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Early Human Development | Page 2

Beatrice Farrugia
This paper provides an introduction to set-theoretic methods with respect to their application to research in the qualitative paradigm, as part of a series of papers on qualitative research being featured in Early Human Development. It discusses the philosophical assumptions underlying set-theoretic methods and the properties that make them well-suited for use in the analysis of qualitative data. It also takes a closer look at qualitative comparative analysis (QCA), a cross-case analysis method that has arguably been most widely applied among the set-theoretic methods and has also been gaining ground in the health field...
April 4, 2019: Early Human Development
Marta Sant
Qualitative methodologies are commonly used in the social sciences. This paper discusses how this type of research can enhance evidence-based practice in health care settings. Examples taken from qualitative studies are included in order to demonstrate how such research can be applied to medical settings. Additionally, this paper describes some of the unique characteristics inherent in qualitative research.
April 3, 2019: Early Human Development
Kajsa Brimdyr, Karin Cadwell, Ann-Marie Widström, Kristin Svensson, Rayle Phillips
BACKGROUND: Skin-to-skin contact after birth between mother and baby has immediate and long-term advantages. Widström's 9 Stages of Newborn Behavior offer an opportunity to evaluate a baby in the natural, expected and optimal habitat. Intrapartum drugs, including fentanyl administered via epidural and synthetic oxytocin (synOT), have been studied in relation to neonatal outcomes with conflicting results. AIMS: Determine the effects of common intrapartum medications on the instinctive behavior of healthy newborns during the first hour after birth through a prospective cohort study...
April 3, 2019: Early Human Development
Alexandra A Sawyer, Norman K Pollock, Bernard Gutin, Neal L Weintraub, Brian K Stansfield
BACKGROUND: Perinatal growth has important implications for cardiac development. Low birth weight is associated with cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality, and animal studies have shown that fetal growth restriction is associated with cardiac remodeling in the perinatal period leading to a permanent loss of cardiomyocyte endowment and compensatory hypertrophy. AIMS: To determine associations of birthweight (BW) and multiple proportionality indexes (body mass index (BMI); weight/length2 and Ponderal index (PI); weight/length3 ) at birth on one hand, with left ventricular (LV) structure and function during adolescence...
April 3, 2019: Early Human Development
Mary Anne Lauri, Josef Lauri
Images can be helpful for eliciting data in the form of responses from participants. Sometimes photographs can help participants speak about issues, events, thoughts and emotions which they find difficult to talk about. This paper discusses how photos can be used and how the data collected through their use in a discussion can be analysed using Correspondence Analysis (CA). Although CA is considered a quantitative tool for analysing data, this paper describes how it can be used with qualitative data.
April 1, 2019: Early Human Development
Beatrice Farrugia
This paper outlines key concepts and considerations pertaining to sampling in qualitative research as part of a series of articles on qualitative research methods aimed at a medical and health sciences audience with a predominantly quantitative background. Planning of the sampling approach, including within-case sampling, multiple-case sampling, sample size considerations and qualitative sampling strategies are addressed. Concepts specific to the qualitative paradigm, including the iterative approach and saturation are discussed and a framework for evaluating the rigour of qualitative sampling strategies is presented...
April 1, 2019: Early Human Development
Mary Anne Lauri
Qualitative data is important to understand certain phenomena. While quantitative data is important to understand the prevalence of attitudes and behaviour in psychosocial medical research, qualitative data can help understand and explain the reasons behind attitudes behaviour. One of the methods of collecting qualitative data is the focus group discussion. During a focus group researchers facilitate a discussion to elicit views and lay theories about the research topic. Researchers use group facilitation skills in order to make participants feel at ease and disclose their thoughts, feelings and perceptions about a particular issue with the least bias possible...
March 30, 2019: Early Human Development
Michael Briguglio
Discourse analysis enables the identification of what social actors say and do but also of what they represent in terms of values and motivation Such an analysis can also unearth ideological representations which legitimize the reproduction of social structures, irrespective of whether such representations reflect some objective reality or not. In their turn, such structures are contingent and incomplete, and are subject to changes. Discourse analysis examines their political and historical construction and functioning...
March 29, 2019: Early Human Development
Christyann L C Batista, Vandilson P Rodrigues, Valdinar S Ribeiro, Maria D S B Nascimento
BACKGROUND: The current literature does not provide accurate information about the association between use of artificial nipples and sucking patterns in infants. AIMS: We aimed to investigate whether pacifier use and/or bottle-feeding were associated with nutritive sucking (NS) and non-nutritive sucking (NNS) patterns. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SUBJECTS: 429 full-term infants/mothers. OUTCOME MEASURES: Data were collected through a questionnaire and observations of NS during breastfeeding and NNS (finger sucking)...
March 28, 2019: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Quantitative and qualitative analyses and research are conventionally regarded as fundamentally different techniques. However, their objectives and applications overlap, and the decision of which of the two methods to apply depends not only on the nature and volume of data that is to be collected, but also the actual type of data and the resources at hand. Indeed, the outright combination of the two methods is becoming increasingly common. This collection will cover some aspects of qualitative analyses techniques...
March 27, 2019: Early Human Development
Rachel A K Kennedy, Michael J Turner
BACKGROUND: Maternal nutrition may influence intrauterine fetal development. To date, the relationship between contemporary European dietary guidelines and fetal growth has not been examined. AIMS: To develop a novel Periconceptual Nutrition Score (PENS) to assess maternal dietary quality in early pregnancy and examine its relationship with fetal growth. STUDY DESIGN: Women were recruited conveniently at their first clinic visit and completed a supervised four day retrospective diet history...
March 22, 2019: Early Human Development
Fernando Martín Del Valle, Ana Menasalvas Ruiz, Amaia Cilla, Ana Velázquez González, María de Ceano Vivas, María Cabrerizo Sanz, Cristina Calvo
AIM: Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are responsible for fever without a source (FWS), sepsis-like illness and encephalitis in neonates and children under 3 months of age. Short-term outcome is generally good, but there is great concern about medium and long- term outcome of infants after HPeV infection. The aim of this study is to assess the medium-term outcome in infants following HPeV infection without encephalitis. METHODS: Patients who suffered HPeV infection involving cerebrospinal fluid were evaluated twice using Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 (ASQ-3)...
March 22, 2019: Early Human Development
Sharon G Casavant, Xiaomei Cong, James Moore, Angela Starkweather
BACKGROUND: Every year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm (<37 weeks' gestational age [GA]) globally. These preterm infants are exposed to repeated stressful and often painful procedures as part of routine life-saving care within the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Preterm birth continues to be a major health issue associated with increased risk of neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders such as cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, autism spectrum disorders and psychiatric disease...
March 11, 2019: Early Human Development
Blair T Crewther, Christian J Cook
BACKGROUND: The 2nd to 4th digit ratio (2D:4D) is regarded as a sexually dimorphic trait governed by prenatal testosterone (T) and estradiol exposure. However, relationships between the 2D:4D and adult sex hormone concentrations are inconsistent in females. Environmental contingencies (e.g., physical training) may provide a stronger basis for establishing these linkages, particularly if the relationships are plastic and not fixed. AIMS: To investigate associations between 2D:4D, training hours and salivary T (sal-T) measures in physically-active women...
March 8, 2019: Early Human Development
Natalie Slama, Marcella Warner, Paolo Mocarelli, Paolo Brambilla, Brenda Eskenazi
BACKGROUND: Exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) during sensitive developmental windows, such as in utero, may influence disease later in life but direct measurement of fetal hormones is not feasible. The ratio of the length of the second finger digit to the fourth digit (2D:4D), a sexually dimorphic trait, is a biomarker of androgen levels and the androgen/estrogen balance in utero. However, it is unclear whether in utero EDC exposure might alter 2D:4D ratio. AIMS: We examined 2D:4D ratio in Seveso children in relation to in utero exposure to a potent EDC, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) using linear regression...
March 5, 2019: Early Human Development
Carlo Dani, Sabrina Becciani, Simone Pratesi
BACKGROUND: There is no standardized method for total serum bilirubin (TSB) monitoring during phototherapy for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and national guidelines give heterogeneous indications. AIM: To assess the hypothesis that TSB values do not exceed exsanguino-transfusion (EXT) threshold during phototherapy and that it is possible to decrease its monitoring frequency in jaundiced infants. STUDY DESIGN: We carried out a prospective observational study in which changes in TSB during phototherapy for non-haemolytic hyperbilirubinemia were recorded in a cohort of late preterm and term infants...
March 1, 2019: Early Human Development
Javier Estañ-Capell, Beatriz Alarcón-Torres, José Domingo Bermúdez, Laura Martínez-Rodríguez, Cecilia Martínez-Costa
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial infection in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants is a common complication with high morbimortality. New strategies to reduce its occurrence have recently led to the development of neonatal surveillance programs. AIMS: To determine whether the NeoKissEs surveillance system implementation in our neonatal unit has been associated with a decrease in nosocomial infection in VLBW infants, as well as a reduction in the use of antibiotics and central venous catheters (CVC)...
February 27, 2019: Early Human Development
Wolfram Burkhardt, Danilo Schneider, Gabriele Hahn, Dimitrios Konstantelos, Hans Gerd Maas, Mario Rüdiger
BACKGROUND: Neurological development is determined by brain growth. Methods to measure total brain volume (TBV) in clinical settings are limited. MR-imaging represents the gold-standard. AIMS: The present study tests the hypotheses that in infants without any brain pathology, TBV - as determined by MRI - can be accurately estimated by cranial volume (CrV), measured by 3D-laser scanning. In case of good correlation of CrV with TBV it was further tested, whether CrV can be also estimated by (I) head circumference (HC) or (II) by other technology than laser scanning...
May 2019: Early Human Development
Annika Kiuru, Terhi Ahola, Liisa Klenberg, Viena Tommiska, Aulikki Lano, Päivi Kleemola, Anu Haavisto, Vineta Fellman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2019: Early Human Development
Trijntje E Schat, Anne G J F van Zoonen, Michelle E van der Laan, Mirthe J Mebius, Arend F Bos, Christian V Hulzebos, H Marike Boezen, Jan B F Hulscher, Elisabeth M W Kooi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Predicting necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) might help in preventing its devastating consequences. We aimed to investigate whether early cerebral and intestinal tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2 ) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) predict the onset of NEC. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational case-control study. SUBJECTS: Infants with gestational age (GA) <32 weeks were included. For every NEC case we matched two controls based on GA, birth weight (BW), and a patent ductus arteriosus...
April 2019: Early Human Development
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