported exposure to ACEs. METHODS: Data were drawn from the nationally representative 2016 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH). Parent-reported child ACE exposure was measured using counts of those reporting zero ACEs, one to three ACEs, and four or more ACEs...
April 16, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Jill R McTavish, Irina Sverdlichenko, Harriet L MacMillan, Christine Wekerle
BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a prevalent exposure with potentially serious, negative health consequences, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and its symptomatology. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic and critical review in order to investigate the relationship between CSA disclosure patterns and PTSD. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Studies included clinical, college and community-based samples of adults' and children's experiences of CSA...
April 15, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Judith A Cohen, Anthony P Mannarino
OBJECTIVES: In light of the current U.S. family separation crisis, there is growing attention to Childhood Traumatic Separation, defined here as a significant traumatic stress reaction to a familial separation that the child experiences as traumatic. When living in a family setting, Childhood Traumatic Separation may interfere with the child's relationships with the current caregiver(s). Effective treatments for Childhood Traumatic Grief can be modified to address Childhood Traumatic Separation...
April 15, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Elizabeth A Cleek, Norah L Johnson, Lynn K Sheets
BACKGROUND: Despite reporting legislation, healthcare providers (HCPs) do not always report and collaborate in cases of suspected child abuse. Recognizing this leaves children at risk, the Wisconsin Child Abuse Network (WI CAN) sought to understand barriers to mandated reporting and collaboration with child abuse investigators. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study was to investigate barriers for professionals in providing and obtaining high-quality medical information in child abuse investigations...
April 15, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Georgina Spies, Martin Kidd, Soraya Seedat
BACKGROUND: The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) is widely used around the world but no norms have been established for South African users of the CTQ. The CTQ has been employed in South Africa but not yet validated. The present study aims to address this gap. There is great need in both clinical and research settings for an assessment tool that adequately measures childhood trauma, a sensitive and challenging construct to measure. OBJECTIVE: This study explores the psychometric properties of the CTQ-SF in an all-female cohort living with and without HIV infection in South Africa, the first study of its kind in this population...
April 10, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Andressa Reisen, Maria Carmen Viana, Edson Theodoro Dos Santos Neto
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences and bullying are factors associated with an increased risk of harmful outcomes to the physical and mental health of adolescents, which may affect their resilience. OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the association between exposure to childhood adversities and bullying behaviors in late adolescence. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: The study included adolescents in the 15-19 age range, enrolled in high schools located in a metropolitan region of Brazil...
April 9, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
Rachel Kidman, Dylan Smith, Luciane R Piccolo, Hans-Peter Kohler
BACKGROUND: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) can have lifelong adverse impacts on health and behavior. While this relationship has been extensively documented in high-income countries, evidence from lower-income contexts is largely missing. In order to stimulate greater research on the prevalence and consequences of ACEs in low-income countries, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the ACE-International Questionnaire (ACE-IQ). OBJECTIVE: In this paper, we explore the factor structure, validity and reliability of the original ACE-IQ, and evaluate whether potential adaptations improve its predictive validity...
April 8, 2019: Child Abuse & Neglect
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