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Early Human Development | Page 2

Alaina Linafelter, Alain Cuna, Cynthia Liu, Anastasia Quigley, William E Truog, Venkatesh Sampath, Alexandra Oschman
BACKGROUND: There are few published data on the efficacy and safety of prednisolone in preterm infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). AIMS: To describe the use of chronic prednisolone therapy in a population of infants with severe BPD, examine potential benefits on respiratory status, and document potential effects on growth. STUDY DESIGN: Single-center retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Preterm infants who had received ≥30 days of prednisolone for the treatment of severe BPD...
June 29, 2019: Early Human Development
Silje Katrine Elgen Fevang, Mari Hysing, Kristian Sommerfelt, Trond Markestad, Irene Bircow Elgen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate development and predictors of mental health problems from five to eleven years of age in children born extremely preterm (EP). METHOD: In a national Norwegian cohort of children born before a gestational age of 28 weeks or with a birthweight <1000 g mental health was assessed by parents at five and eleven years of age using The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. A Total Difficulties Score ≥ 90th percentile (TDS90) for a reference group was used as a measure of a mental health problem...
June 27, 2019: Early Human Development
Rafaela G M Cassiano, Claudia M Gaspardo, Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the predictor effects of neonatal, sociodemographic characteristics, and temperament assessed at 18-36 months of age on behavioral problems in 4- to 5-year-old children born preterm. METHODS: The sample comprised 70 children born preterm. The amount and the intensity of stress procedures during a stay in the neonatal intensive care unit were evaluated using the Neonatal Infant Stressor Scale. Temperament was assessed using the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire, and behavioral problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist 11/2 -5...
June 21, 2019: Early Human Development
Tugba Yuksel, Esra Sizer, Hasan Durak
AIM: We aimed to explore whether there is a relationship between stuttering and digit ratio (2D:4D), which is thought to be a marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. METHODS: We evaluated a total of 90 children who stutter (CWS; n = 40 mild-to-moderate and n = 50 severe stutters) and 40 healthy peers (CWNS) as controls. We used the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGIS) scale to measure the severity of stuttering. We measured the lengths of index finger (2D) and ring finger (4D) of both hands directly and divided to calculate 2D:4D ratio...
June 19, 2019: Early Human Development
Carolina Maia Silva, Maria Carolina de Moraes Pereira, Thaís Bernardes de Queiroz, Lucimara Teixeira das Neves
BACKGROUND: The cleft lip with or without palate is the most common congenital craniofacial anomaly, presenting prevalence that varies between different ethnicities. It presents a complex and multifactorial etiology which involves genetic and environmental factors. Regarding family history, some studies have observed a significant association among parental consanguinity and orofacial clefts. AIMS: To investigate if there is an association between parental consanguinity and the occurrence of oral cleft in the offspring...
June 18, 2019: Early Human Development
Maria E Barbian, Rachel Buckle, Patricia Wei Denning, Ravi Mangal Patel
Supplementation of probiotics to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants has been extensively studied, with multiple meta-analyses reporting probiotics decrease the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and death. Despite availability of this evidence, the decision to initiate routine probiotic supplementation to preterm infants continues to be a complex one. There are uncertainties regarding the use of probiotics, including selecting the appropriate product, dose and target population. Additionally, availability of specific probiotic products and regulatory oversight varies by country, raising concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of specific probiotic products...
June 10, 2019: Early Human Development
Amanda K L Kwong, Joy E Olsen, Abbey L Eeles, Christa Einspieler, Katherine J Lee, Lex W Doyle, Jeanie L Y Cheong, Alicia J Spittle
BACKGROUND: Fidgety general movements have high predictive validity for later cerebral palsy (CP) but their temporal organisation requires further understanding for assessment accuracy. AIMS: To describe the occurrence of and temporal trends in fidgety movements, and whether they differ between infants born preterm and at term. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. SUBJECTS: We assessed 155 EP/ELBW infants and 185 term-born infants born extremely preterm (EP; <28 weeks' gestation) and/or extremely low birthweight (ELBW; <1000 g birthweight) or at term (37-42 weeks' gestation) in the state of Victoria, Australia...
June 8, 2019: Early Human Development
I Viel-Theriault, D B Fell, D Grynspan, S Redpath, N Thampi
Neonates exposed to intra-amniotic infection are at increased risk of early-onset sepsis. Administration of antibiotics to the mother may offer some protection, however a comprehensive description of the determinants influencing their transplacental passage and delivery to the fetus has not been performed. While penicillin G, ampicillin, cefazolin and gentamicin reach therapeutic levels in the fetal serum rapidly following maternal administration, the transfer of second-line intrapartum antimicrobials, such as vancomycin and clindamycin, is slower and less predictable...
June 5, 2019: Early Human Development
Nikoleta Oikonomou, Chrysanthi Papadopoulou, Sotirios Fouzas, Dimitra Kritikou, Dionisios Chrysis, Xenophon Sinopidis, Gabriel Dimitriou, Ageliki A Karatza
BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia is a known risk factor for long-term cardiovascular complications. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. The OPG-RANKL axis function is also altered in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia, but there is lack of data regarding OPG and RANKL concentrations in their neonates. AIMS: To examine the effects of early-onset pre-eclampsia on OPG and RANKL serum concentrations at birth, taking into account the influence of various perinatal factors...
June 5, 2019: Early Human Development
Katrina Halloran, Mark A Underwood
Intestinal dysbiosis is associated with a large number of disease processes including necrotizing enterocolitis and late-onset sepsis in preterm infants and colic and antibiotic-associated diarrhea in term infants. Probiotic microbes are increasingly administered to infants with the intent of decreasing risk of these acute diseases as well as chronic diseases of childhood such as asthma and atopic disease. The mechanisms by which probiotics decrease inflammation, decrease intestinal permeability, alter the intestinal microbiota, and influence metabolism have been discovered through both in vitro studies and in vivo in animal models...
June 4, 2019: Early Human Development
Janet E Berrington, Paul F Fleming
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2019: Early Human Development
Paul F Fleming, Janet E Berrington, Susan E Jacobs
More than 10,000 preterm babies worldwide have been enrolled in trials evaluating probiotics administration for the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis, with very few adverse events reported. Despite this, probiotic safety is frequently cited as a concern when using this intervention. This review addresses why a preterm baby may be at risk when administered a live microbial product, short- and longer-term safety data in relation to probiotic use and regulatory aspects around probiotic manufacture and preparations...
May 30, 2019: Early Human Development
Prudence Jarrett, Andras Meczner, Kate Costeloe, Paul Fleming
Over the last few decades, numerous studies have evaluated probiotic use for the prevention of necrotising enterocolitis in preterm babies. Early 'proof of concept' studies evaluating whether probiotics are capable of colonising the preterm gut have translated into multiple observational studies, small and large randomised controlled trials. Some show evidence of benefit while others have produced disappointing results. In this paper, we review the history of probiotic use in preterm babies for NEC prevention in an attempt to explain why uncertainty exists and why this intervention has not been universally adopted into routine neonatal practice...
May 29, 2019: Early Human Development
Mehmet Buyuktiryaki, Tugba Alarcon-Martinez, Gulsum Kadioglu Simsek, Fuat Emre Canpolat, Cuneyt Tayman, Serife Suna Oguz, Hayriye Gozde Kanmaz Kutman
BACKGROUND: Surfactant administration traditionally involved endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation, which is associated with a risk of barotrauma and volutrauma. OBJECTIVE: To compare the morbidity and mortality rates between LISA-treated and INSURE-treated premature babies with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: We assessed retrospectively the medical records of preterm infants who were born at 250/7 to 296/7 weeks of gestation and were administered surfactant initially either with LISA or INSURE method over a five-year period...
August 2019: Early Human Development
Carlo Dani, Fabio Mosca, Francesco Cresi, Paola Lago, Gianluca Lista, Nicola Laforgia, Antonello Del Vecchio, Luigi Corvaglia, Piermichele Paolillo, Daniele Trevisanuto, Letizia Capasso, Vassilios Fanos, Gianfranco Maffei, Luca Boni
BACKGROUND: Infants born at 23-24 weeks' gestation have the highest risk of developing a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA), that is refractory to pharmacological closure requiring surgical ligation. Thus, these patients might have the greatest benefits from hsPDA closure, although previous studies on PDA closure were not focused on this population. AIM: To compare the occurrence of hsPDA, failure rate of the first course of ibuprofen in closing hsPDA, and need of surgical closure in infants born at 23+0 -24+6 weeks' gestation to those in infants born at 25+0 -28+6 weeks' gestation...
August 2019: Early Human Development
Janet Elizabeth Berrington, Stefan Zalewski
Probiotic administration to preterm infants is not universal despite randomised trial data from >10,000 infants, significant observational data and multiple meta-analyses. Advocates point to reductions in necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis, 'sceptics' hold concerns over data quality/interpretation or risks. Issues revolve around different products, primary outcomes, uncertain dosing strategies and individual large 'negative' trials alongside probiotic associated sepsis and quality control concerns. We review concerns and how to move probiotic use forward...
August 2019: Early Human Development
Niamh O'Leary, Chaitra Jairaj, Eleanor J Molloy, Fionnuala M McAuliffe, Elizabeth Nixon, Veronica O'Keane
BACKGROUND: Antenatal depression is associated with adverse social-emotional and behavioural outcomes during childhood but there has been little investigation of the impact on infant neurodevelopment during the first postnatal year. AIMS: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of depression during pregnancy on infant cognitive, language and motor development at six and twelve months using a prospective longitudinal study design. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women with a clinical diagnosis of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD; n = 23), a history of MDD (n = 34) and a control group (n = 43) and their infants...
July 2019: Early Human Development
Noora Korkalainen, Lea Partanen, Juha Räsänen, Anneli Yliherva, Kaarin Mäkikallio
AIM: Long-term follow-up studies on children born with fetal growth restriction (FGR) have revealed a specific profile of neurocognitive difficulties, including problems with speech, language and literacy skills. We hypothesized that problems with communication skills, including language use and literacy skills of FGR children at primary school age are associated with prenatal circulatory changes. METHODS: Ultrasonographic assessment of fetoplacental hemodynamics was performed prenatally in 77 fetuses...
July 2019: Early Human Development
Phil Amess, Heike Rabe, David Wertheim
Early identification of neonatal sepsis may help reduce morbidity. From Heart Rate Variability (HRV) visually assessed in preterm infants, eight of nine recordings in babies with positive blood cultures had low HRV and six infants without positive cultures had normal HRV. Straightforward HRV display could help identify infection in infants.
July 2019: Early Human Development
Victor Grech
Several guidelines have been created in an attempt to raise the quality of different kinds of studies. These also attempt to ensure that research is reported accurately and transparently. Six such guidelines (CONSORT, MOOSE, PRISMA, SPIRIT, STARD, and STROBE) will be briefly discussed in this paper. The purpose of these guidelines is "to create a manual for the authors to follow, which should lead to total transparency, accurate reporting, and easier assessment of the validity of reported research findings...
July 2019: Early Human Development
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